||Constructing the Modularized Service Models
||Graduate Institute of Management Science
Service delivery process
本研究先從分類作起，以服務遞送流程（service delivery process）為一種開放系統之概念，及以Greig (2003)之分類三項要件（criteria）：內容（Content）、過程（process）與環境（Context）為基礎，將服務分成四個構面，並經由文獻探討，找出每個構面各包含三個屬性，即服務提供者（人員(P)、設備(E)、知識(K)）、服務過程（客製化(C)、標準化(S)、權變化(G)）、服務對象（人類(H)、物品(T)、資訊(I)）及服務場所（前場(F)、後場(B)、虛擬空間(V)）等；另外，第五構面回饋（feedback）更提供動態機制，使業主能於外部環境不斷變化下，訂定動態的策略。將四個構面之屬性加以組合後，即可產生81種（=34）組合，以代表所有之服務，而每種組合代表一種服務型態，稱之為「服務模組」。對同一種服務業務，其服務模組會因從服務業者觀點或顧客觀點而有所不同，因此一服務業只要將其所推出之服務，將此二觀點下之服務模組，按營業比例作為權重，加總後即可得到整合之服務屬性，並以80/20及大數原則，萃取出比重較大之「顯要屬性」，再以其與Kotler之行銷架構結合，訂定該服務業之行銷策略。
||The output of the service sector in Taiwan accounted for 72% of the GDP and the employment of the service sector exceeded 60% of the total employment in 2006 (Executive Yuang, 2007). Due to the increasing importance of the service sector, this paper is trying to develop a generalized “Integrative Service Model” so that the service firms can formulate marketing strategies based on it.
Through extensive literature reviews, this paper uses Greig’s (2003) three classifying criteria (content, process and context) to classify the service into 4 dimensions and each of which contains 3 attributes. They are Provider, Process, Customer and Place dimensions. The initials of the 4 dimensions include 3 Ps and 1 C. therefore, we call the model “3P+C model”.
Attributes of the 4 dimensions can be combined into 81 combinations to represent the entire service. Each combination is a type of service and is called a “service module”. For the same service, the service module can be different viewed from customer or provider perspectives. Based on such concepts, a mathematical model is constructed to calculate the attributes of the integrated service modules of the service firm. Then the salient attributes can be identified after optimizing them with 80/20 and large number principles. Business strategies can thus be formulated based on the resulted salient attributes.
Classifying dimensions can also be transformed into the “operational dimensions” by weighing the attributes. The operational dimensions are labor intensity, customization degree, customer interaction degree and place orientation. A core service is formed by combining the 4 operational dimensions. A service firm can integrate all the core services and find the combined attributes of each dimension. Together with the existing framework, the marketing strategies can then be formulated. This paper uses retail bank, airline and college as the examples to explain how to use the developed “direct” and “transformed” mathematical models to formulate the marketing strategies with the existing well-established frameworks.
||Table of Contents
List of Tables IV
List of Figures VI
List of Key Mathematical Symbols VII
1 Introduction 1
1.1 General 1
1.2 Research Background, Problem and Objectives 4
1.2.1 Background 4
1.2.2 Resaerch Problems 6
1.2.3 Resaerch Objectives 7
1.3 Research Process 9
2 Literature Review 11
2.1 Evolvement of Service Paradigm 11
2.2 Service Classification 12
2.2.1 Classified by Discrete Item Scheme 13
2.2.2 Classified by Continuum Scheme 13
2.2.3 Classified by 2-Dimensional Matrix Scheme 14
2.3 Open System and 3P+C Model 17
2.3.1 Open System 17
2.3.2 Wang-Hsu Model of Integrative Service Business Classification 19
2.3.3 3P+C Integrative Service Classification 20
2.4 RBV: Integration of Multi-Service Processes 26
2.4.1 Resources of the Firm 27
2.4.2 Business Process 27
2.4.3 Multiple Business Process 28
2.4.4 Processes of a Service Firm Viewed from 3P+C Perspective 29
2.5 Comparison of 3P+C Model and Other Market-Oriented Optimized Numerical Models 31
3 Methodologies 34
3.1 Conceptual Structure of the Entire Models 34
3.2 Dynamics of Strategy Formulation 35
3.3 Feedback, Service Quality and Customer Relationship 36
3.4 Development Process of Direct Model 38
3.5 Development Process of Transformed Model 38
4 Construction of Generalized Mathematical Models 41
4.1 3P+C Direct Model 41
4.1.1 Review of Concepts of Service Modules 41
4.1.2 Construction of Direct Mathematical Model 42
4.1.3 Bank Example 46
4.1.4 Marketing Strategy for PFS 50
4.2 3P+C Transformed Model 52
4.2.1 Construction Transformed Mathematical Model 52
4.2.2 Compare 3P+C Model with Other Service-Process based Matrices in Coverage of Operational Dimensions 55
