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系統識別號 U0002-1907200917535700
中文論文名稱 數位模擬自然紋理於建築設計的過程
英文論文名稱 Encoding Natural Patterns into Architecture
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 江青澤
研究生英文姓名 ching-tse jiang
電子信箱 j831217x@hotmail.com
學號 696360394
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-25
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
指導教授-宋立文
委員-施宣光
委員-江冠勳
中文關鍵字 腳本  衍生  自然紋理  有機紋理  生長規則  参數化設計  程式語言  演算法模擬 
英文關鍵字 Script  Generative  Natural Pattern  Organic Pattern  Growing rule 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本研究探討在數位時代將自然紋理運用於建築設計的可能;在過去,無論是東方或是西方文化經常運用自然紋理的於設計中,其呈現的方式則往往與當時的建築與科學技術相關。在數位科技發達的今天,建築出現了許多新的技術與繪圖方式,許多方便使用的三維繪圖軟體都出現了能供使用者自行編寫腳本的功能,這使得設計者能夠以腳本執行運算,藉由電腦程式語言之助得以入將衍生的概念帶入建築設計中。

本論文架構主要分為四個部分,第一部分探討研究者在生活中個人經驗與自然的關係,另一方面從案例分析與相關建築師的介紹描述當代建築在數位時代下的演變與數位工具之間的關係。

第二部分則是將自然紋理轉化設計模式的操作與實驗,設計主題從金瓜石的廢墟中擷取的六種不同的紋理透過數位工具的協助下進行轉譯與編碼,在整個過程中著重於如何以簡單的規則與關係詮釋自然紋理所提供的訊息,並最後以二維圖像與三維結構呈現結果。而這六種來自廢墟的紋理以自然紋理與有機紋理兩類為主,前者著重於如何再現所見的現象、後者則是著重於生長規則與遭遇限制情況時所呈現參數的改變。每種紋理將以一種主要的規則模式的進行階段性的測試,並從中透過参數化設計方式、電腦程式語言中迴圈與遞規、與演算法來討論如何模擬自然紋理中生長的結構特徵。在此過程中以紋理轉化為主,暫不考慮基地涵構與尺度的正確性,在某個程度上反應了自然紋理的無尺度感。

第三部分則是從第二部分進行延伸,將模擬生長結構與空間之關聯,之後並以建築設計呈現。最後則是討論經過這樣的設計操作過程後所得到的結論與心得,並且提出後續發展的建議以及相關的議題討論。本研究希望藉由以上的實驗與設計,應用電腦程式語言模擬自然與有機紋理的生長模式,探討數位化設計的可行方向。
英文摘要 This research focuses on how to apply nature patterns into architecture design in digital generation. It is apparently found that human always inspired from natural patterns and their performances reflect the technologies and science from different periods. Since the digital techniques have been developed significantly there is a wide range of computational drawing tools for architectural design. Interestingly, except general drawing tools there are some 3D computer graphics programs provide the other approach to design by writing the script. The programming language can represent the concept of “generation” in architectural design. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore how the natural patterns can be employed into architectural design in the digital generation.
This thesis is consisted of four chapters. Firstly, personal experience of nature is discussed, furthermore the evolution of digital architectural design is introduced in order to examine the relationship between design and digital tools.
In the second chapter, an experiment to translate abstract natural patterns into the practical design process is presented. There are six patterns extracted from the ruins, the found messages are translated and encoded by using digital design tools. The results of this experiment are the logic of the translating processes are represented through the combinations of 2D graphics and 3D structures. These six patterns are divided into two groups, one is the natural patterns which represent local phenomena, and the other is the organic patterns which aim to create growing rules and to respond the parametric variations of the growing limitation. Each pattern has one master rule to operate phases test by the parametric design method and apply the concept of For-Loop and Recursion of the programming language and the algorithm to discuss how to simulate the structure from naturally growing characteristics. This experiment is mainly focused on pattern formation, and the site context and scale are not taken into account, In other words, it somehow reflects the non-scaleness of the nature.
The third chapter is to simulate the relation between growing structure and spaces, moreover, the relationships are translated into the architectural design. The final stage is to discuss and conclude the experimental results and give the possibilities for further studies related to the simulation of natural patterns and its growing rules through programming language in architectural design.
論文目次 謝 誌....................................................3
圖表索引..................................................6
Chapter 1 序 論...........................................9
1-1 研究動機........................................10
1-1.1 個人的居住經驗..................................10
1-1.2 三芝的實作經驗..................................11
1-1.3 設計與工具的關係................................11
1-1.4 設計與自然的新關係..............................11
1-1.5 小 結..........................................12
1-2 研究目的........................................13
1-2.1 自然紋理運用於建築的數位操作....................13
1-2.2 關於類自然的建築討論............................13
1-2.3 衍生式設計的嘗試................................13
1-2.4 數位化的生產革命................................14
1-3 研究方法與範圍..................................15
1-4 研究流程........................................16
Chapter 2 相關理論與文獻回顧..............................17
2-1 案例介紹........................................18
2-1.1 蛇形藝廊2002....................................18
2-1.2 聯邦廣場........................................19
2-1.3 水立方..........................................21
2-2 文獻介紹........................................23
2-2.1 胚騰:無所不在的模式............................23
2-2.2 Tooling.........................................24
2-2.3 裝飾的功能......................................24
2-3 Cecil Balmond...................................26
2-3.1 生平介紹........................................26
2-3.2 設計哲學........................................26
2-3.3 高階幾何部門AGU: Advanced Geometry Unit.........27
2-4 渡邊誠MAKOTO SEI WATANABE.......................29
設計理念:誘導城市 Induction City.............29
2-5 自然—數位—人造................................31
2-6 關於自然的幾種特徵..............................32
Chapter 3 廢墟元素的轉化與編碼............................34
3-1 前 言..........................................35
3-2 廢墟中的紋理....................................36
3-3 6種廢墟紋理的編碼...............................37
3-3.1 裂縫 Break......................................39
3-3.2 斑 Spot.........................................44
3-3.3 礦物 mineral....................................53
3-3.4 生根 Rooting....................................58
3-3.5 分枝 Branching..................................63
3-3.6 苔 Spreading....................................70
3-4 小 結..........................................79
自然紋理與數位紋理的轉化......................79
動態關係與設計的變動性........................79
自然結構與數位化結構..........................81
Chapter 4 結論與後續研究..................................83
4-1 編碼與繪圖......................................83
4-2 腳本(script)的意義 ............................. 83
4-3 新思維下的新工具,新工具下的新思維..............84
4-4 類自然建築......................................84
4-5 後續發展方向....................................85
4-5.1 紋理與感官......................................85
4-5.2 自然紋理、CAM構築、建築設計.....................85
4-5.3 形隨邏輯........................................85
参考文獻.................................................86
附 錄...................................................88

