淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2002202000463500
中文論文名稱 從飢餓行銷觀點了解顧客情緒對衝動購買意圖之影響
英文論文名稱 The Impact of Consumer Emotion on Impulsive Buying Intention for Hunger Marketing
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 賴思婷
研究生英文姓名 Szu-Ting Lai
學號 606630316
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2020-01-09
論文頁數 55頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳雅鈴
委員-周惠文
委員-解燕豪
委員-吳雅鈴
中文關鍵字 飢餓行銷  腦電圖  情緒  認知適配  情感適配  衝動購買意圖 
英文關鍵字 Hunger marketing  EEG  Emotion  Cognitive fit  Affective fit  Impulsive Buying Intention 
學科別分類
中文摘要 飢餓行銷是一種行銷手法,即產品提供者有意調低產量達到調控供求關係(Supply-demand relationship),建造供不應求“假象”,以引發消費者內在慾望的目的。過去飢餓行銷多集中於高價位產品之探討。然而,自平價小米手機限量供貨的成功策略開始,飢餓行銷已變成各級品牌行銷的新顯學。

因此,本研究目的主要探討飢餓行銷策略應用於平價產品之成效。首先,了解不同產品稀少性訊息的呈現對消費者情緒產生不同的影響,進而檢驗消費者心智處理的認知適配與情感適配對衝動購買意圖之影響。而行銷人員認為稀少性訴求為一個重要的行銷策略(Brannon & Brock,2001)。本研究採取實驗室實驗法,並分成兩個階段。在第一階段,我們使用腦電圖(EEG, electroencephalogram)來測量神經生理狀態,主要分析產品稀少性資訊線索(包含時間長/短、數量多/少)對消費者的正/負情緒之影響。透過前額葉腦電圖(EEG)了解消費者在不同稀少性資訊的刺激之下,確實有不同的正、負情緒狀態;在第二階段,使用2X2矩陣進一步驗證產品稀少性的不同資訊呈現(時間長/短、數量多/少)對消費者情緒、心智處理和衝動購買意圖之不同影響。本研究最終收集131個有效樣本以支持研究模型,期望本研究結果對行銷業者與廣告設計商提供完善的飢餓行銷策略,以提高銷售利益。
英文摘要 Hunger marketing is a marketing technology, that is, the provider of goods deliberately reduces output to regulate the relationship between supply and demand, thereby creating an "illusion" of oversupply, which triggers consumers' inherent desire. However, since the successful strategy of the limited supply of affordable Xiaomi mobile phones, hungry marketing has become a new manifestation of brand marketing at all levels.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of hunger marketing strategies applied to affordable products. First, understand that the presentation of scarce information of different products has different effects on consumer emotions, and then examine the impact of cognitive fit and affective fit on consumer mental process on Impulsive Buying Intention. Marketers see scarcity as an important marketing strategy (Brannon & Brock, 2001). This study adopts laboratory experiments and is divided into two phases. In the first stage, we used electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure the neurophysiological status, and mainly analyzed the impact of product scarcity information clues (including time long/ short, quantity more / little) on consumers' positive / negative emotion . Through the prefrontal EEG to understand that consumers are stimulated by different scarce information, they do have different positive and negative emotional states; in the second stage, Use the 2X2 matrix to further verify the different effects of product scarcity (time long / short, quantity more / little) on consumer mood, mental processing, and impulse purchase intention.This study eventually collected 131 valid samples to support the research model. It is expected that the results of this study will provide marketers and advertising designers with a complete hungry marketing strategy to improve sales benefits.
