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系統識別號 U0002-1907201714041900
中文論文名稱 個人-組織契合度重要嗎?心理資本、工作價值觀對大專教師組織承諾、生涯滿意度影響之研究
英文論文名稱 Is Person-Organization Fit a Significant Issue? A Research on the Influence of Psychological Capital and Work Values to the Organizational Commitment and Career Satisfaction of the Faculty at Colleges and Universities
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 吳郁芬
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Fen Wu
學號 897620364
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2017-06-14
論文頁數 282頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪英正
委員-陳宥杉
委員-賴明政
委員-楊立人
委員-李文雄
中文關鍵字 心理資本  個人與組織契合度  組織承諾  工作價值觀  生涯滿意度 
英文關鍵字 psychological capital  person-organization fit  organizational commitment  work values  career satisfaction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣處於少子化危機,連帶已影響至高等教育的發展。生源的減少,使得大專教師除本職工作外,另有招生壓力,且學校會因學生數減少而影響其運作。這些情況與危機,造成大專教師在心理層面造成影響,因此本研究以大專教師的以個人-組織契合度為中介變數,探討心理資本與工作價值觀對組織承諾及生涯滿意度的影響。
心理資本是個體將內在的正面、積極的心理本質展現於外的行為,且擁有四項特質-自我效能、樂觀、希望、韌性(Luthans et al., 2004)。組織承諾是指工作者對其企業組織的心理依附(Allen and Mayer, 1991),可分為價值承諾、努力承諾與留職承諾(Porter et al., 1974)、情感性承諾、規範性承諾與持續性承諾(Bhatti,2011)。Kristof (1996)指個人人格特質、信仰、目標、價值觀與組織規範、組織目標及組織價值觀的一致性程度,並提出補充性契合與互補性契合以及供給-需求契合與需要-能力契合。工作價值觀是由個人價值觀產生(Roe and Ester,1999),Ros (1991)並提出內在、外在、社會性與聲望等四種工作價值值觀。生涯滿意則是在不同工作間的發展及升遷有評價及感受(Seibert and Kraimer, 2001),可分成外在與內在兩種觀點。外在生涯滿意度是指將薪資、升遷視為滿足的條件,內在生涯滿意度則是含有認知成份,其影響至生涯非物質性考量,如個人成長、安全感等(Gattiker and Lauris, 1987,Goffnett,Cook,Williams and Gibson,2012)。
本研究以大專教師為研究對象,包括專案與專技教師,採用便利抽樣方式並用網路問卷收集樣本資料。資料收集後採用項目與信度分析、探索型因素分析、驗證型分析及迴歸分析進行統計分析與假設檢驗。
依據329份問卷樣本資料,分析得到的結果如下:
1. 假設1:大專教師心理資本對組織承諾有正向顯著影響。
2. 假設2:大專教師心理資本對個人-組織契合度有正向顯著影響。
3. 假設3:大專教師個人-組織契合度對組織承諾有正向顯著影響。
4. 假設4:大專教師工作價值觀對生涯滿意度有正向顯著影響。
5. 假設5: 大專教師工作價值觀對個人-組織契合度有正向顯著影響。
6. 假設6: 大專教師個人-組織契合度對生涯滿意度有正向顯著影響。
7. 假設7:大專教師心理資本對生涯滿意度有正向顯著影響。
8. 假設8:大專教師工作價值觀對組織承諾有正向顯著影響。
9. 假設9:大專教師個人-組織契合度在心理資本對組織承諾有顯著中介效果。
10. 假設10:大專教師個人-組織契合度在心理資本對生涯滿意度有顯著中介效果。
11. 假設11:大專教師個人-組織契合度在工作價值觀對組織承諾有顯著中介效果。
12. 假設12:大專教師個人-組織契合度在工作價值觀對生涯滿意度有顯著中介效果。
13. 假設13:不同個人與組織變項在心理資本、個人-組織契合度、組織承諾、生涯滿意度、工作價值觀等變項有顯著差異。
研究者依上述假設結果提出實務上建議大學需可依組織的特徵,建立個人-組織契合度評估指標,並將其視為考核一環,並依系所特性、職階建立教師職能基準。此外,建立招聘流程標準與指標以減少學校與應徵者的期望與理念上的落差,以選聘適任的教師。對於在職教師應建立有效能的在職訓練制度,並隨時關注教師之心理狀態。
英文摘要 Taiwan has begun to address the impact of declining birthrates. Low birth rates have a wide range of effects, such as higher education development. Because numbers of high school students are reduced, most college teachers have a recruitment volume quota. In addition, losing original students will affect institutional operation. Thus, the study adopt person–organization fit as a mediator to explore the relations among psychological and work values to organizational commitment and career.
