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系統識別號 U0002-2001201300453900
中文論文名稱 臺灣民間信仰企業化行銷的多種面向
英文論文名稱 Multidimensions of Business Marketing Strategy of Taiwanese Folklore Belief
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 王國彥
研究生英文姓名 Kuo-Yan Wang
學號 899620016
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-01-11
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-張紘炬
委員-林進財
委員-陳定國
委員-黃建森
委員-賴奎魁
委員-歐陽良裕
委員-張紘炬
委員-莊忠柱
中文關鍵字 宗教管理  民間信仰  行銷策略  社會文化  朝聖旅遊 
英文關鍵字 Religious management  Folklore belief  Marketing strategy  Social culture  Pilgrimage tourism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文係以臺灣民間信仰中的企業化行銷方式為研究對象,輔以管理科學方法參與研討的實證研究。除了介紹研究動機、目的及其架構以外,接著整理出以道、儒、釋三家為基礎的臺灣民間信仰中的寺廟機構中主要的經濟收益來源,分別為消災解厄儀式、慶典盛會、以及一般祈福活動等。此外則對於「宗教行銷」應用於台灣民間信仰內的各種類型做一初步區分,四種類型分別為廣告宣傳、建立網路社群、傳統儀式再詮釋、以及置入式行銷等當代行銷途徑。
本研究中首先結合兩大概念:高齡化社會以及宗教旅遊需求,對於進香團的旅遊形式,實際上多以高齡者為主參加的現象為研究重點。對於國內社區最常見的神祇-土地公廟間信徒的年度互訪,提出了「相互朝聖」的概念:有別於基督徒於耶路撒冷與伊斯蘭教徒至麥加其本質為「由外而內」的朝聖流動,相互朝聖行為則是一種採取對等型態,以互訪為主的宗教聯誼活動。
另外,本文以列為聯合國教科文組織「非物質文化遺產」之媽祖文化信仰為主題,探討以媽祖文化為主的廟會活動。以「經營績效」為觀點為闡釋,實際走訪數間媽祖廟宇委員會,透過管理科學方法制訂行銷資源投入的策略,除了使之達成到訪者數目以及相應捐獻收入增加,並透過問卷訪談方式,將參加廟會者的動機予以有效分類,並引伸出相關的討論結果,以及提出後續研究方向。
英文摘要 Based on the doctrines of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, Taiwanese folklore belief has existed for nearly four centuries, and has been simultaneously proven to be a spiritual sustenance for most of the population in Taiwan. Numerous services derived from folklore belief have recently become diverse marketing approaches; for example, discarding disaster or misfortune, carnival celebrations, and praying for blessings. Temples are attempting to broaden the believer base by using publicity and promotion, establishing an online community, redescribing ritual narratives, and engaging in placement marketing. Therefore, this research presents a discussion on the phenomenon of “religious marketing” from a management perspective. To investigate the temple believer base, this study analyzed the elderly pilgrimage tourists who participated in a community-initiated tour to experience a “mutual pilgrimage”. Furthermore, this study also conducted a survey at a mass religious gathering of a deity’s procession for classifying the four typologies of the tour participants according to their motivations. The conclusion involves future research directions, which are expected to be completed by developing continuity in religious management field research.
論文目次 CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………….I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………II
CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………….III
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………….V
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………..VI

Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….1
1.1 Motivation and objective………………………………………………………...1
1.2 Framework………………………………………………………………………3
1.3 Limitation………………………………………………………………………..4

Chapter 2 Folklore belief economic practices in Taiwan………………………...5
2.1 The main deities of Taoism-Buddhism based folklore belief……………………5
2.2 Major revenue source of Taiwanese temples…………………………………...11
2.3 Summary……………………………………………………………………….15

Chapter 3 Presentation of religious organization marketing in Taiwan……....16
3.1 Religious marketing with Taiwanese folklore belief characteristics..................16
3.2 Customer segmentations……………………………………………………….22
3.3 Summary……………………………………………………………………….23

Chapter 4 The role of mutual pilgrimage: Perspective from aging pilgrims….24
4.1 Religious tourism for the aging pilgrimage tourist…………………………….24
4.2 Mutual Pilgrimage……………………………………………………………...26
4.3 Planning a one-day pilgrimage tour by the SAW technique…………………...29
4.4 Survey and Results…………………………………………………….……….33
4.5 Discussions……………………………………………………………………..36
4.6 Findings………………………………………………………………………...38

Chapter 5 Religious-themed festival planning in Temple’s marketing………..39
5.1 Celebration enthusiastic participant, or festival reveler?....................................39
5.2 Mazu belief practices in Taiwan………………………………………………..41
5.3 Empirical process………………………………………………………………43
5.4 Discussion……………………………………………………………………...51
5.5 Findings………………………………………………………………………...53

Chapter 6 Conclusion and future intentions…………………………………….54
6.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………….54
6.2 Recommendations for further researches………………………………………55

References…………………………………………………………………………...57
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………….66

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 The research framework………………………………………………….4
Table 2-1 General conditions of Eastern religions in Taiwan of 2009…..................6
Table 2-2 The major deities and dedicated temple numbers in Taiwan……………11
Table 4-1 Raw data and each weighting of the four candidate affiliated temples…31
Table 4-2 Normalized matrix…………………………………………………………. 32
Table 4-3 The result matrix of average SAW…………………………………………. 32
Table 4-4 Respondents’ identity………………………………………………………34
Table 4-5 The percentage of the descriptive statistics for the group pilgrim recognitions………………………………………………………………… 35
Table 5-1 The input and output information of each Mazu temple…………………46
Table 5-2 DEA results of five Mazu temples’ festival performance in 2010…………46
Table 5-3 Advertising information……………………………………………………47
Table 5-4 The advertising budget result using multiple-objective programming…… 48
Table 5-5 The motivations of religious-based activity participants- factor analysis results………………………………………………………………………50

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 The research framework…………………………………………………4
Figure 2-1 Inside a Land Deity temple located in northern Taiwan…………………7
Figure 2-2 The amulet of Mazu…………………………………………………8
Figure 2-3 The image of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva deep inside most Taiwanese household altars……………………………………………9
Figure 2-4 The safe driving amulet of Fu You Di Jun…………………10
Figure 2-5 Two representative deity-themed products: Holy Emperor Guan key ring (left) and Wen Chang Di Jun cell phone strap (right)………………13
Figure 2-6 A lucky money envelope borrowed from Mazu and the God of Wealth…14
Figure 3-1 An internet advertising of a Dharma practice TV program………………18
Figure 3-2 A temple’s annual lunar calendar lists their facebook address as shown below…………………………………………………………20
Figure 3-3 Online sortition service displayed in the upper left corner of the facebook page……………………………………………………………20
Figure 3-4 A registration announcement for worshipping the Big Dipper…………21
Figure 3-5 Two hot sale worship guide books “How do I ask question to the deity?” (Left); and “How the blessing works step by step” (Right)…22
Figure 4-1 The difference of the general and the mutual pattern of pilgrimage……28
Figure 5-1 Chaotian Temple located at Beigang in Yunlin………42
Figure 5-2 Lantern festival of Lungshan Temple located at Wanhua in Taipei, 2012…………42
Figure 5-3 Religious-based activity participant motivations…………………… 51
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