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中文論文名稱 台灣AH-64E守衛者直升機接裝之挑戰論先進直升機訓練人員身心理狀況
英文論文名稱 The challenge of Taiwan AH-64E Guardian helicopter transition training- Pilots’ Physiology and Psychology of advanced helicopter training
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aerospace Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 趙鉞
研究生英文姓名 Yueh Chao
學號 705430048
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2018-06-30
論文頁數 47頁
口試委員 指導教授-王怡仁
委員-葉紘維
委員-馮朝剛
中文關鍵字 航空生理  夜視系統  阿帕契攻擊直升機  NVS  FLIR 
英文關鍵字 AH-64E  Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System(IHDASS)  Night Vision System(NVS)  BAG Training 
學科別分類
中文摘要 經過多年的努力與磋商,2011 年正式與美方簽定代號為天鷹專案的AH-64E新式直升機採購案,經過空、地勤人員選員,陸續於100年派訓赴美接受阿帕契換裝訓練;民國 102年8月首批空、地勤種子教官返台,同年 10月我國陸軍於高雄港接收首批六架阿帕契直升機,自此開啟了國內阿帕契直升機接收後所面臨之困難與挑戰。
阿帕契直升機經過歷年戰爭經驗不斷改良升級,我國購入之E型為美國以外的第一海外使用國,飛機各項科技以及飛行人員訓練與台灣以往直升機訓練方式相比有著巨幅的差距,接裝至今也曾發生808號機意外事件,換訓中所面臨之困難非一般飛訓所能了解與感受,透過數據以及各項飛行訓練經驗分析,呈現客觀且有幫助之數據運用,使未來我陸軍戰力於不斷成長過程能更平安順利。
本人為赴美接受阿帕契訓練的種子教官之一,深深體會AH-64E在機種轉換期間飛行人員所面臨之身心挑戰,希望藉個人換訓過程研究以及目前國內換訓經驗,提出研究分析以找出國內換訓之改進方向以減低換訓成本、增加換訓成效。
研究將分為六章;分別為第一章概論,將介紹阿帕契直升機重要組件原理及目的。第二章,講解軍用直升機傳統夜視鏡飛行(NVG)與阿帕契夜視影像系統(NVS)能力、應用與差異。第三章,為人類航空生理各種現象分析。第四章為阿帕契換裝訓練方式與風險管理策略。第五章國內換訓人員調查分析與相關研究報告。第六章 結論與建議。
戰爭從未停止,目前軍事科技大國掌握世界戰爭優勢,即使科技減輕飛行工作負荷,但在軍事運用上反而賦予新型軍事航空器額外能力,故飛行人員並未因此而減低工作負荷,取而代之的是空、地勤人員對科技知識與訓練需求增加,我國軍事科技大部分來自海外軍購,其中美式裝備仍占多數,阿帕契直升機經過多年實戰經驗,仍是目前全球最強、實戰經驗豐富具有不可動搖之地位,我國接裝後如何減少飛訓風險,發揮最大效能是目前首要且須持續強化的領域,同時也希望藉此研究讓國內瞭解我國阿帕契換訓期間飛行員們所面對之挑戰。
英文摘要 Abstract:
After years of hard work and negotiation, in 2011, Taiwan Army officially signed the AH-64E attack helicopter purchase case sky-eagle Program. The aviators and maintenance members were sent to the United States to receive the AH-64E Apache training. The first group of pilots and maintenance members comeback to Taiwan in August 2013. In October of the same year, R.O.C. army received the first six AH-64E helicopters at Kaohsiung Port, Since then, the difficulties and challenges of Taiwan in-country Apache helicopter training is triggered.
Apache helicopters continuously improve and upgrade through years of war experiences. The type E received by R.O.C. is the first country used outside of the United States. The new technology and flight personnel training have a huge difference compared to previous helicopter training methods in Taiwan. The accident of the HA-64E 808 had occurred was just one of the examples. The difficulties encountered during the training were not understood and faced by any other flight training before. Hopefully, through data analysis and various domestic flight experiences of the training can help R.O.C. army getting powerful.
This author is one of the Initial Key Person Trainer IKPT for Apache training from the United States. This author deeply understands the physical and psychological challenges faced by flight personnel during the transition training. This author hopes his personal training experiences and current in-country training research and the present research can provide a guideline to reduce the cost of training and increase the effectiveness of training.
This study is divided into six chapters: The first chapter introduces the principle and purpose of the important components of the Apache helicopter. Chapter 2 explains the capabilities, applications, and differences of NVG and Apache Night Vision System (NVS). The third chapter analyzes various phenomena of human aviation physiology. The fourth chapter is the Apache transition training method and risk management strategy. Chapter V includes investigation and analysis of domestic personnel and related research reports. Chapter VI gives conclusions and recommendations on this research.
The war has never stopped. The Hi-Tech military countries own the advantages of world warfare. Even the technology reduced the workload of flying, but it has been given military aircraft additional capabilities for military applications. The flight crew does not decrease work load relatively. Aviator and ground crews have to increase their scientific and technological knowledge. Most of R.O.C. military technology comes from overseas military sales. American equipments still occupy a lot in Taiwan. After many years of actual combat experiences, the Apache helicopters are still the world’s strongest and most experienced attack helicopter with unshakable status. How to reduce the risk of flight training after received this type of helicopter, and how to maximize its effectiveness is the most important thing that we need to do. We hope this study could help pilots better understanding the challenges during their training in Taiwan.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 前言 1
1.1阿帕契直升機特性 1
1.2研究方法與應用 2
第二章 夜視鏡飛行與阿帕契夜視系統飛行 ..3
2.1夜間目視系統概述 3
2.2夜間目視系統飛行 3
(A)夜視鏡飛行(Night Vision Goggles) 4
(B)阿帕契夜視系統飛行(Night Vision System) 5
第三章 航空生理現象 7
3.1人類視覺系統 7
(A)錐狀細胞(Cones cell) 8
(B)桿狀細胞(Rods cell) 8
(C)日間盲點(Day blind spot) 8
(D)夜間盲點(Night blind spot) 8
3.2距離與景深判斷 9
(A)雙眼視覺(Binocular Cues) 9
(B)單眼視覺(Monocular Cues) 10
3.3物體幾何透視判斷 10
(A)線性透視 10
(B)外觀形狀透視 10
(C)影像高低位置關係 10
(D)視網膜影像尺寸大小 10
(E)空中透視 10
(F)相對動態 11
3.4空間迷向 11
(A)視覺系統 11
(B)前庭系統 12
(C)半規管系統 12
(D)身體觸覺系統 13
3.5視覺錯覺 13
(A)相對動態錯覺(Relative motion illusion) 14
(B)地面燈光誤解(Confused with ground light) 14
(C)假水平線(False Horizon illusion) 14
(D)高度景深錯覺(Height-Depth perception illusion) 14
(E)坑口錯覺(Crater illusion) 14
(F)結構錯覺(Structure illusion) 14
(G)大小-距離錯覺(Size-distance illusion) 15
(H)過度專注或迷惑(Fascination in flying) 15
(I)反向錯覺(Reversible perspective illusion) 15
(J)次要參考點(Altered planes of reference) 15
(K)自動運動(Autokinesis) 15
(L)光源閃爍(Flicker vertigo) 15
第四章 阿帕契換裝訓練方式與風險 16
4.1飛行人員夜視系統訓練問題 16
(A)視差效應(Parallax effect) 17
(B)雙眼競爭(Binocular rivalry) 17
(C)空間迷向(Spatial Disorientation) 18
(D)動態暈眩(Motion Sickness) 18
(E)飛行後症狀 19
第五章 國內換訓人員調查分析與研究 20
5.1問卷設計 20
5.2問卷分析 25
第六章 結論 33
6.1結論 33
6.2建議 33
參考文獻 36
附錄 36