Psychological capital refers to individuals who present intrinsically positive and constructive psychological attributes in their external behavior. It has four components which are self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency (Luthans, et al., 2004). Organizational commitment refers to the psychological attachment that employees have toward their enterprise organization (Allen and Mayer, 1990). Moreover, it can be classified into value commitment, effort commitment, retention commitment (Porter et al., 1974), affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment (Bhatti, 2011). Kristof (1996) proposed person–organization fit as a means of describing the degree to which the values and characteristics of individuals match the culture of organizations. Additionally, person–organization fit is divided into four categories which are supplementary fit, complementary fit, supplies–needs fit and demands–abilities fit. Roe and Ester (1999) argued that three relationships exist between individual values and work values. Ros (1991) proposed four work values which are intrinsic work values, extrinsic work values, social work values, and prestige work values. career satisfaction refers to positive assessment and perception regarding development and promotion at various periods or stages of a career (Seibert and Kraimer, 2001). Career satisfaction can be analyzed according to two perspectives, namely extrinsic and intrinsic. From the extrinsic perspective, salary and promotion are viewed as requisites to satisfaction. However, from the intrinsic perspective, satisfaction is influenced by nonmaterial cognitive factors such as individual growth and sense of security (Gattiker and Lauris, 1987; Goffnett et al., 2012).
In the study, college teachers at various universities, institutes of technology and junior colleges were the research subjects, including project teachers and specialists. This research primarily involved applying a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was issued through the Internet. Convenience sampling was employed in the survey. The origins of the research measures applied are item and reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and regression analysis in order to do statistics analysis and hypothesis verification.
According to 329 valid sample data, the results are shown below:
H1: The psychological capital of college teachers positively influences their organizational commitment.
H2: The psychological capital of college teachers positively influences their person–organization fit.
H3: The person–organization fit of college teachers positively influences their organizational commitment.
H4: The work values of college teachers have a positive influence on their career satisfaction.
H5: The work values of college teachers have a positive influence on their person–organization fit.
H6: The person–organization fit of college teachers has a positive influence on their career satisfaction.
H7: The psychological capital of college teachers positively influences their career satisfaction.
H8: The work values of college and university teachers have a significant influence on their organizational commitment.
H9: The person–organization fit of college teachers has a significant mediating effect on the influence of psychological capital on organizational commitment.
H10: The person–organization fit of college teachers has a significant mediating effect on the influence of psychological capital on career satisfaction.
H11: The person–organization fit of college and university teachers has a significant mediating effect on the influence of work values on organizational commitment.
H12: The person–organization fit of college teachers has a significant mediating effect on the influence of work values on career satisfaction.
The researcher provides practice suggestions in terms of the hypothesis results. Firstly, the institutions can establish person–organization fit assessment indicators based on organizational characteristics. In addition, they can be seen as a part of the assessment. Secondly, establishing an Occupational Competency Standard is a way to reduce the gap of expectation between institutions and applicants in order to hire suitable teachers. Thirdly, the institutions should establish recruitment process standards and indicators. Finally, the institutions should establish an effective system of on-the-job training and monitor teachers’ mental state.
