淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2006200811205800
中文論文名稱 非營利組織關鍵成功因素之個案比較研究
英文論文名稱 Key Success Factors of Non-Profit Organizations – A Comparative Case Study
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 凱思
研究生英文姓名 Kanthi Ayyagari
學號 695611169
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-06-13
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪英正
指導教授-吳淑華
委員-王秉鈞
委員-楊立人
中文關鍵字 關鍵成功因素  組織能力  非營利組織  第三世界 
英文關鍵字 Key Success Factors  Capacity Building  Non-Profit Organizations  Third Sector 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要   非營利組織具有明確和獨特的服務屬性,並開始解決社會的需要。非營利組織部門在世界上大部分地區是一個重要的經濟力量,對就業和國家的開銷均有貢獻。2003年由約翰霍普金斯大學研究,如果將其視為一個國家,民間社會方面的支出將使之形成世界上第七大經濟體系. 非營利組織對經濟和值得服務的社會需要的貢獻已被注意到,政府和個人均給予掌聲和支持。並對許多地區提供服務,幫助婦女兒童並提供他們的未來支持,不僅僅在於這些受害者而且包含他們的國家。

  非營利組織的資源有限,沒有收入,使得更重要的是找出並建立成功的因素。Rockart (1979)首次提出主要的成功因素,稱為“成功的關鍵因素”(CSF),意思是“在有限領域的成果,將為組織確保能有成功的競爭力表現”此研究的重點是在適用的作業框架上為非營利組織的成功的關鍵因素列入考慮而產生四種研究。非營利組織的有效能力建設,McKinsey和Co(2001); 非營利組織的績效評量, Singh和Mirchandani (2006); 虛擬社區的成功關鍵因素, Laine的碩士論文(2006) ,和一個由存款互助經營協會和國際判斷策略團體所發表的執行報告(2002)。

  本研究是質化研究,其中包括由過去所研究的結果--七種成功因素作為本研究問卷發展的依據,其中包括利用事先研究提供了七種成功因素的能力評估工具,其中內容包括非營利組織的領導人和工作人員的指導,以了解他們的進展和在未來的能力建設上的需要。而在個人面訪談的部份則包含四名在美國組織A的成員, 五名在印度組織B的成員,和五名在台灣組織C的成員。並且將問卷和個人訪談進行
分析,以定出各組織在這些因素上的重點和執行差異的情況。從分析中發展出一種新的模式。提出典型與成功因素可為現有和業餘組織作為今後的研究或實際執行的基礎。主張是由問卷分析和訪談結果而來。本研究結論如下:

1. 當文化,共同的價值觀和信仰,出現在該組織時,將產生較高的成效。
2. 實行僵化傳統和儀式的文化,將成為該組織的表現及執行進度的阻礙。
3. 非營利組織的策略應由受援者在計劃實施後得到滿意而形成。
4. 對於非營利組織,及時募集資金是成功的關鍵要素。

  結果顯示除上述七種主要成功因素外,本研究出現了第八個因素有助於組織的成功。此外,優先事項和重要的因素在比較能力建設出現後,改變成和原先的模式有些不同。對這三個組織而言,這些因素重要性的順序如下。也就是“文化,策略,組織結構,組織能力,人力資源,系統和基礎設施與展望。

  社會意識計畫,則為第八個最重要的因素,這是在社會,組織和受害者之間最主要的成功的導線,並由為三個組織所極力強調地方。
英文摘要 Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) have a specific and unique service attribute and are started to address the community needs. The NPO sector is a significant economic force in most regions of the world contributing in employment and national expenditure. Research in 2003 by Johns Hopkins University suggests that the civil society sector expenditure would make it the seventh largest economy in the world if recognized as a country. The NPOs contribution to the economy and in serving the worthy causes of the community needs is noticed, applauded and projected to grow by governments and individuals. Of the many areas of service, helping women and children and their enablement provide future not only to these victims but also to their countries.

NPOs have limited resources and no revenue making it even more important to identify and build on the success factors. Rockart (1979) first recognized key success factors as “critical success factors” (CSF) meaning “the limited number of areas in which results, will ensure successful competitive performance for the organization.” Research focused on applicable literature and frameworks for key success factors of NPOs resulting in four studies taken into consideration. Effective Capacity Building in Non-Profit Organizations by McKinsey and Co (2001), Performance Measurement of NPOs by Singh and Mirchandani (2006) Key Success Factors of Virtual Communities masters thesis by Laine (2006)and an Executive report published by the Credit Union Executives Society and Decisions Strategy International (2002).

