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系統識別號 U0002-1907200922164600
中文論文名稱 新穎且有建設性的資料壓縮方案應用於低功耗測試
英文論文名稱 A Novel Constructive Data Compression Scheme for Low-Power Testing
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 李威霖
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Lin Li
學號 696450054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-06-09
論文頁數 87頁
口試委員 指導教授-饒建奇
委員-李建模
委員-梁新聰
委員-饒建奇
中文關鍵字 測試資料壓縮  低功耗測試  可測試設計 
英文關鍵字 Test Data Compression  Low Power Testing  Design for Testability(DFT) 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 隨著超大型積體電路(very large scale integration, VLSI)的設計趨勢演變成系統單晶片(system-on-a-chip, SoC)設計,一顆系統晶片包含了許多可重複使用的矽智財(intellectual property, IP)。為了能夠完整地測試所設計的電路,我們必須事先產生測試時所需要的測試資料,並且將這些測試資料儲存在自動測試機台(automatic test equipment, ATE)的記憶體中。可想而知的是,隨著積體電路(integrated circuit, IC)越來越複雜,測試資料量是非常龐大的,而自動測試機台的通道頻寬與記憶體容量是有限的。如此一來,要將龐大的資料量從自動測試機台的記憶體中透過有限頻寬的通道來傳送到待測電路是有困難的。針對這個問題,測試資料壓縮(test data compression)技術是一個常用的解決方法。這主要的效益不僅能夠減少資料量,更能夠同時達到縮短測試應用時間的效果。在本篇論文中,我們提出兩個測試資料壓縮方案應用於低功耗測試。

在第3章中,我們提出一種低功耗的測試資料壓縮技術,其適用於單一掃描鏈的架構。在本方法中,我們提出一個掃描鏈重新排列的演算法來降低測試功率消耗。此外,我們還提出了一種測試片段差異(test slice difference, TSD)的技術,以減少測試資料量。此技術在硬體的實現上只需要單一個掃描元件(scan cell)。因此,與環狀的掃描鏈(cyclical scan chains, CSR)技術比較,我們所提出的方法具有較高的實用價值。從ISCAS’89測試電路的實驗結果中可以看出,我們所提出的方法能夠得到較高的資料壓縮率。與其它有名的測試資料壓縮技術比較,在測試功率消耗的部分,亦能獲得較佳的結果。

在第4章中,針對多重掃描鏈的測試環境,我們提出一種新穎且有建設性的資料壓縮方案來降低測試資料量,並節省測試時的功率消耗。我們的方法只儲存資料的轉換點資訊於自動測試機台中。並且利用“Read Selector”硬體來過濾掉不需要編碼的資料。本方法的解壓縮器硬體使用緩衝器(buffer)來暫存上一筆資料的狀態。我們還提出一個重新配置多重掃描鏈的演算法,並且提出一個新式的線性相依(linear dependency)計算方法來找出隱蔽的線性相依關係。在測試實例部分,我們使用ISCAS’89測試電路來模擬。在實驗結果中顯示,我們所提出的方法優於selective scan slice encoding。其壓縮率與功率消耗分別改善了57%與77%。
英文摘要 As the design trends of very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit evolve into system-on-a-chip (SoC) design, each chip contains several reusable intellectual property (IP) cores. In order to test the chip completely, we must generate a test set for testing in advance, and store these test patterns in memory of automatic test equipment (ATE). One can imagine that test data volume increases as the integrated circuits (ICs) become complex, yet the bandwidth and memory capacity of ATE is limited. Thus, it is difficult to transmit huge test data from ATE memory to SoC. Test data compression is one of the most often used methods to deal with this problem. This technique not only reduces the volume of test data, but also shortens test application time simultaneously. In this thesis, we present two test data compression scheme for low-power testing.

In Chapter 3, a low power strategy for test data compression scheme with single scan chain is presented. In this method, we propose an efficient algorithm for scan chain reordering to deal with the power dissipation problem. In addition, we also propose a test slice difference (TSD) technique to improve test data compression. It is an efficient technique and only needs one scan cell. Consequently, hardware overhead is much lower than the cyclical scan chains (CSR) technique. In experimental results, our technique achieves high compression ratio for several large ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits. The power consumption is also better compared with other well-known compression technique.