論文目次 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I
ABSTRACT in CHINESE II
ABSTRACT in ENGLISH V
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
LIST OF FIGURES XVI
LIST OF TABLES XVII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background 1
1.1.1 Current situation of higher education in Taiwan 1
1.1.2 Work-related content and requirement of faculties in colleges and universities in Taiwan 3
1.1.3 The crisis facing faculties and higher educational institutions 5
1.2 Research motivations 6
1.3 Research purposes 10
1.4 Research procedure 12
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Psychological capital 13
2.2 Organizational commitment 25
2.3 Person–organization fit 33
2.4 Work values 40
2.5 Career satisfaction 48
2.5.1 Career 48
2.5.2 Career satisfaction 50
2.5.3 Career success 56
2.6 Relations among variables 59
2.6.1 Relation among psychological capital, organizational commitment, and person–organization fit 59
2.6.2 Relation among work values, career satisfaction and person–organization fit 64
2.6.3 Relation among psychological capital, career satisfaction, and person–organization fit 70
2.6.4 Relation among work values, organizational commitment, and person–organization fit 72
2.6.5 Relation among psychological capital, work values, career satisfaction, person–organization fit, and demographic variables 74
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 77
3.1 Research conceptual framework 77
3.2 Research hypotheses 78
3.3 Participant and procedures 79
3.4 Measures 80
3.4.1 Demographics 80
3.4.2 Psychological capital 80
3.4.3 Person–organization fit 81
3.4.4 Organizational commitment 82
3.4.5 Work values 83
3.4.6 Career Satisfaction 83
3.5 Data analysis methods 83
3.5.1 Descriptive statistical analysis 84
3.5.2 Reliability analysis 84
3.5.3 Item analysis 85
3.5.4 Factor analysis 85
3.5.5 Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) 86
3.5.6 Regression analysis 86
3.5.7 Hierarchical regression analysis 86
3.5.8 One-way ANOVA 86
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 89
4.1 Questionnaire collection 89
4.2 Data analysis 89
4.3 Item analysis 100
4.4 Reliability and factor analysis 102
4.4.1 Reliability analysis 102
4.4.2 Exploratory factor analysis 104
4.5 Confirmation factor analysis 113
4.6 Hypothesis verification 117
4.6.1 Regression analysis of the relation of psychological capital and organizational commitment 117
4.6.2 Regression analysis of the effect of psychological capital on person–organization fit 118
4.6.3 Regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on organizational commitment 119
4.6.4 Regression analysis of the relation of work values to career satisfaction 120
4.6.5 Regression analysis of work values to person–organization fit 121
4.6.6 Regression analysis of the relation of person–organization fit to career satisfaction 122
4.6.7 Regression analysis of psychological capital to career satisfaction 123
4.6.8 Regression analysis of work values to organizational commitment 124
4.6.9 Effect of person–organizational fit on the influence of psychological capital on organizational commitment 125
4.6.10 The effect of person-organization fit on the influence of psychological capital to career satisfaction 127
4.6.11 The effect of personal-organizational fit on the influence of work values to organizational commitment 128
4.6.12 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 130
4.6.13 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency in the effect of psychological capital on organizational commitment 131
4.6.14 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency in the effect of psychological capital on organizational commitment 132
4.6.15 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of psychological capital to value commitment 133
4.6.16 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of psychological capital to retention commitment 134
4.6.17 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation between psychological capital and value commitment 136
4.6.18 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of psychological capital to retention commitment 137
4.6.19 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation between psychological capital and value commitment 139
4.6.20 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation between psychological capital and retention commitment 140
4.6.21 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to organizational commitment 141
4.6.22 Mediating effect of person–organization fit in the effect of optimism and hope on organizational commitment 142
4.6.23 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the effect of self-efficacy and reliance on organizational commitment 143
4.6.24 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the effect of self-efficacy and reliance on organizational commitment 144
4.6.25 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to organizational commitment 145
4.6.26 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency in the relation of optimism and hope to organizational commitment 146
4.6.27 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of self-efficacy and reliance to value commitment 147
4.6.28 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of self-efficacy and reliance to retention commitment 148
4.6.29 Mediating effect of person-organization fit on the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 150
4.6.30 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 151
4.6.31 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to value commitment 152
4.6.32 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency in the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to retention commitment 153
4.6.33 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency in the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to value commitment 154
4.6.34 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency in the relation of self-efficacy and reliance to retention commitment 155
