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系統識別號 U0002-2005200920211200
中文論文名稱 服務模組化模式之建構
英文論文名稱 Constructing the Modularized Service Models
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 劉鈞憲
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Hsien Liu
學號 894560316
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-04-20
論文頁數 97頁
口試委員 指導教授-王居卿
委員-徐木蘭
委員-王居卿
委員-林建煌
委員-陳澤義
委員-時序時
委員-洪英正
委員-吳坤山
中文關鍵字 服務業  行銷策略  整合模式  顯要屬性  服務遞送流程 
英文關鍵字 Service Business  Marketing Strategy  Integrative Model  Salient attribute  Service delivery process 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣服務業的產值,於2006年已達GDP的72%,服務業就業人口超過就業總人口之60%(行政院主計處,2007)。鑑於服務業之日趨重要,本研究對服務之內涵作了深入的研究,以發展一套能夠完整涵蓋傳統、高科技及知識密集之「整合性服務模式」,作為現代服務業訂定各項經營策略之有效工具,以期增加其競爭優勢,並產生最佳之營運績效。
本研究先從分類作起,以服務遞送流程(service delivery process)為一種開放系統之概念,及以Greig (2003)之分類三項要件(criteria):內容(Content)、過程(process)與環境(Context)為基礎,將服務分成四個構面,並經由文獻探討,找出每個構面各包含三個屬性,即服務提供者(人員(P)、設備(E)、知識(K))、服務過程(客製化(C)、標準化(S)、權變化(G))、服務對象(人類(H)、物品(T)、資訊(I))及服務場所(前場(F)、後場(B)、虛擬空間(V))等;另外,第五構面回饋(feedback)更提供動態機制,使業主能於外部環境不斷變化下,訂定動態的策略。將四個構面之屬性加以組合後,即可產生81種(=34)組合,以代表所有之服務,而每種組合代表一種服務型態,稱之為「服務模組」。對同一種服務業務,其服務模組會因從服務業者觀點或顧客觀點而有所不同,因此一服務業只要將其所推出之服務,將此二觀點下之服務模組,按營業比例作為權重,加總後即可得到整合之服務屬性,並以80/20及大數原則,萃取出比重較大之「顯要屬性」,再以其與Kotler之行銷架構結合,訂定該服務業之行銷策略。
本研究除了如上述將服務屬性直接組合成服務模組,以作策略分析外,亦將各構面之屬性施以權重,將分類構面轉化成作業構面,即勞力密集度、客製化程度、顧客互動程度及空間導向,再將各作業構面整合,加上績效權重後,利用現有之行銷架構及服務流程矩陣,擬訂服務業之行銷策略。本研究將上述「直接」及「轉化」方式,各推導出其數學模式,作為擬訂服務業行銷策略之平台。由於已將其公式化,易於電腦作業,使用者只要輸入有關數據,很快就可算出所要答案。本研究並以商業銀行、航空公司及大學為例,說明數學模式之應用,找出其顯要屬性,訂定其行銷策略。
英文摘要 The output of the service sector in Taiwan accounted for 72% of the GDP and the employment of the service sector exceeded 60% of the total employment in 2006 (Executive Yuang, 2007). Due to the increasing importance of the service sector, this paper is trying to develop a generalized “Integrative Service Model” so that the service firms can formulate marketing strategies based on it.
Through extensive literature reviews, this paper uses Greig’s (2003) three classifying criteria (content, process and context) to classify the service into 4 dimensions and each of which contains 3 attributes. They are Provider, Process, Customer and Place dimensions. The initials of the 4 dimensions include 3 Ps and 1 C. therefore, we call the model “3P+C model”.
Attributes of the 4 dimensions can be combined into 81 combinations to represent the entire service. Each combination is a type of service and is called a “service module”. For the same service, the service module can be different viewed from customer or provider perspectives. Based on such concepts, a mathematical model is constructed to calculate the attributes of the integrated service modules of the service firm. Then the salient attributes can be identified after optimizing them with 80/20 and large number principles. Business strategies can thus be formulated based on the resulted salient attributes.
Classifying dimensions can also be transformed into the “operational dimensions” by weighing the attributes. The operational dimensions are labor intensity, customization degree, customer interaction degree and place orientation. A core service is formed by combining the 4 operational dimensions. A service firm can integrate all the core services and find the combined attributes of each dimension. Together with the existing framework, the marketing strategies can then be formulated. This paper uses retail bank, airline and college as the examples to explain how to use the developed “direct” and “transformed” mathematical models to formulate the marketing strategies with the existing well-established frameworks.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Page
List of Tables IV
List of Figures VI
List of Key Mathematical Symbols VII

1 Introduction 1
1.1 General 1
1.2 Research Background, Problem and Objectives 4
1.2.1 Background 4
1.2.2 Resaerch Problems 6
1.2.3 Resaerch Objectives 7
1.3 Research Process 9

2 Literature Review 11
2.1 Evolvement of Service Paradigm 11
2.2 Service Classification 12
2.2.1 Classified by Discrete Item Scheme 13
2.2.2 Classified by Continuum Scheme 13
2.2.3 Classified by 2-Dimensional Matrix Scheme 14
2.3 Open System and 3P+C Model 17
2.3.1 Open System 17
2.3.2 Wang-Hsu Model of Integrative Service Business Classification 19
2.3.3 3P+C Integrative Service Classification 20
2.4 RBV: Integration of Multi-Service Processes 26
2.4.1 Resources of the Firm 27
2.4.2 Business Process 27
2.4.3 Multiple Business Process 28
2.4.4 Processes of a Service Firm Viewed from 3P+C Perspective 29
2.5 Comparison of 3P+C Model and Other Market-Oriented Optimized Numerical Models 31

