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系統識別號 U0002-2006200623071200
中文論文名稱 探討五位台灣新進學者英文論文書寫之寫作過程與研究報告引言分析
英文論文名稱 Writing for Publication: Five Novice Taiwanese Scholars' Composing Processes and an Analysis of Their Writings of Thesis Introductions
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 邱怡慧
研究生英文姓名 Yi-hui Chiu
學號 891010067
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-20
論文頁數 180頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃月貴
委員-Stephen Krashen
委員-馮和平
委員-劉慶剛
委員-衛友賢
中文關鍵字 學術英文  論文書寫  研究報告引言 
英文關鍵字 writing for publication  research article introductions  CARS model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 此研究主要探討五位台灣新進學者以英文投稿學術期刊之經驗以及在學術寫作上能力表現。藉由深度訪談了解這些參與者寫作過程,寫作諮詢及修改的幫助,以及學術閱讀的角色。參與者的寫作能力則藉由Swales 1990 年的 CARS 模型來分析是否研究報告引言中的修辭結構與CARS 模型吻合。
寫作過程:幾位參與者在寫作前使用母語,另外有一位用母語書寫整篇研究報告然後再翻譯成英文。輔助者:幾位參與者覺得即使是英語為母語的專業編修者也只能提供有限的幫助。其中一位覺得編修者只有著重在非常基本的寫作層面而似乎不關心通篇文章的連貫性。但是如果編修者的背景是在理工方面則對於通篇文章則較有影響力。指導者的角色也是歧異很大,有些會重新組織段落或是重寫這些參與者的文章,有些則是要求請英語為母語的專業編修者修改,有些甚至要求參與者以中文書寫之後再翻譯成英文。閱讀:有些參與者提到閱讀的重要性與跟寫作的相關性,但是沒有人提及理解假設(Comprehension Hypothesis),也就是沒有察覺從大量的閱讀中習得學術語言用法。然而,閱讀被視為寫作者可以立即取得制式語彙的來源。
已發表的研究報告中顯示這些參與者已經習得部分Swales 模型中的要素,但不是全部,而且在這些參與者之間還有很大的變化。在三種語步 (move)中,第一語步最廣為使用,第二語步相對來說很少被使用,第三語步則是作為引導至下一個文章段落的連貫用法。其中第三語步中的第二言步 (step) 全部被五位學者省略。此研究暗示性的証明多閱讀的人較能習得學術寫作風格。
英文摘要 This study explores five novice Taiwanese scholars’ experiences of writing for scholarly publication and their actual competence in academic writing. On the basis of in-depth interviews, subjects’ composing processes, their use of post-writing helpers, and the role of academic reading were investigated. Writing competence was evaluated by an analysis of published research papers, using Swales’ (1990) CARS model to determine if the rhetorical structures, as displayed by moves and steps, were consistent with the prototypes of the CARS model.
Composing process: Several subjects reported relying on their first language in prewriting, and one subject wrote the entire first draft in the first language and then translated.
Helpers: Several subjects felt that professional editors, even when they were native speakers of English, provided only limited help. One subject felt that editors focused only on low-level aspects of writing, and did not appear to be concerned about the overall coherence of the paper. In other cases, the copy-editor had a background in science and had a more profound impact on the paper. Advisors’ roles varied a great deal, from rewriting and reorganization, to simply telling the writer to find a copy-editor, to asking the writer to submitting a version in Chinese first for their review, and asking the writer to translate the paper later.
Reading: Some subjects mentioned reading, but none mentioned it in terms of the Comprehension Hypothesis, not in terms of “acquiring” or absorbing academic language from massive amounts of reading. Rather, reading was used as a source of prefabricated chunks of language that the writers could use immediately in their own papers.
Analysis of introductions to published papers showed that subjects had acquired some aspects of the Swales model, but not all, and there was considerable variability among the subjects. Of the three major Moves described by Swales, Move 1 (establish a territory) was widely used but Move 2 (preparing for the present study) was comparatively rare. Move 3 (introducing the study) was only presented briefly as a transition to the next section. Move 3 Step 2--Announcing Principal findings (APFs) was omitted by all five writers.
There was some suggestive evidence that those who read more had acquired more of the academic writing style.
論文目次 Acknowledgements………………………………………………… ii
Abstract…………………………………………………………… iv
List of Tables…………………………………………………… x
List of Figures………………………………………………… xi
List of Appendices……………………………………………… xii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………… 1
Statement of the Problem………………………………………1
The Academic environment in Taiwan………………………… 3
English writing instruction in Taiwan…………………… 4
Purpose of the study…………………………………………… 5
Research questions……………………………………………… 6
Definition of Key Terms……………………………………… 7
Novice scholars………………………………………………… 9
Significance of the study…………………………………… 9
Organization of the Study…………………………………… 11

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE………………… 12
Overview of the Chapter……………………………………… 12
Academic writing and EAP…………………………………… 13
Writing for publication in L2……………………………… 13
Theoretical perspectives.......................................... 14
L2 language acquisition............................ 14
The Comprehension Hypothesis.......................................... 15
The role of formal instruction........................................... 15
Reader responsibility vs. writer responsibility..................................... 16

