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系統識別號 U0002-1907201115483600
中文論文名稱 中西文化差異對中英文詞彙的影響
英文論文名稱 A Study of How Cultural Differences Influence Chinese-English Collocations
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 李育菱
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Ling Li
學號 696110617
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-13
論文頁數 205頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭岱宗
委員-李本京
委員-李利德
中文關鍵字 文化  語言學  概念化教學大綱  跨文化  詞彙 
英文關鍵字 culture  collocations  cross-cultural pragmatic  notional-functional  syllabus  explicit 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 Whorf理論假說中提出了語言結構塑造抽象概念,並能進一步建構人類世界。因此,透過其假說佐證了一個概念 — 「在同一族群裡,所使用同樣的語言,代表了此特殊次團體」,替實際實驗提供了相當有力的理論基礎。在同樣的假說建構基礎下,每種語言都有其獨特豐富的運作模式。只要屬於相同語言模式運作下的次團體,都會沉浸在不同的自然語言情境之中,此為社會語言及文化框架下交互形成的溝通捷徑。
此研究融合了傳統跨文化語用學以及社會語言學研究方式,採用「提出請求」的語言行為,探討文化以及語言的關係。並進一步針對在台灣以英文為其第二外語的語言學習者其語言使用的實際情況加以研究,並討論與美國當地英語母語人士語言行為的異同。
研究提案涵括了「加強語言課程中的文化了解內容」以及「從社會語言學角度切入」等兩大面向,同時也針對此教學設計問卷調查。接著從融入跨文化語用學理念的教學與研究和量化問卷統計數據分析來觀察,並結合課堂觀察報告、訪談、建構對話等質性分析加以建構論述。在前述方法交互提供佐證下,本研究以文化以及語言的關係為主的教學方式傾向提出以下結論。
教學方式可能促進學習者語言學習動機,並在建立其語言學習的社會語言學感知之長期目標具有增強效果。透過對文化了解課程、社會語言學以及跨文化語用學等三大面向,增加第二語言學習上的正面協助效益,同時也提供了以英語為其外國語言學習者,在語言情境下其溝通能力可能有所缺陷的彌補策略。此研究結果及發現傾向於以下建議,未來英語教學在此相關研究及教學方向下,明確的指引跨文化語言使用上的同異解說教學可能明顯的提高教學效率。

英文摘要 The assumption from the Whorfian Hypothesis that language shapes our world view provides an accurate account of languages use suggests that language, the shaper of ideas, serves as an empirically valid basis for the group of people who speak the language. If such is the case, every language should be a rich system which readily allows learners to overcome any predispositions, such as sociolinguistic and cultural frames. The current study explores this notion by administering a combination of a pilot pragmatic study on requesting in a fireign language and sociolinguistics issues involved in the requesting act on the example of learners of English as a foreign language. The protocol involved participants addressing multiple-choice items after taking a series of cultural understanding courses through sociolinguistics perspective from multi-media material. Statistical analyses of survey responses of nonnative and native speakers and qualitative analyses such as classroom observations, interviews and Discourse Completion Tasks (DCT), with reference to operationalized cross-cultural pragmatic norms, provides tentative evidence that the cultural understanding curriculum regarding English collocations builds learners’ long-term goal in sociolinguistics and hightens intrinsic motivation. The interwoven elements of culture, sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural pragmatic in second language acquisition also compensate for communcative competence setbacks and concerns. The present study results and findings tentatively suggest that explicit cross-cultural pragmatic instruction better facilitates acquisition of English as a foreign language (EFL) than implicit instruction does.