論文目次 第一章 緒論1
1.1研究動機與背景1
1.2研究目的3
1.3研究流程4
第二章 文獻探討5
2.1飢餓行銷5
2.2腦電圖與情緒(ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY;EEG)5
2.3消費者情緒7
2.4雙決策系統:認知適配(COGNITIVE FIT)與情感適配(AFFECTIVE FIT)7
2.5衝動購買意圖(IMPULSIVE BUYING INTENTION)8
第三章 研究方法10
3.1研究模型10
3.2研究假說11
3.2.1愉悅度對認知適配與情感適配11
3.2.2激發度對認知適配與情感適配12
3.2.3認知適配對情感適配13
3.2.4認知適配對衝動購買意圖14
3.2.5情感適配對衝動購買意圖14
3.3實驗設計與EEG測量方法14
3.4實驗流程18
3.5本研究問卷20
3.5.1問卷題項20
3.6實驗對象22
第四章 資料分析與結果23
4.1樣本結構分描述23
4.2EEG分析25
4.3模型假說與檢定29
4.3 1量測模型分析29
4.3 2結構模型分析35
第五章 結論與建議40
5.1研究結果與討論40
5.2理論意涵43
5.3實務意涵44
5.4研究限制與建議45
參考文獻46
附錄研究問卷之問項54


表目錄
表3-1實驗情境之設計16
表3-2消費者情緒P-A之量表問項20
表3-3認知適配與情感適配之量表問項21
表3-4衝動購買意圖之量表問項22
表4-1受測者之一般統計資料圖表-1(N=131)24
表4-2衛生紙在時間長/數量多的收斂效度與區別效度30
表4-3衛生紙在時間長/數量少的收斂效度與區別效度31
表4-4衛生紙在時間短/數量多的收斂效度與區別效度32
表4-5衛生紙在時間短/數量少的收斂效度與區別效度33
表4-6在不同產品資訊情境下的各構面間之相關係數與AVE的平方根值 34
表4-7假說驗證結果39




圖目錄

圖1-1研究程序4
圖2-1大腦示意圖(鄭英, 2017)6
圖3-1研究模型10
圖3-2衛生紙的產品資訊16
圖3-3時間長、數量多17
圖3-4時間短、數量少17
圖3-5Emotiv EEG 14個偵測頻道18
圖3-6實驗流程圖19
圖4-1未經過產品資訊刺激的腦普圖25
圖4-2已經觀看產品資訊刺激之下的腦普圖26
圖4-3時間長、數量多27
圖4-4時間長、數量少27
圖4-5時間短、數量多28
圖4-6時間短、數量少28
圖4-7 SEM主要效果模型 時間長、數量多36
圖4-8 SEM主要效果模型 時間長、數量少37
圖4-9 SEM主要效果模型 時間短、數量多37
圖4-10 SEM主要效果模型 時間短、數量少38


參考文獻 1. 鄧建國, & 莊明振. (2008). 應用情感喚醒的造形聯想設計模式探討. 設計學報 (Journal of Design), 13(3)
2. DMA 2017 年數位廣告調查報告:美妝、遊戲投放占比最高,但電商、金融成長最快。民國2018年06月20日(取自於:https://www.inside.com.tw/2018/06/20/2017-dma )
3. 尼爾森:消費者購物虛實整合 全通路策略有助拓展商機。民國2017年03月21日 (取自於:https://www.nielsen.com/tw/zh/press-room/2017/nielsen-report-omni-channel-strategy-driving-growth-as-consumers-embrace-both-online-and-offline-channels.html)
4. 廣告、宣傳仍影響消費者購買決策-不論數位廣告或傳統廣告。民國2017年4月27日(取自於:https://www.gfk.com/zh-tw/insights/infographic/dc12893/ )
5. 台灣瘋搶衛生紙引發關注 多家國際媒體都報導。民國2018年03月01日 (取自於:https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/2352282)
6. 【媽媽週記】情緒—都是杏仁核惹的禍(鄭英)。民國2017年11月4日(取自於:https://hk.nextmgz.com/article/2_556718_0)
7. Aggrawal, P., Jun, S. Y., & Huh, J. H. (2011). Scarcity messages–A Consumer Competition Perspective. Journal of Advertising, 40(3), 19-30.
8. Andreassi, J. L. (2007). Measurement of the EEG. Psychophysiology: Human behavior and physiological response. New Jersey: Hillsdale, 59-69.
9. Allport, G. W. (1940). The psychologist's frame of reference. Psychological Bulletin, 37(1), 1.
10. Alford, L. B. (1933). Localization of consciousness and emotion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 89(4), 789-799.
11. Batkoska, L., & Koseska, E. (2012). The impact of cognitive learning on consumer behaviour. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 44, 70-77.
12. Bigné, J. E., Andreu, L., & Gnoth, J. (2005). The theme park experience: An analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tourism management, 26(6), 833-844.
13. Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Sabatinelli, D., & Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotion and motivation II: Sex differences in picture processing. Emotion, 1(3), 300.
14. Brannon, L. A., & Brock, T. C. (2001). Limiting time for responding enhances behavior corresponding to the merits of compliance appeals: Refutations of heuristic-cue theory in service and consumer settings. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10(3), 135-146.
15. Beatty, S. E., & Ferrell, M. E. (1998). Impulse buying: Modeling its precursors. Journal of retailing, 74(2), 169-191.
16. Bakker, I., van der Voordt, T., Vink, P., & de Boon, J. (2014). Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited. Current Psychology, 33(3), 405-421.
17. Badgaiyan, A. J., & Verma, A. (2015). Does urge to buy impulsively differ from impulsive buying behaviour? Assessing the impact of situational factors. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 145-157.