The research is a qualitative study that includes a documented questionnaire developed using a prior research that provided the sample format of the Capacity Assessment Tool including seven success factors. This was developed as a guide for the NPO’s and their leaders and staff to gauge their progress and their future capacity building needs. A personal interview session was also employed involving 4 members from Organization A in United States, 5 members from Organization B in India, and 5 members from Organization C in Taiwan. The questionnaires and the personal interview sessions were analyzed to identify the importance and the variance of implementation of these factors in the respective organizations. From the analysis a new model is developed. The proposed model with the identified success factors could be the basis for future research or practical implementation for existing and amateur organizations. Propositions were formulated based on the analysis of the questionnaires and the interview sessions. Some of these propositions are:
Culture of shared values and beliefs when reflected in the organization results in higher performance
Imposition of rigid traditions and rituals as an implementation of Culture hinders performance and progress of the organization.
Strategies of non-profit organizations are evolved with recipient satisfaction of the program implementation.
Timely solicitation of funds is essential for success of programs in non-profit organizations

The results indicated that in addition to the seven KSFs, an eighth factor contributes to the success of the organizations. Furthermore, the priorities and the importance of the factors changed in comparison to the original model of Capacity Building. The factors are places in the order of importance to the three organizations. These are “Culture, Strategies, Organizational Structure, Organizations Skills, Human Resources, Systems and Infrastructure, Aspirations.

Social Awareness Programs, the eighth factor is the most critical factor which is the conduit between the society, organization, and the success of the victims’ progress, is strongly emphasized by the three organizations.
論文目次 Contents  1
List of Table  4
List of Figures  5
Chapter 1- Introduction
Section 1.1- Atrocities 8
Section 1.2- NPOs Role 10
Section 1.3 – Background 11
Section 1.4- Study Significance 12
Section 1.5 – Study Scope 14
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
Section 2.1 - Introduction 16
Section 2.1.1 - History of NPOs 16
Section 2.1.2 - Characteristics of NPOs 17
Section 2.1.3 - Challenges of NPOs 18
Section 2.1.4 - Future of NPOs 19
Section 2.2 - Key Success Factor Theories 21
Section 2.2.1 - Effective Capacity Building 23
Section 2.2.2 – Performance Measurements for Not-For-Profits 25
Section 2.2.3 – KSF of Virtual Communities 29
Section 2.2.4 - KSF of Credit Unions 34
Section 2.3 - Comparative Study 38
Section 2.4 - Brief Overview of Countries 48
Section 2.4.1 – U.S.A 48
Section 2.4.2 – India 49
Section 2.4.3 – Taiwan 50
Section 2.5 - Summary 51
Chapter 3 - Methodology
Section 3.1 - Research Framework 52
Section 3.2 - Introduction 53
Section 3.3 – Brief Overview of Organizations 53
Section 3.3.1 – Organization A 53
Section 3.3.2 – Organization B 54
Section 3.3.3 – Organization C 55
Section 3.4 – Sample 55
Section 3.5 – Methods of Instrumentation 56
Section 3.6 – Data Collection Techniques 57
Section 3.7 – Data Analysis 58
Chapter 4 – Analysis and Results
Section 4.1 - Introduction 59
Section 4.2 - Aspirations 61
Section 4.3 - Strategy 66
Section 4.4 – Organization Skills 75
Section 4.5 – Human Resource 80
Section 4.6 – Systems and Infrastructure 85
Section 4.7 – Organizational Structure 90
Section 4.8 - Culture 96
Section 4.9 - Summary 102
Chapter 5 – Conclusions, Managerial Implications, Limitations, and Suggestions
Section 5.1 - Conclusion 109
Section 5.2 – Managerial Implications 112
Section 5.3 – Limitations 113
References 115
Appendix A - Background and Personal Interview Questions 124
Appendix B - English Questionnaire 126
Appendix C - Chinese Questionnaire 134
Appendix D – Portraits of Organizations 142