論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
THESIS COVER I
中文摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE 9
INTRODUCTION 9
MOTIVES 9
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS 12
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 13
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 14
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 15
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS 16
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS 17
CHAPTER TWO 18
LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2-1. OVERVIEW 18
2.1.1 Introduction 18
2.1.2 Culture and Language 20
2.1.3 Language Socialization 21
2.1.4 Socio-Cultural Critiques 22
2.1.5. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics Integrated & Sociolinguistics Embedded-Toward the Communicative Competence Concern 23
2.1.6 Brief Research Rationale 25
2-2. CULTURAL BOUND—THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CULTURAL GAP AND LANGUAGE TEACHING 27
2.3 LANGUAGE SOCIALIZATION---GROUNDING THEORY IN CHARGE OF QUALITATIVE SATURATION 30
2.4 SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY— ACTIVITY THEORY— A HISTORY OF FORMATION 32
2.5 SOCIOLINGUISTIC 35
2.5.1 A Dynamic Paradigm 35
2.5.2 Speech Community 38
2.6 CULTURAL CONTEXT—THE KEY TO COMPREHENSION—FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF “COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION PROCESSING” 40
2.7 CROSS-CULTURAL PRAGMATICS & SOCIOLINGUISTICS IN CLASSROOM 41
2.7.1 Overview 41
2.7.2 Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Instruction—Explicit and Implicit 42
CHAPTER THREE 44
METHODOLOGY 44
OVERVIEW 44
3.1 DATA COLLECTION 45
3.1.1 The Research Questions 45
3.1.2 Participants 46
3.2 PROCEDURE 47
3.2.1 Rationale for Research Treatment 47
3.2.2 Some General Considerations 48
3.2.3 The Strategies of Lecture 50
The Lecture Sample: 50
3.3 PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTS 51
3.3.1 Instrument 51
3.3.1.1 Weekly Classroom Lecture and Monthly Conference 51
3.3.1.2 Surveys 52
3.3.1.3 Semi-Structured Interview: 54
3.3.1.4 Interviews/Observational Dialogues 56
3.3.1.5 The Validity and Reliability of the Data Collection Procedure Evaluation 57
3.3.2 Research Treatment 57
3.3.3 Data Analysis Instruments 58
CHAPTER FOUR 60
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60
4.1 SPEECH ACT FROM DISCOURSE COMPLETION TASK 60
4.1.1 Data Analysis 61
4.1.2 Chinese-English Collocations – Table 4.1 66
4.2 CREATIVE DIALOGUE FROM L2 LEARNERS 68
4.2.1 Data Analysis 68
4.3 SUMMARY 71
4.3.1 Participants’ Overall Performance 71
4.3.2 Discussion 73
4.4 CLASSROOM OBSERVATION AND SURVEY 75
4.4.1 Introduction 75
4.4.2 Statistic Outcome 75
4.4.3 Six Categories and Teaching Implications 75
4.4.4 Conclusion and Summary 82
4.4.4.1 Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Awareness 83
4.4.4.2 Language is a System Instead of a Translation 84
4.4.4.3 Teacher’s Instruction Matters 86
CHAPTER FIVE 87
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 87
5.1 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS OF RESEARCH QUESTION 1 88
5.2 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS OF RESEARCH QUESTION 2 89
5.2.1 Commentary 1 – Greetings 90
5.2.2 Commentary 2 – Imitation and Internalization 91
5.3 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS OF MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION 93
5.3.1 Overview 93
5.3.2 Classroom Report 96
5.3.2.1 The Early Two Months 97
5.3.2.2 The Fifth Month 98
5.3.2.3 The Ninth Month 100
5.3.2.4 The Last Period 102
5.3.2.5 After this Program 104
5.3.3 Summary and Conclusion 105
CHAPTER SIX 109
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 109
6.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 109
6.1.1 Introduction 109
6.1.2 Defining the Issue 110
6.1.3 Teaching Cultural Bound Collocations 112
6.1.3.1 Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instructors’ Notional-Functional Syllabi 112
6.1.3.2 Receptive Skill Development 115
6.1.3.2.1 Commentary 1 – Building Connections Meaningfully 116
6.1.3.2.2 Commentary 2 — Learner’s Proficiency Level and Teacher’s Professional Intuition and Knowledge 117
6.2 SUMMARY 119
6.3 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS AND SOME PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 121
6.3.1 Explicit Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Instruction 121
6.3.2 Notional-Functional Syllabus 123
6.3.3 Cross-Cultural Pragmatism and Teachers’ Expertise 124
6.4 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH SUGGESTIONS 126
6.5 CONCLUSION 129
REFERENCES 132
APPENDICES 144
APPENDIX A 144
Research survey 1 from TESOL Program in Taiwan 144
Research survey 2 from TESOL Program in Taiwan 149
APPENDIX B 154
DISCOURSE COMPLETION TASK QUESTIONNAIRE 154
APPENDIX C 157
FIGURES AND STATISTIC RESULT OF THE CATEGORIES 157
APPENDIX D 172
STATISTIC OUTCOME 172

List of Tables
TABLE 2.1 FORMAL AND INFORMAL REQUEST: COMPARISON OF SCALES FROM TWO EFL TEXTBOOKS 36
TABLE 2.2 FORMAL AND INFORMAL REQUEST: COMPARISON OF SCALES FROM TWO EFL TEXTBOOKS 36
TABLE 3.1 KASPER AND DAHL CATEGORIZATION 57
TABLE 4.1 LEARNERS’ POSSIBLE CROSS-CULTURAL ERRORS 66



List of Figures
FIGURE 4.1 PARTICIPANTS’ OVERALL PERFORMANCE-UNDERSTANDING AND CROSS-CULTURAL PAGMATIC APPROPRIATENESS 71
FIGURE 4.2 PARTICIPANTS’ OVERALL PERFORMANCE-EXPRESSING, UNDERSTANDING AND CROSS-CULTURAL PRAGMATIC APPROPRIATENESS 72

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