圖目錄

圖 1 阿帕契直升機蓋罩訓練 1
圖 2 美軍訓練期間合影 2
圖 3 星光夜視鏡與IR夜視系統影像差異 3
圖 4 夜視鏡飛行頭盔配戴圖示 4
圖 5 阿帕契夜視系統與飛行人員位置關係 5
圖 6 阿帕契夜視系統感測器(Sensor) 6
圖 7 飛行人員整合式頭盔顯示單元(IHDASS) 6
圖 8 視覺系統剖面 7
圖 9 前庭系統 12
圖 10 半規管、耳石作用 13
圖 11 視差效應 17


表目錄
表 1問卷調查問題列表 21
表 2 問卷調查-1 22
表 3 問卷調查-2 23
表 4 問卷調查-3 23
表 5 問卷調查-4 24
問卷調查-回應1 26
問卷調查-回應2 26
問卷調查-回應3 27
問卷調查-回應4 27
問卷調查-回應5 28
問卷調查-回應6 29
問卷調查-回應7 29
問卷調查-回應8 30
問卷調查-回應9 30
問卷調查-回應10 31
問卷調查-回應 11 31
問卷調查-回應 12 32
問卷調查-回應 13 32
參考文獻 參考文獻
[1] Ross Owen Phillips, 2015,Institude of Transport Economic Norwegian Center for Reacher, Fatigue in Transport Report
[2] Rhonda L.S. Cornum, Ph.D., J. Lynn Caldwell, M.A., Ph.D., and Robert Ludeick ,B.C., 1993,Factors Influencing Success or Failure in AH-64 Course.
[3] FAA –H-8083-21A,2012,Helicopter Flying Handbook, Chapter 13.
[4] FAA –H-8083-25B,2016,Pilot’s Handbook Of Aeronautical Knowledge ,Chapter 15
[5] FAA –H-8083-9A,2008,Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, Chapter 7-9.
[6] U.S Army TC 3-04.93,2009, Aeromedical Training for Flight Personnel , Chapter 8.
[7] U.S Army FM 3-04.203,2007, Fundamental of Flight ,Chapter 4.
[8] 賴重宇Chung-Yu Lai, 張維剛Wei-Kung Chang, 鄭兆堅Chao-Chien Cheng, 江國超Kwo-Taso Chiang, 朱信Hsin Chu., 2016,整合式頭盔顯示瞄準系統生理衝擊文獻回顧 Physiological Impact of the Integrated Helmet and Display System in Apache AH-64 Helicopter :Literature Review。
[9] David B. Durbin.,2002, Assessment of the Human Factors Characteristics of the AH-64D, Army Research Laboratory.
[10] Samantha Olson.,2014,Google Glass can hurt users’ eyes and cause headaches warms google optometrist.
[11] Chris Matyszczyk.,2014,Google Glass enthusiast: It’s not worth the headaches
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