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系統識別號 U0002-2007200911253600
中文論文名稱 跨文化商業談判研究 - 以中國與北美文化為例
英文論文名稱 A Study of A Cross-Cultural Business Negotiation Between Chinese and North American Cultures
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of International Trade
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 黃啟賢
研究生英文姓名 Chi-Hsien Huang
學號 696550010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-06-10
論文頁數 46頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政言
委員-林宜男
委員-楊志海
中文關鍵字 跨文化  商業談判  合資  文化差異  中國  美國 
英文關鍵字 Cross-Culture  Business Negotiation  Joint Venture  Culture difference 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學商學
中文摘要 在二十一世紀裡,全球化已然成為趨勢,各國企業開始不斷向外拓展市場,商業版圖也因此隨之改變,美國,以往便是對外直接投資中的佼佼者,根據美國商務部統計,至2007年底,美國私人企業對外直接投資達33,328億美元,居世界第一,而在中國的外資企業總資產當時有6,600億美元,美國就佔其中的十分之一,可見二國商業往來之密切。然而,在對中國的直接投資中,美國企業主要以三種方式進行,分別為創建、併購及合資,前二種方式雖可取得該企業境內之完全所有權,但費時費力,政府限制較多,相對而言,合資方式雖只能取得部份所有權,但各項成本均較為低廉,故多為各企業採用。本研究針對美國與中國文化背景為主要研究方向,藉由中美合資案例,探討在雙方文化影響下,截然不同之談判模式,美方代表欲尋求與中方合作,但雙方在協調項目上認知差異極大,文化背景的不同更導致溝通談判上窒礙難行,故藉由相關理論,歸納出雙方文化差異,並以中國與美國商學碩士生為研究對象,針對該二群體對文化議題的回答作深入訪談法分析,結論指出跨文化談判上所應採用之適切談判模式,以求降低因文化差異導致談判合作失敗之可能性。本研究依據 Geert Hofstede (1991) 的 Four-Dimension of Culture Model理論,推測北美與中國在文化上的本質差異,研究結論指出雙方在進入談判階段前,應如何調整各自的談判思維,了解雙方認知及表達方式不同,進而採用相關言語及非言語上的溝通模式進行談判,方能創造雙方長期合作之穩定關係。
英文摘要 Better communication skills have always played a key role when negotiators try to get into an advantageous position during business negotiation. However, cross-cultural negotiation process even enhances the complexity of international business success in today’s global economy. Since international business has become an important issue nowadays, this paper can help business people having proper negotiation skills while delivering business in another country. In the meantime, this paper also identifies the intrinsic divergences between Chinese and American cultures based on Hofstede’s Model (1991), and draw up a feasible negotiation model under similar situation. In the research, case analysis approach and in-depth interview approach are selected to investigate such cross-cultural negotiation criteria. In the end, some of the best practices for verbal and non-verbal communication processes are identified and underlined in the business negotiation, and two findings are concluded. One is that different negotiation styles and behaviors can be aligned based on cross-cultural norms. The other one is successful cross-cultural negotiation is resulted from the adaption of different verbal and non-verbal expressions. Negotiators are required to equip with cross-cultural competency to approach win-win situation results.
論文目次 Chapter 1 Introduction.....................................1
1.1 Background............................................1
1.2 Research Scope........................................2
1.3 Research Objectives...................................3
1.4 Research Procedures and Explanations..................4
1.5 Research Framework....................................6
1.6 Research Methodology..................................7
1.7 Research Restriction..................................9

Chapter 2 Literature Reviews..............................10
2.1 Negotiation and Business Negotiation.................10
2.2 Culture and Cross-Cultural Negotiation...............11
2.3 The Characteristics of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.............................................12
2.4 Hofstede’s Model....................................13
2.5 Cross-Cultural Negotiation Studies...................17

Chapter 3 Empirical Studies and In-depth Interviews Analysis..................................................18
3.1 The Case of Wyoff Corporation Entering China.........18
3.2 Hofstede’s Theory Application.......................24
3.3 In-Depth Interviews..................................25
3.4 Negotiation Process Strategy.........................29
i. Culture Knowledge – Preparation Stage
ii. Personal Attributes – Development Stage
iii. Communication Styles – Negotiation Stage
iv. Relationship Building – Action Stage

Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations.................35
4.1 Summary of Received Information and Correlated Conclusions...............................................35
4.2 Recommendation for Future Studies.....................35

Bibliography..............................................37

Appendix..................................................41

Appendix 1 How Respondents Be Selected....................41
Appendix 2 In-Depth Interview Questions...................42
Appendix 3 In-Depth Interview Results.....................43
Appendix 4 In-Depth Interview - “Value” Leading Direction.................................................44
Appendix 5 Characteristics and Qualities of Cross-cultural Negotiator................................................45

List of Tables

Table 2-1 Differences between Small and Large Power Distance Cultures........................................14
Table 2-2 Differences between Weak and Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Culture........................................15
Table 2-3 Differences between Collectivist and Individualistic Cultures.................................15
Table 2-4 Differences between Masculine and Feminine Cultures.................................................16
Table 3-1 Value- Elements Correlation Summary............27

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 Research Questions Summary.....................2
Figure 1-2 Research Procedures............................4
Figure 1-3 Communication Process..........................6
Figure 2-1 Research Framework............................12
Figure 3-1 In-Depth Interview Approach Guiding...........28
Figure 3-2 Model of Cross-Cultural Competency in InternationalBusiness....................................31
Figure 3-3 Process of Relationship Building..............33
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Fox, C., (2006, June). International Negotiator: A Most Important Skill. Cross Boarder Negotiation, 19-21.

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