In Chapter 4, we present a novel constructive data compression scheme that reduces both test data volume and shifting-in power for multiple scan chains. In this scheme, we only store the changed point information in ATE and use “Read Selector” to filter unnecessary encoded data. The decompression architecture contains buffers to hold the preceding data. We also propose a new algorithm to assign multiple scan chains and a new linear dependency computation method to find the hidden dependency between test slices. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme respectively outperforms previous method (selective scan slice encoding) by 57% and 77% in test data volume and power consumption on larger circuits in ISCAS’89 benchmarks.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

中文摘要................................................. I
英文摘要............................................... III
Table of Contents........................................ V
List of Figures....................................... VIII
List of Tables.......................................... XI

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................... 1
1.1 Motivation........................................... 1
1.2 Thesis Overview...................................... 2

CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS WORK................... 4
2.1 Preliminaries........................................ 4
2.2 Basic Concepts....................................... 7
2.2.1 Data compression issues............................ 7
2.2.1.1 Filling unspecified.............................. 7
2.2.1.2 Change entropy of the original test data......... 8
2.2.1.3 Scan chain reordering............................ 8
2.2.2 Power dissipation issues........................... 8
2.3 Previous Work....................................... 13
2.3.1 Single scan chain................................. 13
2.3.1.1 Run-Length code and Golomb code................. 13
2.3.1.2 FDR code and VIHC code.......................... 13
2.3.1.3 EFDR code....................................... 14
2.3.1.4 Alternating RL code and RL-Huffman code......... 14
2.3.1.5 Block merging technique......................... 15
2.3.2 Multiple scan chains.............................. 18
2.3.2.1 Selective scan slice encoding................... 18
2.3.2.2 Dictionaries with selective entries and fixed-length indices.......................................... 22
2.3.2.3 Hybrid test data compression method............. 24
2.3.2.4 Three-stage compression approach................ 27
2.3.2.5 Multilayer data copy scheme..................... 31

CHAPTER 3 PROPOSED TEST DATA COMPRESSION
METHOD WITH SINGLE SCAN CHAIN........................... 35
3.1 Test Slice Reordering............................... 35
3.1.1 Method 1.......................................... 36
3.1.2 Method 2.......................................... 36
3.1.3 Method 3.......................................... 38
3.1.4 Method 4.......................................... 38
3.1.5 Test slice reordering algorithm................... 38
3.1.6 Conflict checking................................. 40
3.2 X-filling with Longer Runs.......................... 41
3.3 Test Vector Reordering.............................. 43
3.4 Test Slice Difference (TSD)......................... 43
3.5 TSD Data Encode..................................... 45
3.6 Decompression Architecture.......................... 47
3.7 Experimental Results................................ 49
3.7.1 Proposed TSD and reordering improvement........... 49
3.7.2 Proposed encoding procedure....................... 51
3.3.3 Power dissipation................................. 52

CHAPTER 4 PROPOSED TEST DATA COMPRESSION
METHOD WITH MULTIPLE SCAN CHAINS........................ 57
4.1 Decompression Architecture.......................... 57
4.2 Test Data Compression Scheme........................ 60
4.2.1 Multiple scan chains reconstruction............... 60
4.2.2 Centralized-Filling............................... 63
4.2.3 Linear dependency computation..................... 65
4.2.4 Test slice difference (TSD)....................... 67
4.2.5 Symbol decreasing................................. 67
4.2.6 Encoding by the Interval Length of Ones........... 70
4.3 Experimental Results................................ 72
4.3.1 Proposed encoding procedure....................... 72
4.3.2 Power dissipation................................. 78

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS................................... 81

REFERENCES.............................................. 82


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Fundamental architecture for test data compression.............................................. 2

Figure 2.1 Dynamic power dissipation in a CMOS logic gate.................................................... 10
Figure 2.2 Illustration of manufacturing yield loss..... 12
Figure 2.3 Example of weighted transition count......... 12
Figure 2.4 Example of various schemes (a) initial test vector (b) Run-Length code (c) Golomb code (d) FDR code (e) VIHC code (f) EFDR code (g) Alternating RL code (h) RL-Huffman code............................................ 14
Figure 2.5 Example of block merging technique........... 17
Figure 2.6 The decompression architecture of selective scan slice encoding..................................... 18
Figure 2.7 Example of selective scan slice encoding (a) initial test set (b) X-filling (c) Encoding............. 20
Figure 2.8 The decompression architecture of dictionary-based compression scheme................................ 23
Figure 2.9 Example of grouping the scan chains into several clique.......................................... 24
Figure 2.10 Overall framework of hybrid test data compression method...................................... 25
Figure 2.11 Example of scan chain compaction (a) single scan chain and initial test set (b) conflict graph for scan cells (c) compacted scan chain network............. 25
Figure 2.12 The decompression architecture of hybrid test data compression method................................. 27
Figure 2.13 The encoding procedure of three-stage compression approach.................................... 27
Figure 2.14 The decompression architecture of three-stage compression approach.................................... 28
Figure 2.15 Example of width compression (a) initial test set (b) conflict graph for scan chains (c) compressed test data and the fan-out structure (d) compressed test data and the gated fan-out structure......................... 29
Figure 2.16 Illustration of the decoding architecture (a) decoding architecture (b) switching box (c) switching box implementation (d) multilayer organization.............. 32
Figure 2.17 Example of multilayer data copy scheme...... 33

