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系統識別號 U0002-1907201013143600
中文論文名稱 行動隨意網路中以多重中繼點達成路徑探索與修復之研究
英文論文名稱 Route Discovery and Repair Using Multipoint Relaying in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 顏伯勳
研究生英文姓名 Po-Hsun Yen
學號 697450038
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-24
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-莊博任
委員-陳省隆
委員-許獻聰
委員-吳庭育
中文關鍵字 行動無線隨意網路  需求式路由協定  區域修復  多重中繼點 
英文關鍵字 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  On-demand Routing Protocol  Local Repair  Multi-point Relaying 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 行動無線隨意網路(Mobile Ad Hoc Networking)是指由一群具移動性的節點所動態組成的無線網路。此網路不需要如基地台等形式的基礎建設或集中式的管理設備,而是透過網路中的節點互相幫助將資訊繞送至目的端。而在行動無線隨意網路中,路由協定一直是相關研究中的重點項目,因為節點具有移動性,且在頻寬與能源都受到限制的環境下,如何建立理想的封包繞送路徑便成為最重要的課題。
而路由協定中,亦有許多不同的問題需要克服,以需求式的距離向量路由協定AODV為例,路由的探索都是透過濫傳的方式進行,而濫傳所產生的控制封包,往往容易造成網路的壅塞,尤其是在節點數量或是連線數目上升時更為明顯,我們稱這個現象為廣播風暴。除此之外,已建立的路徑常因為節點的移動而損毀,在AODV中是以重新廣播路由探索封包的方式來重建或修補路由,這個做法的修復速度較慢且會耗費更多的控制封包。對於廣播風暴的問題,已有許多方法被提出,如多重中繼點廣播機制,而亦有許多多路徑或區域修復的機制,用來解決路徑損毀的問題,如AOMDV或AODV-ABR。但這些方法中,大部份都只有針對單一的問題進行深究,而未探討如何將廣播機制與路由機制作良好的結合。
因此,在本論文中,將以多重中繼點的廣播機制與2-hop的區域修復機制結合,透過多重中繼點廣播機制減少廣播封包,並利用多重中繼點額外建立的2-hop鄰居表進行有效的區域修復。最後,再與其他利用多重中繼點的路由協定或是多路徑路由協定進行模擬與評估,實驗結果證明本論文所提出的方法,可以有效的修復路由且減少控制封包所消耗的頻寬。
英文摘要 MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networking) is a dynamic wireless network with a group of mobile nodes. This network does not need base stations and other forms of infrastructure or centralized management of devices but to send information to the destination through nodes cooperation of the network. In mobile wireless ad hoc networks, routing protocols research has been the focus of related field, because of node mobility and restriction of the bandwidth and energy. How to create the ideal packet routing path is the most important issue.
There are many problems need to overcome in routing protocol. For example, in on-demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV), route of exploration is through flooding route request packet (RREQ), and the flooding packets often result in network congestion, particularly when the number of nodes or connections increase. We call this phenomenon as the Broadcast storm. In addition, the established path may broke frequently due to mobility. AODV will re-Broadcast route discovery packet to rebuild or repair route, but it is not an efficient way, because this procedure will consume more control packet. There are many methods have been proposed to solve Broadcast storm problem, such as multipoint relaying (MPR). And there are many multi-path or repair scheme to solve the damage issues of path, such as AOMDV or AODV-ABR. However, most of proposed methods are single goal chaser, but neglect of perfect combination of Broadcast scheme and routing repair scheme.
In this thesis, we will combine multi-point relaying Broadcast scheme and 2-hop route repair scheme, through the multi-point relaying Broadcast scheme to reduce Broadcast packet, and use an additional 2-hop neighbor table to repair route. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed protocol can effectively repair the route and reduce bandwidth consumed by control packets.