4.2.3 Single Core-Service Firm—an Airline Company 57
4.2.4 Multiple Core-Service Firm Retail Bank 59
4.2.5 Use College Example to Formulate Marketing Strategy 63
4.2.6 Comparison of 3P+C Direct Model and Transformed Model 66
4.3 Obtaining Objective Weights for 3P+C Mathematical Model with Analytic Hierarchy Process Model 68
4.3.1 Why Objective Weights are necessary 68
4.3.2 Review of Integrative Service of 3P+C Mathematical Model 69
4.3.3 Converting 3P+C Model to AHP Analytic Model for Pair-wise Comparison 70
4.3.4 Identifying Weights A1i, B1i, C1i , D1i, A2i, B2i, C2i and D2i 71
5 Conclusions, Discussions, Limitations and Suggestions 81
5.1 Research Contributions 82
5.2 Discussions 83
5.3 Research Limitations and Suggestions 86
List of Tables
1.1 1860 to 2005 Ratios of Employment over Total Population for U.S. Agriculture, Manufacturing and Service sectors 5
1.2 Comparison of Service Indicators between Taiwan, China and OECD 6
2.1 Services Classifications in Continuum Scheme 14
2.2 Service Classification in Matrix Scheme 16
2.3 3P+C Service Module Matrix to Classify the Entire Service 26
2.4 A Firm’s Processes Architecture Viewed from 3P+C Perspective 30
2.5 Characteristics and Relationships of Processes in a Firm 31
2.6 A Comparison between MUMS Model Family and 3P+C Model 33
4.1 Identification of Service Modules 47
4.2 Identification of Integrative Service Attributes 48
4.3 Identification of Salient Attributes 49
4.4 Retail Bank’s Personal Financial Service (PFS) Marketing Strategies 51
4.5 Comparison of Dimensions Coverage between 3P+C Service Model and Other Service-Process Based Model 56
4.6 PW & IW of Airline Services and the Resulted Integrated Services 58
4.7 Integrated Service of a Multiple Core-Services Retail Bank 60
4.8 Core Services of a College and the Weights 65
4.9 Marketing Strategy Formulation by Adopting Kotler’s Framework 67
4.10 Comparison of 3P+C Direct and Transformed Models 68
4.11 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute Viewed from Customer 73
4.12 Calculation of Final Attribute Weights Viewed from Customer 74
4.13 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute Viewed from Provider 75
4.14 Calculation of Final Attribute Weights Viewed from Provider 75
4.15 PCM and Weight Matrix of Dimension and Attribute 77
4.16 PCM and Weight of Perspective for the First Six Attributes 78
4.17 PCM and Weight of Perspective for the Remaining Attributes 78
4.18 Calculation of the Overall Weights of Perspective 80
List of Figures
1.1 Research Framework 10
2.1 Diagram of Open System 18
2.2 An Open System for Service 19
2.3 A Generic Service Classification Model (3P+C Model) 21
3.1 Overall Conceptualization of This Study 35
3.2 Dynamic Processes of Strategies Formulating and Service Upgrading. 36
3.3 3P+C Model, Feedback and Customer Relationships 37
3.4 Direct Model Developing Process 39
3.5 Developing Process of Transformed Model 39
4.1 Check Service Improvement on Schmenner’s Matrix for Airline 59
4.2 A multiple-Core Service Firm with “n” Quasi Single-Core Service Firms 63
4.3 Service Hierarchy for Analysis 70
List of Key Mathematical Symbols
1. Direct Model
w: Represents provider attribute (w1= P, w2 = E, w3 = K)
x: Represents process attribute (x1 = C, x2 = S, x3 = G)
y: Represents customer attribute (y1 = H, y2 = T, y3 = I)
z : Represents place attribute (z1 = F, z2 = B, z3 = V)
wi+xj+yk+zl: Represents one of 81service modules
ΦP: Integrated services viewed from provider’s perspective
ΦC: Integrated services viewed from customer’s perspective
ΦT: Integrated services viewed from both provider’s and customer’s perspectives
αijkl: Performance Weight (PW) of service module from provider perspective
βijkl: PW of service module from customer perspective
H: Importance Weight (IW) ofΦC , i.e. the IW for customer perspective
Aijkl: Dummy parameter
Bijkl: Dummy parameter
γ= The final relative importance of the attribute of the summed core services
2. Transformed Model
Aj , Bj , Cj , Dj: IW of operational dimensions
αi: PW of a Complete Single Service，i = 1,2,…, n
Aij: IW of P, E, K attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Bij: IW of C, S, G attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Cij: IW of H, T, I attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
Dij: IW of F, B, V attributes of the i-th (i =1, 2,…, n) single service
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