List of Tables, Figures, and Portraits
Tables
Table 2.1 - Scale of Non-Profit Activity…………………………………………………20
Table 2.2 - Civil Society Sector A National Economy…………………………………..20
Table 2.3 – Criteria for Good Performance Measures …………………………………..27
Table 2.4 – Key Strategic Segments……………………………………………………..36
Table 2.5 – Country Coverage…………………………………………………………...39
Table 2.6 - Classification of NPO………………………………………………………..40
Table 2.7 – Variations Among Workforce………………………………………………42
Table 2.8 – Workforce Functions………………………………………………………..44
Table 2.9 – Volunteers Support in Countries…………………………………………….46
Table 2.10 – Socio-political Cluster of Countries……………………………………….47
Table 4.1 – Graphs Normalization Process…………………………………………60
Table 4.2 – Aspirations…………………………………………………………………62
Table 4.2.1 Aspirations - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C …….…64
Table 4.3 – Strategies………………………………………………………………68
Table 4.3.1 Strategies 1 - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C…….…71
Table 4.3.2 Strategies 2 - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C…….…72
Table 4.4 – Organization Skills………………………………………………………….76
Table 4.4.1 Organization Skills - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C………………………………………………………………………………………….78
Table 4.5 – Human Resources………………………………………………………….81
Table 4.5.1 Human Resources - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C………………………………………………………………………………………….83
Table 4.6 – Systems and Infrastructure………………………………………………86
Table 4.6.1 Systems and Infrastructure - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C…….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….…88
Table 4.7 – Organizational Structure …………………………………………………92
Table 4.7.1 Organizational Structure - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C…….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….……….……...94
Table 4.8 - Culture…………………………………………………………………98
Table 4.8.1 Culture - Mean Calculations Results of Organizations B and C…….……......................................................................................................................100
Table 4.9 – Summary Table of Seven Factors………………………………………103
Table 4.9.1 Propositions of Seven Factors……………………………………………104

Figures
Figure 2.1 – Framework of Key Success Factors………………………………………24
Figure 2.2 – Balance Scorecard Framework……………………………………………28
Figure 2.3 – Success Factor Model -1…………………………………………………32
Figure 2.4 – Revised Model of Success Factor Model…………………………………33
Figure 2.5 – Key Success Factors of Credit Unions……………………………………38
Figure 3.1 – Research Framework……………………………………………………..52
Figure 3.2 – Normative Model…………………………………………………………57
Figure 4.2 – Organization B and C Aspirations…………………………………………65
Figure 4.3 – Organization B and C Strategies 1……………………………………73
Figure 4.3.1 – Organization B and C Strategies 2…………… ……………………...74
Figure 4.4 – Organization B and C Organization Skills……………………………….79
Figure 4.5 – Organization B and C Human Resources……………………………….84
Figure 4.6 – Organization B and C Systems and Infrastructure…………………………89
Figure 4.7 – Organization B and C Organizational Structure…………………………..95
Figure 4.8 – Organization B and C Culture……………………………………………101
Figure 4.9 – Key Success Framework………………………………………………106
Figure 2.1 – Framework of Key Success Factors …………………………………..106
Figure 5.1 – The Logic of Resource Dependency Theory from the Perspective of the Focal Organization……………………………………………………………………111
參考文獻 Allison, M & Kay, J Characteristics of Nonprofit Organizations -- Implications for Consultation. (1998).
http://nten.org/uploads/transferpodolsky02.pdf

Amnesty International. Violence against Women. (2007).
http://www.amnestyusa.org/Stop_Violence_Against_Women_SVAW/Violence_Against_Women/page.do?id=1108245&n1=3&n2=39&n3=1101

Answers.com. Non-Profit definition. (January 7th 2008) http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/nonprofit-organization/4947818-1.html

Brown, K.L. Overview of United States of America. (January 11th 2008)
http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Mar-No/Nonprofit-Organizations.html

Cresswell, D. Definition of Qualitative Research.
(1994).
http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~hruskin/RM2.htm

Data Collection Techniques. (2008). Different methods of data collection methods. (January 12th 2008).
http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5307e/x5307e08.htm

Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. Defining Qualitative Research. (1994).
http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~hruskin/RM2.htm
Drucker, P (1994). "The Age of Social Transformation," Atlantic Monthly, Boston, MA.

Eisner, E. W. (1991). “The Enlightened Eye”: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, in Hoepfl, M.C. 2nd ed. Journal of Technology Education, Vol.9. No.1, Boone, N.C.