圖表索引
圖 1-1.1-1 廢墟裡的菜圃 ................................................................................................................ 10
圖 1-1.1-2 隱沒於山間的廢煙道 ..................................................................................................... 10
圖 1-1.2-1 3RD GENERATION ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................. 11
圖 1-2.3-1 使用RHINO SCRIPT繪製類似蕨類圖形 ............................................................................. 13
圖 2-1.1-1 蛇行藝廊室內 ................................................................................................................ 18
圖 2-1.1-2 設計演算法 .................................................................................................................... 18
圖 2-1.2-1 FEDERATION SQUARE ............................................................................................................ 19
圖 2-1.2-2 基本單元 ........................................................................................................................ 19
圖 2-1.2-3 牆體結構 ........................................................................................................................ 20
圖 2-1.2-4 外牆立面 ........................................................................................................................ 20
圖 2-1.3-1 WATERCUBE ....................................................................................................................... 21
圖 2-1.3-2 氣泡結構設計步驟......................................................................................................... 22
圖 2-2.1-1 胚騰: 無所不在的模式 .................................................................................................. 23
圖 2-2.2-1 TOOLING........................................................................................................................... 24
圖 2-2.3-1 THE FUNCTION OF ORNAMENT ............................................................................................... 24
圖 2-3.1-1 CECIL BALMOND .................................................................................................................. 26
圖 2-4-1 渡邊誠於淡江 ................................................................................................................ 29
圖 2-4-2 城市紋理與葉脈紋理..................................................................................................... 29
圖 3-1-1 透過遞規語法寫成的碎形圖形 ..................................................................................... 35
圖 3-1-2 透過力場作用的METABALL ............................................................................................. 35
圖 3-2-1 第一階段設計分類圖..................................................................................................... 36
圖 3-2-2 有機體與自然紋理對於環境的不同回饋方式 .............................................................. 36
圖 3-3.1-1 碎裂與崩解原型 ............................................................................................................ 39
圖 3-3.1-2 透過参數的控制產生的不同結果 ................................................................................. 39
圖 3-3.1-3 單元組成與程度變化說明 ............................................................................................. 40
圖 3-3.1-4 碎裂牆體 ........................................................................................................................ 40
圖 3-3.1-5 碎裂牆透視 .................................................................................................................... 41
圖 3-3.1-6 碎裂紋裡細部 ................................................................................................................ 41
圖 3-3.1-7 單元組成與程度變化說明 ............................................................................................. 42
圖 3-3.1-8 崩解牆體 ........................................................................................................................ 42
圖 3-3.1-9 崩解牆細部 .................................................................................................................... 43
圖 3-3.1-10 崩解牆透視 .................................................................................................................... 43
圖 3-3.2-1 受溼氣影響的牆面......................................................................................................... 44
圖 3-3.2-2 紋理攫取 ........................................................................................................................ 44
圖 3-3.2-3 HEIGHT FIELD OF IMAGE ........................................................................................................ 45
圖 3-3.2-4 GRASSHOPPER建構流程圖 ................................................................................................ 45
圖 3-3.2-5 單元方格邊長依據與幾何圖像的距離参數決定 .......................................................... 45
圖 3-3.2-6 BITMAP透視 ................................................................................................................... 45
圖 3-3.2-7 BITMAP ............................................................................................................................ 46
圖 3-3.2-8 SET_IMPLYSRF .................................................................................................................... 47
圖 3-3.2-9 OFFSET_PTS ....................................................................................................................... 47
圖 3-3.2-10 網面規則........................................................................................................................ 48
圖 3-3.2-11 C_SRF ............................................................................................................................... 48
圖 3-3.2-12 GET_UNITEDGE .................................................................................................................. 49
圖 3-3.2-13 GEN_MIDPT....................................................................................................................... 49
圖 3-3.2-14 C_ROTATEAXIS .................................................................................................................... 49
圖 3-3.2-15氣孔輪廓位置 ................................................................................................................ 50
圖 3-3.2-16 氣孔輪廓俯視圖 ............................................................................................................ 50
圖 3-3.2-17 單元構成........................................................................................................................ 50
圖 3-3.2-18 皮層地景剖面圖 ............................................................................................................ 50
圖 3-3.2-19皮膚地景透視 ................................................................................................................ 51
圖 3-3.2-20 皮膚地景剖面透視 ........................................................................................................ 51
圖 3-3.2-21 氣孔表皮細部 ................................................................................................................ 51
圖 3-3.2-22皮膚地景 GRASSHOPPER 建構流程圖 ............................................................................... 52
圖 3-3.3-1 露採區石壁 .................................................................................................................... 53
圖 3-3.3-2 硫化銅晶體 .................................................................................................................... 53
圖 3-3.3-3 鍵結力概念圖 ................................................................................................................ 53
圖 3-3.3-4 二維鍵結測試 ................................................................................................................ 54
圖 3-3.3-5 面狀結晶測試 ................................................................................................................ 55
圖 3-3.3-6 晶體結構測試 ................................................................................................................ 56
圖 3-3.4-1 根的蔓延以濃度改變生長方向 ..................................................................................... 58
圖 3-3.4-2 根的蔓延 ........................................................................................................................ 58
圖 3-3.4-3 非導向模式 .................................................................................................................... 59
圖 3-3.4-4 導向模式 ........................................................................................................................ 59
圖 3-3.4-5 非導向測試 .................................................................................................................... 60
圖 3-3.4-6 導向測試 ........................................................................................................................ 60
圖 3-3.4-7 限制條件測試 ................................................................................................................ 61
圖 3-3.4-8 多重限制的情形 ............................................................................................................ 61
圖 3-3.4-9 生根透視圖 .................................................................................................................... 62
圖 3-3.4-10 俯視圖紅色圓圈為障礙範圍 ......................................................................................... 62
圖 3-3.4-11 側視圖可見遭遇障礙時的路徑變化 ............................................................................. 62
圖 3-3.5-1 樹的分枝 ........................................................................................................................ 63
圖 3-3.5-2 遞歸語法 ........................................................................................................................ 63
圖 3-3.5-3 單遞歸圖形 .................................................................................................................... 64