18. Berridge, K., & Winkielman, P. (2003). What is an unconscious emotion?(The case for unconscious" liking"). Cognition and emotion, 17(2), 181-211.
19. Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1992). Social psychological contributions to the decade of the brain: Doctrine of multilevel analysis. American Psychologist, 47(8), 1019.
20. Chebat, J. C., & Michon, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers' emotions, cognition, and spending: A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of business research, 56(7), 529-539.
21. Coley, A. L. (2002). Affective and cognitive processes involved in impulse buying (Doctoral dissertation, uga).
22. Chen, Y., Kuo, C. J., Jhan, Y.-C., & Chiu, P.-N. (2014). Hunger marketing on smartphone. Paper presented at the Proceedings of PICMET'14 Conference: Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology; Infrastructure and Service Integration.
23. Damasio, A., & Descartes, R. (1994). Error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon, 350-412.
24. Davidson, R. J., & Tomarken, A. J. (1989). Laterality and emotion: An electrophysiological approach. Handbook of Neuropsychology, 3, 419-441.
25. Damasio, A. R., & Marg, E. (1995). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Optometry and Vision Science, 72(11), 847-847.
26. Davidson, R. J., & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in cognitive sciences, 3(1), 11-21.
27. Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers' product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, , 307-319.
28. Diaye, M. A., & Lapidus, A. (2012). Pleasure and belief in Hume's decision process. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 19(3), 355-384.
29. Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2003). Empirical testing of a model of online store atmospherics and shopper responses. Psychology & Marketing, 20(2), 139-150.
30. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
31. Gillespie, B., Muehling, D. D., & Kareklas, I. (2018). Fitting product placements: Affective fit and cognitive fit as determinants of consumer evaluations of placed brands. Journal of Business Research, 82, 90-102.
32. Garaus, M., Wagner, U., & Kummer, C. (2015). Cognitive fit, retail shopper confusion, and shopping value: Empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 1003-1011.
33. Gountas, J., & Gountas, S. (2007). Personality orientations, emotional states, customer satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 72-75.
34. Green, M. C. (2004). Transportation into narrative worlds: The role of prior knowledge and perceived realism. Discourse processes, 38(2), 247-266.
35. Grigorovici, D. M., & Constantin, C. D. (2004). Experiencing interactive advertising beyond rich media: Impacts of ad type and presence on brand effectiveness in 3D gaming immersive virtual environments. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(1), 22-36.
36. Gasper, K., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Attending to the big picture: Mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological science, 13(1), 34-40.
37. Grewal, D., Krishnan, R., Baker, J., & Borin, N. (1998). The effect of store name, brand name and price discounts on consumers' evaluations and purchase intentions. Journal of retailing, 74(3), 331-352.
38. Knopf, R. C. (1987). Human behavior, cognition, and affect in the natural environment. Handbook of environmental psychology, 1, 783-825.
39. Hong, W., Thong, J. Y., & Tam, K. Y. (2004). The effects of information format and shopping task on consumers' online shopping behavior: A cognitive fit perspective. Journal of management information systems, 21(3), 149-184.
40. Hsee, C. K., & Rottenstreich, Y. (2004). Music, pandas, and muggers: On the affective psychology of value. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 23.
41. Hunger marketing on smartphone. (2014). Proceedings of PICMET '14 Conference: Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology; Infrastructure and Service Integration, Management of Engineering & Technology (PICMET), 2014 Portland International Conference on, , 1950. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.tku.edu.tw:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edseee&AN=edseee.6921122&lang=zh-tw&site=eds-live&scope=site
42. Hui, M. K., & Bateson, J. E. (1991). Perceived control and the effects of crowding and consumer choice on the service experience. Journal of consumer research, 18(2), 174-184.
43. Im, H., & Ha, S. (2011). An exploration of the cognitive-affective model of satisfaction in a shopping context: A test of competing models. The Service Industries Journal, 31(13), 2273-2288.
44. Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics. American Economic Review, 93(5), 1449-1475.
45. Koo, D., & Lee, J. (2011). Inter-relationships among dominance, energetic and tense arousal, and pleasure, and differences in their impacts under online vs. offline environment doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.03.001
46. LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual review of neuroscience, 23(1), 155-184.
47. Lewis, C., Fretwell, C., & Ryan, J. (2012). An empirical study of emotional response to sounds in advertising. American Journal of Management, 12(1), 80-91.
48. Liberio, M. S., Sadowski, M. C., Soekmadji, C., Davis, R. A., & Nelson, C. C. (2014). Differential effects of tissue culture coating substrates on prostate cancer cell adherence, morphology and behavior. PLoS One, 9(11), e112122.