Eisenberg, P. (2005). “Forum — Looking Ahead: What Is the Future for the Nonprofit World?” The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law, Vol.8.

Feng, J.Y. (1999). 'Taiwan', in T. Silk (ed) Philanthropy and Law in Asia: A Comparative Study of the Nonprofit Legal Systems in Ten Asia Pacific Societies. San Francisco.

Foundation Center. Characteristics of Non-Profit Organizations. (1956).
http://foundationcenter.org/getstarted/tutorials/establish/index.html

G. Andrews. Global Estimates of Health Consequences due to Violence against Children (2004). Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. vol. 2, pp. 1851-1940. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Global AIDS Alliance. Zero Tolerance: Stop the Violence Against Women and Children. (2006). Africa.
http://www.globalaidsalliance.org

Government of Ontario. (2007).
http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca./owd/english/preventing/index.html

Government of Philippines. (2003).
http://www.ops.gov.ph/records/ra_no9262.htm

Grunert, K.G & Ellegaard, C. (1993). “The concept of key success factors: Theory &method”, In Baker,M.J. (Ed.). Perspectives on Marketing Management, Vol.3, Chichester Wiley, Pp. 245-247.
Hagel, J. III, & Armstrong, A. G. (1997). Net gain: expanding markets through virtual communities [Electronic version]. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 140-153.

Hart B. H. L. (1967). “Strategy” Basic Books.

Hsiao, H.M. (1999). “An Overview of Taiwan's 300 Major Foundations”, in Directory of 300 Major Foundations in Taiwan.

International Labor Organization (2006) Global Trends in Child Labor 2000-2004. International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) & Statistical Information and Monitoring Program on Child Labor
SIMPOC. Geneva

Johnson. B.L.Jr. (1995). “Resource Dependency Theory: A Political Economy Model of Organizations

Kaplan, R.S, & Norton, D.P (1992). "The balanced scorecard: measures that drive performance", Harvard Business Review Jan – Feb pp71-80.

Kaplan, R.S, & Norton, D.P (1996). “Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action” Harvard Business School Press

Laine, M.O.J (2006). “Key Success Factors of Virtual Communities”. Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering, and Management. Finland.

Leedy, P. D. (1989). Practical research: planning and design. New York: Macmillan.

Leung, K., Bhagat, R.S., Buchan, N.R., Erez, M. and Gibson, C. (2005), “Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 357-78.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, in Hoepfl, M.C. 2nd ed. Journal of Technology Education, Vol.9. No.1, Boone, N.C.

Mäkelä, M. M., & Turcan, R. V. (2006). Building grounded theory in entrepreneurship research. Forthcoming in J. P. Ulhøi & H. Neergaard (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Entrepreneurship.

McCabe, R.M. "Why Airlines Succeed or Fail: A System Dynamics Synthesis.” (January 9th 2008)
http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/064/airlines.html#f4

McCracken, G. (1986). “Culture and consumption: a theoretical account of the structure and movement of the cultural meaning of consumer goods”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13, pp. 71-84.

McNamara, C. Challenges of Non-Profit Organizations. (January 8th 2008)
http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/np_thry/np_intro.htm

McKinsey & Company. (2001). “Effective Capacity Building in Nonprofit Organizations.” Venture Philanthropy Partners

Mintzberg, H. (1994). “The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning” Basic Books

News archives of Google. History Nonprofit Organizations. (2008). http://news.google.com/archivesearch?q=Early+of+Non-Profit+organizations

Nickols, F. (2000). (October 6th 2004)
http://home.att.net/~nickols/strategy_definition.htm


Organization A (1961)
http://www.missionofyahweh.org/history.htm

Organization B (1986)
http://www.preranaatc.com/pioneering.html

Organization C (1988)
http://www.goh.org.tw/english/

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, in Hoepfl, M.C. 2nd ed. Journal of Technology Education, Vol.9. No.1

Philanthropic & the Third Sector. Overview, size, and characteristics of Indian Non-Profit Sector. (2008).
http://www.asianphilanthropy.org/countries/india/index.html

Philanthropic & the Third Sector. Overview, size, and characteristics of Taiwan Non-Profit Sector. (2008).
http://www.asianphilanthropy.org/countries/taiwan/overview.html

Pinheiro, P.S. Promotion and protection of the rights of children. Report of the independent expert for the United Nations study on violence against children. (2002). General-Assembly resolution 57/90. Geneva
http://www.unama-afg.org/docs/_UN-Docs/_human%20rights/Violence%20Against%20Children%20Report%20-%20English.pdf

PRIA. (2002). Invisible, Yet Widespread: The Non-profit Sector in India. PRIA. New Delhi.

