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系統識別號 U0002-1907200716024300
中文論文名稱 三葉片機械心瓣的設計準則
英文論文名稱 Design Criteria for the Trileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 黃仁宏
研究生英文姓名 Ren-Hong Huang
學號 690340103
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-25
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 指導教授-盧博堅
指導教授-劉昭華
委員-陳炤彰
委員-劉佳興
委員-張正興
中文關鍵字 心臟瓣膜  心瓣  人工瓣  機械心瓣  三葉片心瓣 
英文關鍵字 heart valve  valve prosthesis  prosthetic heart valve  artificial heart valve  trileaflet heart valve 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 本研究的目的是設計出一個理想的人工心瓣。雖然人工心瓣發展已經超過半個世紀,但目前臨床上所使用的機械心瓣還是存在血栓與溶血等缺點,而生物心瓣卻有不耐用的問題。本文利用分析各種三葉片機械心瓣的專利和相關文獻,進而提出全新的改良設計。新設計的葉片與環座是完全以自由曲面所建構而成,外形平順完整而沒有突出的支架,具有圓滑的轉軸,使葉片能夠靈活地轉動。
然後以鈦合金製作實驗原型,提供實驗團隊進行體外流場實驗分析,以驗證新設計的流場性能表現與發展可行性。然後根據新設計的概念,提出美國專利申請,作為後續發展三葉片機械心瓣的基礎。
根據實驗原型的設計經驗,以全面的觀點來探討三葉片心瓣設計所可能遇到的問題與解決策略,歸納成初步的設計準則,提供後續研究人員作進一步的深入分析與討論。
英文摘要 The main objective of the thesis is trying to design the optimal heart valve prosthesis. Since 1952, when the first artificial heart valve was implanted in a human, cardiac surgeons have been looking for a perfect heart valve prosthesis. Currently, there are two major types of valve prostheses used clinically. Patients with mechanical valves require consistent anti-coagulation therapy to prevent complications like thrombosis and hemolysis. Biological valves have much less durability than mechanical valves.
This thesis presents the completely redesigned mechanical heart valve from patent analysis. The novel trileaflet mechanical heart valve may have a capability to provide excellent valve durability and hemodynamics. The leaflets and ring are totally created by freeform surface modeling. The streamline shape design provides advantage of fluid dynamic and improves washing of the hinge regions that minimize blood clotting tendencies. Leaflets can rotate freely without much friction, but does not wobble.
According to the experience in prototype design, we provide the design critera of the trileafet mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, we have applied for a patent on the new trileaflet heart valve. The design concept was therefore adopted as the basis for the further study and development.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 研究內容與方法 5