4.6.35 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency in the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 156
4.6.36 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 158
4.6.37 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 159
4.6.38 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 160
4.6.39 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 161
4.6.40 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 163
4.6.41 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 164
4.6.42 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of interpersonal identity values to career satisfaction 165
4.6.43 Mediating effect of person–organization fit on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 166
4.6.44 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 167
4.6.45 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 169
4.6.46 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of interpersonal identity values to career satisfaction 170
4.6.47 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of interpersonal identity values to the career satisfaction 171
4.6.48 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 173
4.6.49 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 174
4.6.50 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of psychological capital to career satisfaction 175
4.6.51 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of psychological capital to career satisfaction 177
4.6.52 Mediating effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of work values to organizational commitment 178
4.6.53 Mediating effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of work values to organizational commitment 179
4.7 Difference analysis for demographics between variables 180
4.7.1 Difference analysis for gender between variables 180
4.7.2 Difference analysis for age between variables 181
4.7.3 Difference analysis of marital status between variables 185
4.7.4 Difference analysis of teaching seniority between variables 185
4.7.5 Difference analysis of the highest educational attainment between variables 190
4.7.6 Difference analysis of position between variables 193
4.7.7 Difference analysis of teaching fields between variables 196
4.7.8 Difference analysis of the rank among variables 202
4.7.9 Difference analysis of employment period term between variables 205
4.7.10 Difference analysis between variables of whether institution has dismissed teachers or not renewed their contracts 210
4.7.11 Difference analysis of institution location between variables 211
4.7.12 Difference analysis of institution category between variables 214
4.7.13 Difference analysis of institution type between variables 215
4.7.14 Difference analysis of institution size between variables 218
4.7.15 Difference analysis of the institution age between variables 221
4.7.16 Difference analysis of institution operational status between variables 222
4.7.17 Difference analysis of the average registration rate between variables 225
4.8 Results 228
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS 233
5.1 Conclusions and research implication 233
5.2 Managerial implications 249
5.3 Limitation and implication of future research 251
Reference 253
Questionnaire 276







LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Research procedure 12
Figure 2-1 Various Conceptualizations of Person–Organization Fit 37
Figure 3-1 Research conceptual framework 77


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1- 1 Predicting of the student numbers 2
Table 1- 2 The statistics of total volumes of papers published 9
Table 2- 1 Comparison of Traditional Capital, Human Capital, Social Capital, and Psychological Capital 15
Table 4- 1 Frequency distribution table of demographic variables 94
Table 4- 2 Item analysis of each variable 100
Table 4- 3 Cronbach’s α value of each variables 102
Table 4- 4 KMO of each facet and the Bartlett’s Spherical Verification 106
Table 4- 5 Analysis of psychological capital factors and reliability analysis 107
Table 4- 6 Analysis of person–organization fit factors and reliability analysis 109
Table 4- 7 Analysis of organizational commitment factors and reliability analysis 110
Table 4- 8 Analysis of work values factors and reliability analysis 112
Table 4- 9 Analysis of work values factors and reliability analysis 113
Table 4- 10 Confirmation factor analysis of each facets 114
Table 4- 11 The discriminant validity of each facets 115
Table 4- 12 Regression analysis of the effect of psychological capital on organizational commitment 117
Table 4- 13 Regression analysis of the effect of psychological capital on person–organization fit 118
Table 4- 14 Regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on organizational commitment 119
Table 4- 15 Regression analysis of the relation of work values to career satisfaction 120
Table 4- 16 Regression analysis of the relation of work values to person–organization fit 121
Table 4- 17 Regression analysis of the relation of person–organization fit to career satisfaction 122
Table 4- 18 Regression analysis of psychological capital to person-organization fit 123
Table 4- 19 Regression analysis of psychological capital to person-organization fit 124
Table 4- 20 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on psychological capital and organizational commitment 126
Table 4- 21 Hierarchical regression analysis of person-organization fit impact on psychological capital to organizational commitment 127
Table 4- 22 Hierarchical regression analysis of person-organization fit impact on psychological capital to organizational commitment 129
Table 4- 23 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 130
Table 4- 24 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on psychological capital and organizational commitment 132
Table 4- 25 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation between psychological capital and organizational commitment 133