Figure 3.1 Main steps of the proposed procedure......... 35
Figure 3.2 Example of fundamental definitions........... 36
Figure 3.3 Test slice reordering procedure (a) method 1 (b) method 2 (c) method 3 (d) method 4.................. 37
Figure 3.4 Pseudo-code of the proposed test slices reordering.............................................. 39
Figure 3.5 Example of conflict in group (a) initial test cubes (b) conflict in grouping (c) conflict checking.... 40
Figure 3.6 Pseudo-code of conflict checking............. 41
Figure 3.7 Example of test slices reordering and X-filling (a) initial test data (b) method 1 (c) method 2 (d) method 3 (e) method 4.......................................... 42
Figure 3.8 Example of test vector reordering............ 43
Figure 3.9 The architecture of test vector decompression (a) cyclical scan chain for test vector difference (b) our proposed test slice difference.......................... 44
Figure 3.10 Example of proposed procedure (a) initial test vector set (b) test slice groups (c) scan chain with scan cell inverted (d) X-filling (e) TSG set (f) test vector reordering (g) test slice difference (h) Huffman table (i) encoded data............................................ 46
Figure 3.11 Concept of our test decompression architecture............................................ 48
Figure 3.12 Peak power results (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets...................................... 53
Figure 3.13 Average power results (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets.................................. 54

Figure 4.1 Main steps of the proposed procedure......... 57
Figure 4.2 Decompression architecture (a) overview of test environment (b) detail of “Decompressor”.............. 58
Figure 4.3 Pseudo-code of multiple scan chains reconstruction.......................................... 61
Figure 4.4 Example of scan chains reconstruction (a) initial test cubes (b) TSG and corresponding pre-group (c) component of scan chains (d) test slices data and corresponding pre-scan.................................. 62
Figure 4.5 Example of centralized-filling (a) initial test cubes (b) assign specified bit in those no transition fragment (c) set the same data transition point (d) final filled test data........................................ 64
Figure 4.6 Example of traditional Gauss-Jordan Elimination (a) initial test set (b) general (c) transform into transition matrix (d) result............................ 66
Figure 4.7 Example of TSD (a) initial test set (b) result.................................................. 67
Figure 4.8 Pseudo-code of Symbol decreasing............. 68
Figure 4.9 Example of symbol decreasing (a) initial test set (b) result.......................................... 70
Figure 4.10 Example of encoding process................. 71
Figure 4.11 Variation of encoded data volume with different count-code length for circuit s38584 (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets........................ 71
Figure 4.12 Variation of compression ratio with different internal scan chains (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets............................................... 77
Figure 4.13 Peak power results (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets...................................... 78
Figure 4.14 WTC results (a) MinTest test sets (b) TetraMAX test sets............................................... 79


LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 The encoding rules for block merging technique............................................... 16
Table 2.2 Block size encoding for block merging technique............................................... 18

Table 3.1 Proportion of 1’s in test slice difference and test vector difference (%).............................. 45
Table 3.2 Characteristics of ISCAS’89 test sets........ 49
Table 3.3 Test data volume improvement ratio in MinTest test sets............................................... 50
Table 3.4 Test data volume improvement ratio in TetraMAX test sets............................................... 50
Table 3.5 Compression results in MinTest test sets...... 51
Table 3.6 Compression results in TetraMAX test sets..... 52
Table 3.7 Peak power results............................ 55
Table 3.8 Average power results......................... 56

Table 4.1 Compression results in MinTest test sets...... 73
Table 4.2 Compression results in TetraMAX test sets..... 74
Table 4.3 Comparison of compression results with previous works................................................... 75
Table 4.4 Comparison of compression results with [6] in MinTest test sets....................................... 75
Table 4.5 Comparison of compression results with [6] in TetraMAX test sets...................................... 76
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