Academic experiences and literacy in L2............... 17
NNS scholars educated in NS countries and
working in NS countries.............................. 17
NNS scholars educated in NS countries and
working in NNS countries..............................18
NNS scholars educated in NNS countries and
working in NNS countries............................. 18
Textual features studies……………………………… 19
NNS RA writing: problems………………………………..................... 20
Strategies used by NNS writers……………………………… 22
RA selection and criterion……………………………… 24
Swales’ Genre Analysis……………………………… 26
CARS model……………………………….................... 26
Empirical studies on the CARS model……………………… 31

CHAPTER THREE METHOD........................................... 33
Research methodology.................................. 33
Selection of the participants..................................... 34
Participants....................................... 34
Educational Background................................ 36
Data collection....................................... 37
Data sources.......................................... 37
Overall procedure................................. 38
The initial interview: background information....... 38
Initial interviews.................................. 39
Analysis of documentary data......................... 39
Follow-up interviews........................................ 39
NNS EAP practitioners’ perceptions and ratings……… 40
Data Analysis........................................ 41

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS........................................... 42
Profiles of the five scholars........................................ 42
Case Study One: Lin............................................... 42
Background of Lin................................... 42
Composing process of writing for publication.......... 43
Advisor-advisee relationship................................... 44
Difficulties and coping strategies when writing up a paper for scholarly publication.......................................... 45
Case Study Two: Wu.................................................. 47
Background of Wu.................................................... 47
Composing process of writing for publication.......... 48
Advisor-advisee relationship.......................................... 49
Difficulties and coping strategies when writing up a paper for scholarly publication............................. 50
Case Study Three: Wang............................ 53
Background of Wang............................................. 53
Composing process of writing for publication..... 54
Advisor-advisee relationship.......................... 55
Difficulties and coping strategies when writing up a paper for scholarly publication.................................... 56
Case Study Four: David........................................... 59
Background of David................................................ 59
Composing process of writing for publication.......... 59
Advisor-advisee relationship........................................ 60
Difficulties and coping strategies when writing up a paper for scholarly publication................................... 62
Case Study Five: Tony........................... 63
Background of Tony............................. 63
Composing process of writing for publication................................... 65
Advisor-advisee relationship........................ 67
Difficulties and coping strategies when writing up a paper for scholarly publication.................... 68

Results of the move analysis......................................... 70
Results of moves and steps in the Introduction section.......................... 74
Move1: Establishing a Territory................... 82
Move2: Preparing for the present study............................................ 88
Move3: Introducing the present study............................................. 93

CHAPTER FIVE CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION.................... 99
Discussion of the Findings in Terms of the Research Questions..................... 99
Research Question One............................. 99
Internal factors involved in writing for publication.. 100
Writers as context............................... 100
Overview of the scholars........................... 100
Composing processes of the NNS novice scholars
and their perceptions.............................. 102
External factors involved in writing for publication.. 112
Advisors as context................................. 112
Copy-editors as context......................... 113
Gate-keeping discourse......................... 114
Research Question Two................................. 117
Limitations of the study...................... 119
Implications of the study.......................... 120
Theoretical implications.............................. 120
Pedagogical implications of the findings.............. 121
Genre analysis........................................ 122
The role of reading.............................................. 123
The role of EAP courses.......................... 124
CONCLUSION........................................ 126
REFERENCES....................................................................................................... 129
APPENDICES....................................................................................................... 146

LIST OF TABLES



Table 1 Proficiency levels of academic writers in Taiwan………………..... 10
Table 2 Basic information of the five research articles.................................. 75
Table 3 Move analysis of Lin’s work.............................................................. 76
Table 4 Move analysis of Wu’s work............................................................. 77
Table 5 Move analysis of Wang’s work.......................................................... 78
Table 6 Move analysis of David’s work......................................................... 79
Table 7 Move analysis of Tony’s work........................................................... 80
Table 8 Results of move analysis.................................................................... 81
Table 9 Background of the Five Novice Scholars.......................................... 101
Table 10 The five scholars’ proficiency level and performance....................... 103
Table 11 Reading factors involved in writing for publication.......................... 108
Table 12 Writing factors involved in writing for publication........................... 109
Table 13 Raters’ perceptions of scholars’ problems of writing forpublication.......................................................................................... 110
Table 14 Novice scholars’ self-perceived difficulties when writing forpublication......................................................................................... 111
Table 15 External factors involved in writing for publication......................... 116

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Swales’ four -move model of RA Introduction............................. 27
Figure 2 A CARS Model for article introduction........................................ 28
Figure 3 Textual analysis of a research article introduction based uponthe CARS model............................................................................ 72

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A Sample Interview Questions....................................................... 146
Appendix B Sample of Lin’s research article introduction……………......... 150
Appendix C Sample of Wu’s research article introduction…………............. 154
Appendix D Sample of Wang’s research article introduction…………......... 159
Appendix E Sample of David’s research article introduction…………........ 171
Appendix F Sample of Tony’s research article introduction……………….. 176

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