3 Methodologies 34
3.1 Conceptual Structure of the Entire Models 34
3.2 Dynamics of Strategy Formulation 35
3.3 Feedback, Service Quality and Customer Relationship 36
3.4 Development Process of Direct Model 38
3.5 Development Process of Transformed Model 38

4 Construction of Generalized Mathematical Models 41
4.1 3P+C Direct Model 41
4.1.1 Review of Concepts of Service Modules 41
4.1.2 Construction of Direct Mathematical Model 42
4.1.3 Bank Example 46
4.1.4 Marketing Strategy for PFS 50
4.2 3P+C Transformed Model 52
4.2.1 Construction Transformed Mathematical Model 52
4.2.2 Compare 3P+C Model with Other Service-Process based Matrices in Coverage of Operational Dimensions 55
4.2.3 Single Core-Service Firm—an Airline Company 57
4.2.4 Multiple Core-Service Firm Retail Bank 59
4.2.5 Use College Example to Formulate Marketing Strategy 63
4.2.6 Comparison of 3P+C Direct Model and Transformed Model 66
4.3 Obtaining Objective Weights for 3P+C Mathematical Model with Analytic Hierarchy Process Model 68
4.3.1 Why Objective Weights are necessary 68
4.3.2 Review of Integrative Service of 3P+C Mathematical Model 69
4.3.3 Converting 3P+C Model to AHP Analytic Model for Pair-wise Comparison 70
4.3.4 Identifying Weights A1i, B1i, C1i , D1i, A2i, B2i, C2i and D2i 71
5 Conclusions, Discussions, Limitations and Suggestions 81
5.1 Research Contributions 82
5.2 Discussions 83
5.3 Research Limitations and Suggestions 86

References 88

List of Tables
Page
1.1 1860 to 2005 Ratios of Employment over Total Population for U.S. Agriculture, Manufacturing and Service sectors 5
1.2 Comparison of Service Indicators between Taiwan, China and OECD 6
2.1 Services Classifications in Continuum Scheme 14
2.2 Service Classification in Matrix Scheme 16
2.3 3P+C Service Module Matrix to Classify the Entire Service 26
2.4 A Firm’s Processes Architecture Viewed from 3P+C Perspective 30
2.5 Characteristics and Relationships of Processes in a Firm 31
2.6 A Comparison between MUMS Model Family and 3P+C Model 33
4.1 Identification of Service Modules 47
4.2 Identification of Integrative Service Attributes 48
4.3 Identification of Salient Attributes 49
4.4 Retail Bank’s Personal Financial Service (PFS) Marketing Strategies 51
4.5 Comparison of Dimensions Coverage between 3P+C Service Model and Other Service-Process Based Model 56
4.6 PW & IW of Airline Services and the Resulted Integrated Services 58
4.7 Integrated Service of a Multiple Core-Services Retail Bank 60
4.8 Core Services of a College and the Weights 65
4.9 Marketing Strategy Formulation by Adopting Kotler’s Framework 67
4.10 Comparison of 3P+C Direct and Transformed Models 68
4.11 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute Viewed from Customer 73
4.12 Calculation of Final Attribute Weights Viewed from Customer 74
4.13 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute Viewed from Provider 75
4.14 Calculation of Final Attribute Weights Viewed from Provider 75
4.15 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute 77
4.16 PCM and Weight of Perspective for the First Six Attributes 78
4.17 PCM and Weight of Perspective for the Remaining Attributes 78
4.18 Calculation of the Overall Weights of Perspective 80



List of Figures
Page
1.1 Research Framework 10
2.1 Diagram of Open System 18
2.2 An Open System for Service 19
2.3 A Generic Service Classification Model (3P+C Model) 21
3.1 Overall Conceptualization of This Study 35
3.2 Dynamic Processes of Strategies Formulating and Service Upgrading. 36
3.3 3P+C Model, Feedback and Customer Relationships 37
3.4 Direct Model Developing Process 39
3.5 Developing Process of Transformed Model 39
4.1 Check Service Improvement on Schmenner’s Matrix for Airline 59
4.2 A multiple-Core Service Firm with “n” Quasi Single-Core Service Firms 63
4.3 Service Hierarchy for Analysis 70

















List of Key Mathematical Symbols
1. Direct Model
w: Represents provider attribute (w1= P, w2 = E, w3 = K)
x: Represents process attribute (x1 = C, x2 = S, x3 = G)
y: Represents customer attribute (y1 = H, y2 = T, y3 = I)
z : Represents place attribute (z1 = F, z2 = B, z3 = V)
wi+xj+yk+zl: Represents one of 81service modules
ΦP: Integrated services viewed from provider’s perspective
ΦC: Integrated services viewed from customer’s perspective
ΦT: Integrated services viewed from both provider’s and customer’s perspectives
αijkl: Performance Weight (PW) of service module from provider perspective
βijkl: PW of service module from customer perspective
H: Importance Weight (IW) ofΦC , i.e. the IW for customer perspective
Aijkl: Dummy parameter
Bijkl: Dummy parameter
γ= The final relative importance of the attribute of the summed core services
2. Transformed Model
Aj , Bj , Cj , Dj: IW of operational dimensions
αi: PW of a Complete Single Service,i = 1,2,…, n
Aij: IW of P, E, K attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Bij: IW of C, S, G attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Cij: IW of H, T, I attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Dij: IW of F, B, V attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
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