49. LeDoux, J. E. (1995). Emotion: Clues from the brain. Annual review of psychology, 46(1), 209-235.
50. LeDoux, J. E. (2014). Coming to terms with fear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(8), 2871-2878.
51. Lee, G. Y., & Yi, Y. (2008). The effect of shopping emotions and perceived risk on impulsive buying: the moderating role of buying impulsiveness trait.
52. Libet, B. (2004). Mind time: The temporal factor in consciousness, perspectives in cognitive neuroscience. Harvard University Press.
53. Mullen, B., & Johnson, C. (2013). The psychology of consumer behavior. Psychology Press.
54. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) item booklet.
55. Mehrabian, A. (1996). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology, 14(4), 261-292.
56. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. the MIT Press.
57. Nunnally, N. R. (1978). Stream renovation: an alternative to channelization. Environmental Management, 2(5), 403-411.
58. Oliver, R. L. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. Journal of consumer research, 20(3), 418-430.
59. Ozcelik, H. (2005, August). EMOTIONAL FIT IN THE WORKPLACE: ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2005, No. 1, pp. R1-R6). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
60. Parboteeah, D. V., Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2009). The influence of website characteristics on a consumer's urge to buy impulsively. Information systems research, 20(1), 60-78.
61. Russell, J. A., & Pratt, G. (1980). A description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of personality and social psychology, 38(2), 311.
62. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of personality and social psychology, 39(6), 1161.
63. Russell, J. A., & Carroll, J. M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological bulletin, 125(1), 3.
64. Rook, D. W. (1987). The buying impulse. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 189-199.
65. Rook, D. W., & Fisher, R. J. (1995). Normative influences on impulsive buying behavior. Journal of consumer research, 22(3), 305-313.
66. Royet, J. P., Zald, D., Versace, R., Costes, N., Lavenne, F., Koenig, O., & Gervais, R. (2000). Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant olfactory, visual, and auditory stimuli: A positron emission tomography study. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 20(20), 7752-7759. doi:20/20/7752 [pii]
67. Sharma, P., Sivakumaran, B., & Marshall, R. (2014). Exploring impulse buying in services: toward an integrative framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42(2), 154-170.
68. Simmons, W. K., Martin, A., & Barsalou, L. W. (2005). Pictures of appetizing foods activate gustatory cortices for taste and reward. Cerebral Cortex, 15(10), 1602-1608.
69. Simon, H., & MARCH, J. (1976). Administrative behavior organization: New York: Free Press.
70. Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2002). Rational actors or rational fools: Implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 31(4), 329-342.
71. Soriano, M. Y., Foxall, G. R., & Pearson, G. J. (2002). Emotion and environment: A test of the behavioural perspective model in a latin american context. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 2(2), 138-154.
72. Spence, S. (1995). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. BMJ, 310(6988), 1213.
73. Schwarz, N. (1990). Feelings as information: Informational and motivational functions of affective states.
74. Stern, H. (1962). The significance of impulse buying today. Journal of marketing, 26(2), 59-62.
75. TIAN, S. B., & Da, C. H. E. N. (2016). “Hunger Marketing” Strategy and Its Application Research—Based on Apple Products. DEStech Transactions on Economics, Business and Management, (icem).
76. Te’eni, D. (2006). An Overview of Fit Conceptualizations in HCI. Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Foundations, 5, 205.
77. Thayer, R. E. (1967). Measurement of activation through self-report. Psychological reports, 20(2), 663-678.
78. Verhagen, T., & van Dolen, W. (2011). The influence of online store beliefs on consumer online impulse buying: A model and empirical application. Information & Management, 48(8), 320-327.
79. Vessey, I. (1991). Cognitive fit: A theory‐based analysis of the graphs versus tables literature. Decision Sciences, 22(2), 219-240.
80. Vessey, I., & Galletta, D. (1991). Cognitive fit: An empirical study of information acquisition. Information systems research, 2(1), 63-84.
81. Weinberg, P., & Gottwald, W. (1982). Impulsive consumer buying as a result of emotions. Journal of Business research, 10(1), 43-57.
82. Xie, G. X., & Lee, M. J. (2008). Anticipated violence, arousal, and enjoyment of movies: viewers' reactions to violent previews based on arousal-seeking tendency. The Journal of social psychology, 148(3), 277-292.
83. Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35(2), 151.
84. Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, H. (1984). Affect and cognition: The hard interface. Emotions, cognition, and behavior, 73-102.
85. Zald, D. H., & Pardo, J. V. (2000). Functional neuroimaging of the olfactory system in humans. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 36(2), 165-181.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2020-03-04公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-03-04起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信