Research models. Information of Qualitative Models. (January 12th 2008)
http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/177.htm#tasment

Rheingold, H. (1995). The virtual community: finding connection in a computerized world. London: Minerva.

Rhoads, A. In Crisis - Violence Against Women. (2004 March 6th).
http://www.anairhoads.org/politics/violenceagainstwomen.shtml

Rockart, J.F. (1970) “Chief executives define their own data needs.” Harvard Business Review. Vol.57 No.2. Pp.81-92.

Romania. National Violence Against Women. (December 1st, 2006).
http://www.stopvaw.org/Romania2.html

Salamon, L. (1987). ‘Of Market Failure, Voluntary Failure, and Third-Party Government’, Journal of Voluntary Action Research, Vol. 16 No.1. Pp.29-49.

Salamon, L.M. (1996). Nonprofit Organizations: America’s Invisible Sector. Nonprofits and Development: The Challenge and the Opportunity. VIII Annual Johns Hopkins International Philanthropy Fellows Conference. Mexico City.

Salamon, L. M, Anheier H.K & Associates (1999). Civil Society in Comparative Perspective. (Electronic Version) Global Civil Society, Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies. Baltimore, Maryland. USA, 1-3.

Salamon, L.M, Sokolowski, W.S, & List, R. (2003). Global Civil Society An Overview. The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project. Baltimore, MD, USA, 13-14.

Salamon, L.M, Sokolowski, W.S, & List, R (2003). Global Civil Society An Overview. The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project. Baltimore, MD, USA.

Schoemaker, P.J, H, Hofheimer.G, & Randall, D. (2002). “Key Success Factors” Collaborative report by Credit Union Executives Society and Decisions Strategy International. Vol.3

Sharma, R. (1999). The Monk Who Sold his Ferrari. Pp.74.

Singh, J & Mirchandani, P. (2006). “Performance Measurements for Not-For-Profit Organizations,” “Theme,” The Chartered Accountant.
http://www.icai.org/icairoot/publications/complimentary/cajournal_june06/1754-1758.pdf

Sen, S. (1997). 'India', in L.M. Salamon & H.K. Anheier (eds.) Defining the Non-profit Sector: A Cross-National Analysis, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Sommer, B & Sommer, R. (2002). Content Analysis. A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research: Tools and Techniques, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11, pp.177-187.

Steiner, G. (1979). “Strategic Planning” Free Press.

Strauss, A & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Strauss, A & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

The Likert Scale Principle. Likert Scale of Questionnaire. (January 12th 2008)
http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/psy/likert.html

Thompson, J.A. (1967) “Organizations in Actions”. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Tylor, E.B. (1881). “Anthropology: An Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization”. New York: D. Appleton.

UNICEF. UN Study on Violence against Children. (2006)
http://www.violencestudy.org/IMG/pdf/Rima_Salah_statement_-_follow_up.pdf

United Nations. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, General Assembly resolution 48/104. (December 20th 1993).
http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/eliminationvaw.htm

United Nations. Fourth World Conference on Women. Action for Equality, Development, and Peace. (1995). Beijing, China.
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/index.html

United Nations. Women and Violence. United Nations Department of Public Information DPI/1772/HR (February 1996)
http://www.un.org/rights/dpi1772e.htm

United States Department of Health and Human Services. PREVENTING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN. (August 14th 2001).
http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/01fsdomviolence.html

Wikipedia. Credit Unions (January 15, 2008).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_union

Wikipedia. History of Non-Profit Organizations. (January 7th 2008) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization

Wikipedia. World Population. (2007)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population

World Health Organization (2002)
http://www.anairhoads.org/politics/violenceagainstwomen.shtml

World Health Organization. Analysis provided to the Study by the Global School-based Health Survey. (2005).
http://www.cdc.gov/gshs
http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/gshsusing

World Health Organization and International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. (2002). Geneva.

World Health Organization. (2006). Global Estimates of Health Consequences due to Violence against Children. United Nations Study on Violence against Children. Geneva.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2010-08-19公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2008-08-19起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信