Table 4- 26 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of psychological capital to value commitment 134
Table 4- 27 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of psychological capital to retention commitment 135
Table 4- 28 Hierarchical regression analysis of value and supply and demand consistency impact on the relation of psychological capital to value commitment 137
Table 4- 29 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation between psychological capital and retention commitment 138
Table 4- 30 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation between psychological capital and value commitment 139
Table 4- 31 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation between psychological capital and retention commitment 140
Table 4- 32 Hierarchical regression analysis of the impact of person–organization fit impact on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to organizational commitment 141
Table 4- 33 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the impact of optimism and hope on organizational commitment 142
Table 4- 34 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the impact of self-efficacy and reliance on organizational commitment 143
Table 4- 35 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the impact of self-efficacy and reliancy on organizational commitment 144
Table 4- 36 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to organizational commitment 146
Table 4- 37 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to organizational commitment 147
Table 4- 38 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of self-efficacy and reliance to value commitment 148
Table 4- 39 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to retention commitment 149
Table 4- 40 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 150
Table 4- 41 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 151
Table 4- 42 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to value commitment 152
Table 4- 43 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to retention commitment 154
Table 4- 44 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to value commitment 155
Table 4- 45 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of self-efficacy and reliancy to retention commitment 156
Table 4- 46 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 157
Table 4- 47 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 159
Table 4- 48 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to value commitment 160
Table 4- 49 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of optimism and hope to retention commitment 161
Table 4- 50 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 162
Table 4- 51 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of work values to career satisfaction 163
Table 4- 52 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 164
Table 4- 53 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of interpersonal identity values to career satisfaction 166
Table 4- 54 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of person–organization fit on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 167
Table 4- 55 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 168
Table 4- 56 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of working condition values to career satisfaction 170
Table 4- 57 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of interpersonal identity values to career satisfaction 171
Table 4- 58 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of interpersonal identity values to career satisfaction 172
Table 4- 59 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of value and supply and demand consistency on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 174
Table 4- 60 Hierarchical regression analysis of the effect of need and capacity consistency on the relation of fame and achievement values to career satisfaction 175
Table 4- 61 Hierarchical regression analysis of value and supply and demand consistency impact on psychological capital to organizational commitment 176
Table 4- 62 Hierarchical regression analysis of value and supply and demend consistency impact on psychological capital to organizational commitment 177
Table 4- 63 Hierarchical regression analysis of value and supply and demand consistency impact on work values to organizational commitment 178
Table 4- 64 Hierarchical regression analysis of need and capacity consistency impact on work values to organizational commitment 179
Table 4- 65 Gender with respect to differences in facets 181
Table 4- 66 Analysis of differences in facets for age 183
Table 4- 67 Analysis of differences of facets for marital status 185
Table 4- 68 Analysis of differences in facets regarding teaching seniority 187
Table 4- 69 Analysis of difference of facets for highest educational attainment 191
Table 4- 70 Analysis of different facets for position 194
Table 4- 71 A analysis of differences in facets for teaching fields 197
Table 4- 72 Analysis of difference in facets for rank 203
Table 4- 73 Analysis of difference in facets for the employment period term 206
Table 4- 74 Analysis of differences in facets for whether an institution had dismissed teachers or not renewed their contracts 210
Table 4- 75 Analysis of differences in facets for location of institution 212
Table 4- 76 Analysis of differences in facets for institution category 214
Table 4- 77 Analysis of differences in facet for school type 216
Table 4- 78 Analysis of differences in facets for institution size 219
Table 4- 79 Analysis of differences in facets for institution age 221
Table 4- 80 Analysis of differences in facets for institution operational status 223
Table 4- 81 Analysis of differences in facets for average registration rate 226
Table 4- 82 Hypotheses results 228
Table 4- 83 Analysis of differences between the variables for demographic variables 230

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