圖 3-3.5-4 雙遞歸圖形 .................................................................................................................... 64
圖 3-3.5-5 樹的分枝模式 ................................................................................................................ 64
圖 3-3.5-6 2D &3D樹的分枝模式 ................................................................................................... 65
圖 3-3.5-7 隨機產生的樹結構......................................................................................................... 65
圖 3-3.5-8 限制條件假設 ................................................................................................................ 66
圖 3-3.5-9 2D & 3D線性限制測試 ................................................................................................... 66
圖 3-3.5-10 多項限制條件假設 ........................................................................................................ 67
圖 3-3.5-11 3D限制條件測試 ......................................................................................................... 67
圖 3-3.5-12 廢墟的外觀與室內 ........................................................................................................ 68
圖 3-3.5-13 樹狀結構置入廢墟後剖面圖(A-A) ................................................................................. 68
圖 3-3.5-14 廢墟外透視 .................................................................................................................... 69
圖 3-3.5-15 廢墟內透視 .................................................................................................................... 69
圖 3-3.5-16 樹狀結構置入廢墟後剖面圖(B-B) ................................................................................. 69
圖 3-3.6-1 苔癬的蔓延 .................................................................................................................... 70
圖 3-3.6-2 細胞自動機運算規則 ..................................................................................................... 71
圖 3-3.6-3 苔的組織運算規則的8種可能 ..................................................................................... 72
圖 3-3.6-4 RULE BINARY=00010010..................................................................................................... 72
圖 3-3.6-5 RULE BINARY=00011110..................................................................................................... 73
圖 3-3.6-6 RULE BINARY=00011010..................................................................................................... 73
圖 3-3.6-7 均質與非均質分佈......................................................................................................... 74
圖 3-3.6-8 二維CA定義範圍與概念............................................................................................... 74
圖 3-3.6-9 圓圈的大小因世代數的增加而遞減 .............................................................................. 75
圖 3-3.6-10 在單元上可見鮮苔生存與死亡的情形 ......................................................................... 75
圖 3-3.6-11 從G1到G10的擴散情形 ............................................................................................. 75
圖 3-3.6-12 G1到G50 ..................................................................................................................... 75
圖 3-3.6-13 G50 ............................................................................................................................... 76
圖 3-3.6-14 生長點的運算規則 ........................................................................................................ 77
圖 3-3.6-15 生長點與連結 ................................................................................................................ 77
圖 3-3.6-16 6個隨機運算的蔓延塔 ................................................................................................ 77
圖 3-3.6-17 蔓延塔 ........................................................................................................................... 78
圖 3-4-1 3DS MAX/ANIMATION/WIRE PARAMETERS................................................................................. 79
圖 3-4-2 RHINOCEROS 4.0/ GRASSHOPPER6.0....................................................................................... 79
圖 3-4-3 設計分類 ........................................................................................................................ 81
參考文獻 英文書籍
1. Aranda/Lasch著;《Tooling》;2006; New York; Princeton Architectural Press
2. Ferre, Albert 著;《Verb Nature》;2005;New York; ACTAR-D
3. Farshid Moussavi 著;《The Function of Ornament》;2006; Harvard University
4. Reiser + Umemoto 著;《Atlas of novel tectonics》;2006; New York ;Princeton Architectural
5. Steve Hardy 著;《Environmental Tectonics: From Climatic Change》;2008; London;Architectural Associasion
6. Tomoko Sakamoto 著;《From Control to Design》;2007;New York; ACTAR-D

