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中文論文名稱 不同程度大一英文系學生聽力策略使用及其信念之個案研究
英文論文名稱 Listening Strategy Use: A Case Study of Two High-proficiency and Two Low-proficiency English Majors
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 周宗毅
研究生英文姓名 Tsung-Yi Chou
電子信箱 gabemail93@yahoo.com.tw
學號 692010134
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-25
論文頁數 77頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃月貴
委員-張雅慧
委員-葉錫南
中文關鍵字 學習策略  聽力策略 
英文關鍵字 learning strategies  listening strategies 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 此研究旨在探索高、低英文程度學生的聽力使用策略,其方向有三:一、高程度組與低程度組各如何使用聽力策略;二、兩組之間在聽力策略使用上是否有相似性或差異性;三、學生們選擇使用某些聽力策略的背後因素為何。

研究者根據淡江大學英文系大一新生模擬托福成績選了四位大一英文系女學生作為受測對象;其中兩位為高程度學生,另外兩位為低程度學生。主要研究工具為think-aloud protocol,配合聽力策略使用問卷,作為分析時的比對。每位受測者先填寫問卷後才進入think-aloud的步驟;其中有兩篇英文文章,受測者在聽完一次後,開始說出剛剛聽到什麼訊息以及如何聽懂該訊息、使用哪些策略;所有的過程都有錄音,並騰成文字敘述,作為分析時使用。

分析的主要依據有三:一、由上而下的策略;二、由下而上的策略;三、後設認知策略。研究結果發現無論受測者屬於哪種程度,「由上而下」及「後設認知」兩種策略均被使用。在「由下而上」策略中,只有母語逐字翻譯策略被使用,其中以兩位較低程度受測者使用的最頻繁,而且兩位較低程度受測者也表明英語聽力的最大障礙源自「字彙知識不足」及「沒有經常接觸英語聽力」。除了文章大意理解,本研究也發現字彙知識及經常接觸英語聽力在教學上的重要性。最後,研究者也針對未來相關研究方向提出見解。
英文摘要 This study aims to explore English listening strategy use between two pairs of high- and low-proficiency learners. Three areas are addressed: 1) listening strategies between the two pairs, 2) in what way are the two pairs different or similar in listening strategy choice, and 3) participants’ beliefs about choosing certain listening strategies over others.

Participants were four female English majors enrolled in a freshmen listening course at Tamkang University. Two were high proficient; the other two were low proficient. The primary instruments include two lectures, interviews via think-aloud protocols, and listening strategy questionnaire. Participants first filled out the questionnaire before working on the think-aloud protocols. They listened to two recorded English lectures followed by reporting verbally what and how they had comprehended the lectures. All the verbal productions were tape-recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis.

Three listening strategy categories were used as the measure for analysis—top-down, bottom-up and metacognitive strategies. The results indicated that all four participants, despite their different language proficiency levels, demonstrated the use of top-down and metacognitive strategies. The less proficient pair, in particular, reported a greater reliance on translation and word-by-word decoding strategies. Moreover, the less proficient pair considered deficiency in vocabulary knowledge and limited exposure to natural speech two stumbling blocks to listening comprehension. Such findings highlight the importance of contextual clues, vocabulary knowledge and constant exposure to natural speech in consolidating students’listening abilities. Suggestions for future studies were also proposed.
論文目次 CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………….. …….i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………. …….ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………….. …….iii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….. …….v

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation……………………………………………… .1
1.2 Statements of the Problem………………………………………………... .2
1.3 Purpose of this Study……………………………………………………... .3
1.4 Research Questions………………………………………………………. .3
1.5 Significance of this Study………………………………………………… .3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical Development of Language Learning Strategy Research………. .5
2.1.1 1970s: Good language learner studies……………………………. .. .5
2.1.2 1980s: Empirical studies ………………………………………..….. .6
2.1.3 1990s: Strategy inventory (Oxford’s SILL) …………………….….. .7
2.2 Role of Listening in Language Acquisition/Learning……………………. .8
2.2.1 Role of listening in first language acquisition (FLA) …………..….. .9
2.2.2 Role of listening in second language acquisition (SLA) ……….….. .9
2.2.3 Studies on the importance of listening…………………………….. .10
2.3 How Humans Process Speech…………………………………………… .11
2.4 Previous Studies on Second/Foreign Language Listening Strategy Use... .14
2.4.1 Cognition in listening strategy…………………………………….. .14
2.4.2 Metacognition in listening strategy……………………………….. .16
2.4.3 Relationship between proficiency level and listening strategy use in ESL context……………………………………………………..….. .17
2.4.4 Relationship between proficiency level and listening strategy use in EFL context……………………………………………………..….. .18
2.5 Role of Think-aloud Protocols ………………………………………….. .20

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Participants……………………………………………………………… .23
3.2 Instruments……………………………………………………………… .23
3.3 Procedures………………………………………………………………. .25
3.4 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………. .27


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Student Profiles…………………………………………………………. .30
4.2 Findings to Research Question #1………………………………………. .32
4.2.1 Jing’s listening behaviors …………………………………………..33
4.2.2 Eva’s listening behaviors …………………………………………...35
4.2.3 Lilia’s listening behaviors ………………………………………….37
4.2.4 Tiffany’s listening behaviors……………………………………… .39
4.3 Findings to Research Question #2………………………………………. .41
4.4 Findings to Research Question #3………………………………………. .44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION
5.1 Summary………………………………………………………………… .47
5.2 Implications for Teaching Listening…………………………………….. .48
5.3 Conclusion and Limitations……………………………………………... .50
5.4 Suggestions for Future Studies …………………………………………...50

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………… .52

APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………. .58
APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………. .59
APPENDIX C……………………………………………………………………….. .61
APPENDIX D……………………………………………………………………….. .62
APPENDIX E………………………………………………………………………... 63
APPENDIX F……………………………………………………………………….. .67
APPENDIX G………………………………………………………………………. .68

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 Listening strategy classification...................................................................... .28
2 Student profile (low-proficiency participants)………………………………. .31
3 Student profile (high-proficiency participants)……………………………… .31
4 A comparison of high- and low-proficiency participants’ listening behaviors (listening strategy questionnaire vs. think-aloud protocol)…………………. .32

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