論文目次 目錄
第一章、緒論 1
1.1、簡介與研究動機 1
1.2、論文架構 5
第二章、相關研究 6
2.1、AODV 6
2.1.1、Route Request 6
2.1.2、Route Reply 8
2.1.3、Route Maintenance 9
2.2、多路徑路由協定 11
2.2.1、AOMDV 11
2.2.2、AODV-BR 13
2.3、區域路由修復機制 15
2.3.1、PATCH 16
2.3.2、AODV-ABR 17
2.3.3、OPTAODV 19
2.4、相關協定之比較 20
2.5、無線隨意網路中的廣播機制 23
2.5.1、廣播問題的特性 23
2.5.2、因為濫傳引起的廣播風暴 24
2.5.3、解決廣播風暴的機制 25
2.5.4、多重中繼點 29
第三章、新協定之提出 33
3.1、基本構想 33
3.2、鄰居表維護 34
3.3、路由探索 38
3.4、路由回覆 43
3.5、路由維護 46
3.6、路由修復 47
第四章、效能評估 63
4.1、模擬環境 64
4.2、模擬結果 67
4.2.1、Packet Delivery Ratio 67
4.2.2、Hop Counts 70
4.2.3、Delay per Hop 79
4.2.4、Control Overhead 85
4.3、總結 93
第五章、結論 95
參考文獻 98

圖目錄
圖1. Propagation of RREQ in AODV 8
圖2.Propagation of RREP in AODV 9
圖3.Propagation of RERR in AODV 10
圖4.Alternate Route of AODV-BR 14
圖5(a).Re-Route of data packet in AODV-ABR 18
圖5(b).Re-Route of data packet in AODV-ABR 18
圖5(c).Re-Route of data packet in AODV-ABR 18
圖6.MPR Set 選擇範例 30
圖7.2-hop鄰居表維護範例 38
圖8.接收RREQ之處理流程 40
圖9. Propagation of RREQ in the Proposed Protocol 42
圖10.接收RREP之處理流程 44
圖11. Propagation of RREP in the Proposed Protocol 45
圖12.路由修復之流程 48
圖13.接收RPRQ之處理流程 53
圖14.RPRQ演算法 54
圖15.RPRP演算法 55
圖16(a).2-hop修復機制修復成功示意圖 56
圖16(b). 2-hop修復機制修復成功示意圖 57
圖16(c). 2-hop修復機制修復成功示意圖 57
圖16(d). 2-hop修復機制修復成功示意圖 57
圖16(e). 2-hop修復機制修復成功示意圖 58
圖17(a). 2-hop修復機制修復失敗示意圖 59
圖17(b). 2-hop修復機制修復失敗示意圖 59
圖17(c). 2-hop修復機制修復失敗示意圖 59
圖17(d). 2-hop修復機制修復失敗示意圖 60
圖18. Average Packet Delivery Ratio (Scenario-1) 67
圖19.Average Packet Delivery Ratio (Scenario-2) 69
圖20.Average Hop Count (Scenario-1) 71
圖21(a).利用多重中繼點廣播機制探索之路徑 73
圖21(b).未利用多重中繼點廣播機制探索之路徑 73
圖22. Average Hop Count (Scenario-2) 75
圖23.Average Hop Count Ratio (Scenario-2) 77
圖24. Average End to End Delay (Scenario-1) 80
圖25. Average Delay per Hop (Scenario-1) 80
圖26. Average Delay per Hop (Scenario-2) 83
圖27. Average End to End Delay (Scenario-2) 84
圖28.Total Control Overhead (Scenario-1) 86
圖29. Control Overhead for MPRDV, MMDV and the Proposed Protocol (Scenario-1) 89
圖30. Total Control Overhead (Scenario-2) 91
圖31. Total Control Overhead in 54Mbps(Scenario-2) 91
圖32. Control Overhead for MPRDV, MMDV and the Proposed Protocol (Scenario-2) 93

表目錄
表1.現有多路徑機制之比較 21
表2.現有路由修復機制之比較 22
表3.Hello Packet Format 35
表4.Hello Type List 35
表5.RREQ Packet Format 39
表6.RREP Packet Format 44
表7(a).RPRQ Packet Format 49
表7(b).RPRP Packet Format 49
表7(c).RPF Packet Format 49
表7(d).RTCH Packet Format 50
表8.RERR Packet Format 51
表9.Summary of Common Parameters Used in Simulation 65
表10. Parameters Used in Scenario 66
表11.各協定模擬結果總結 94
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