中文書籍
1. Cecil Balmond 著;《Informal 異規》;李寒松 譯;2008中國建築工業出版社
2. 韋德/艾希頓 著;《胚騰:無所不在的模式》;蔡承志 譯;2004;天下遠見出版
3. 吉田信之 著;《A+U: Cecil Balmond塞西爾.巴爾蒙德》;馬衛東 譯;2008;中國電力出版社
4. 何炯德 著;《Responsive Volatility 活潑建築》;2008;台北;田園出版社

中文論文
李京翰;《非單調之中介表面》;2006;淡江碩士論文
陳科吉;《有機建築在電腦輔助設計下的建築設計操作》;2000;淡江碩士論文
翁偉珍;《以廢墟為媒介之自然與人造的對話》;2006;淡江碩士論文
鐘享恆;《廢墟集》;2008;東海碩士論文

参考網站:
000studio:
http://www.000studio.com/main/works.php?id=1
Architecture Reserch Laboratory:
http://tedngai.net/experiments.html
D-O-F
http://web.me.com/rhino3dtv/GH/GH.html
Designalyze
http://www.designalyze.com/
Design Tooling:
http://www.designexplorer.net/designtooling/inetpub/wwwroot/index.html
DesignReform:
http://designreform.net/
Digital Design Media
http://community.nus.edu.sg/ddm/index.php?q=node/77
ReThink Architecture
http://rethinkarchitecture.blogspot.com/2008/08/scripting-function-library.html
Rhinoceros新聞部落格
http://blog.tw.rhino3d.com/search/label/RhinoScript
RhinoScripting Resources
http://rhinoscriptingresources.blogspot.com/
Kokkugia:
http://www.kokkugia.com/
Grasshopper blog:
http://www.grasshopper3d.com/
MAKOTO SEI WATANABE:
http://www.makoto-architect.com/idc2000/index2.htm
MATSYS
http://www.materialsystems.org/
Scripting and Computational Geometry:
http://dritsas.jeneratiff.com/scripting/scripting_book.html
The Grasshopper Primer_Second Edition.pdf
http://www.liftarchitects.com/storage/research/Grasshopper%20Primer_Second%20Edition_090323.pdf
UN didi
http://dimitrie.wordpress.com/
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