第2章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 人工心瓣的發展 6
2.2 專利分析 7
2.2.1 Bokros的三葉片心瓣設計 13
2.2.2 Lapeyre的三葉片心瓣設計 14
2.2.3 Otto的三葉片心瓣設計 16
2.2.4 Sievers的三葉片心瓣設計 19
2.2.5 Lentell的三葉片心瓣設計 20
2.3 心瓣產品的風險 23
第3章 設計演化 24
3.1 一號心瓣-三角圓端 24
3.2 二號心瓣-倒鉤箭頭 28
3.3 三號心瓣-箭頭 31
第4章 設計概念 34
4.1 心瓣的組成 34
4.1.1 葉片的特徵 35
4.1.2 環座的特徵 36
4.2 葉片的設計 36
4.3 轉軸的設計 40
4.3.1 軸孔的形狀 40
4.3.2 轉軸位移設計 44
4.3.3 軸孔血塊附著的問題 45
4.4 心瓣的組裝 47
4.5 心瓣葉片的接觸角 53
4.6 葉片下游嚙合的錯位 53
第5章 結論與建議 57
5.1 設計準則 57
5.2 階段發展策略 58
5.3 未來展望 60
參考文獻 61
  
  
圖目錄
圖1-1 心瓣解剖圖[1] 1
圖1-2主動脈心瓣展開解剖圖[1] 2
圖1-3 Hufnagel球閥人工心瓣[2] 3
圖1-4 St. Jude Medical Regent?雙葉片機械心瓣[3] 3
圖1-5 St. Jude Medical Biocor?生物心瓣[3] 4
圖1-6研究流程 5
圖2-1機械心瓣的種類[4] 6
圖2-2 Bokros一號三葉片心瓣[10] 13
圖2-3 Bokros二號三葉片心瓣[11] 13
圖2-4 Lapeyre一號三葉片心瓣[12] 14
圖2-5 Lapeyre二號三葉片心瓣[13] 15
圖2-6 Lapeyre三號三葉片心瓣[14] 15
圖2-7 Lapeyre三號三葉片心瓣[15] 15
圖2-8 Otto一號三葉片心瓣原型[16] 16
圖2-9 Otto三葉片心瓣流場示意圖[17] 17
圖2-10 Otto一號三葉片心瓣[18] 17
圖2-11 Otto二號三葉片心瓣[19] 17
圖2-12 Otto二號三葉片心瓣原型(閉合)[20] 18
圖2-13 Otto二號三葉片心瓣原型(開啟)[20] 18
圖2-14 Otto二號三葉片心瓣鈦合金原型[21] 18
圖2-15 Sievers早期設計的三葉片心瓣上視圖[22] 19
圖2-16 Sievers早期設計的三葉片心瓣[22] 19
圖2-17 Sievers反向三葉片心瓣[23] 20
圖2-18 Sievers反向三葉片心瓣葉片[23] 20
圖2-19 Lentell一號三葉片心瓣[24] 21
圖2-20 Lentell二號三葉片心瓣[25] 21
圖2-21 Lentell三葉片心瓣原型[26] 21
圖2-22 Lentell三葉片心瓣植入原型[27] 22
圖2-23接受三葉片機械心瓣置換的第一人[27] 22
圖3-1顏廉育的三葉片心瓣設計[35] 24
圖3-2圓滑外形的葉片 25
圖3-3一號心瓣上游視圖 26
圖3-4一號心瓣鞍型軸孔 26
圖3-5葉片旋轉置入示意圖 27
圖3-6葉片開啟時的轉軸位置 28
圖3-7二號心瓣的上游正視圖 29
圖3-8二號心瓣的葉片 29
圖3-9箭頭[36] 30
圖3-10二號心瓣的下游視圖 30
圖3-11二號心瓣的上游視圖 31
圖3-12三號心瓣的葉片 31
圖3-13葉片側角用於葉片關閉定位 32
圖3-14三號心瓣的下游視圖 32
圖3-15三號心瓣設計原型 33
圖3-16三號心瓣設計原型開啟狀 33
圖4-1三葉片心瓣 34
圖4-2葉片的特徵 35
圖4-3環座的特徵 36
圖4-4葉片關閉與開啟的角度 37
圖4-5葉片轉軸角度 37
圖4-6葉片弧線與外側流孔面積 38
圖4-7葉片開啟的停靠面 38
圖4-8葉片上游嚙合線 39
圖4-9環座軸孔的形狀 40
圖4-10葉片凹口側面的轉動範圍 41
圖4-11葉片旋轉軸的位移 41
圖4-12軸孔深淺與轉軸接觸角 42
圖4-13軸孔的空間差異 42
圖4-14葉片轉軸形狀的差異 43
圖4-15 Lapeyre心瓣的外形比較圖[38] 44
圖4-16葉片轉軸位移示意圖 45
圖4-17軸孔蟲洞的心瓣設計 46
圖4-18軸孔蟲洞的示意圖 46
圖4-19壓縮環座示意圖 47
圖4-20葉片旋轉置入軸孔示意圖 48
圖4-21轉軸形狀對組裝間隙的影響 49
圖4-22壓縮環座的三爪夾頭 49
圖4-23葉片軸距量規 50
圖4-24均勻厚度的環座 50
圖4-25縮小的環座內側嚙合面 51
圖4-26 ATS Open Pivot?心瓣環[40] 51
圖4-27碳環座與鈦強化箍環 52
圖4-28葉片上游嚙合面的間隙示意圖 52
圖4-29接觸角示意圖 53
圖4-30心瓣關閉時下游邊的間隙 54
圖4-31下游邊的錯位 54
圖4-32嚙合面的分類 55
圖4-33葉片下游嚙合面的復位機制 56
圖4-34虹膜式光圈簾[42] 56
表目錄
表2-1專利檢索條件的設定 9
表2-2三葉片機械心瓣的美國專利 10
表2-3技術功效矩陣表 12
表5-1 SWOT 矩陣策略表[43] 58
表5-2三葉片機械心瓣的SWOT分析[43] 59
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