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系統識別號 U0002-1907200613414100
中文論文名稱 H.264/AVC畫面內預測編碼快速模式決策機制
英文論文名稱 Fast Intra Prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC Standard
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 鄧才源
研究生英文姓名 Tsai-Yuan Teng
學號 793190124
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-09
論文頁數 63頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-陳德勝
委員-王英宏
委員-江正雄
中文關鍵字 H.264/AVC視訊編碼標準  畫面內預測 
英文關鍵字 H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard  Intra Prediction 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 H.264/AVC是目前已發展完成並且壓縮率最高的視訊編碼標準,它支援Intra_16×16、Intra_4×4的亮度區塊(Luminance)及Intra_8×8的色彩區塊(Chrominance)做畫面內預測編碼。H.264/AVC利用相鄰的畫素間的相關性,以減少I畫面的資料量,以達到壓縮目的。
這些區塊對於所有可能的預測模式,逐一的運算會增加龐大的計算量。因此為了要降低畫面內預測編碼的運算複雜度,本論文提出H.264/AVC畫面內預測編碼快速模式決策機制降低編碼所需的時間。本論文所提出的演算法主要是針對4×4亮度區塊,可以達成目的而不必逐一計算九種模式的預測。實驗的結果顯示,本論文所提出的演算法,可以有效地降低運算複雜度,同時也可以維持畫面品質。
英文摘要 H.264/AVC video coding standard is the newest and most efficient coding standard currently available. H.264/AVC enables Intra_4×4, Intra_16×16 for luminance (Luminance) blocks and Intra_8×8 for chrominance (Chrominance) blocks intra prediction. H.264/AVC utilizes the relationship between neighboring pixels to reduce data in I frames so as to reach the goal of compression.
It increases a lot of computational loading to calculate each possible prediction mode for every intra block. For reducing the computational complexity of intra prediction, we propose a Fast Intra Prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC standard to save the time for intra prediction. The main idea of the algorithm we proposed is to reach the goal of Intra_4×4 without full calculating of all the 9 possible prediction modes. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only reduce the computing complexity effectively, but also maintain the video quality at the same time.
論文目次 目錄

中文摘要.....................................................I
英文摘要....................................................Ⅱ
目錄........................................................Ⅲ
圖目錄......................................................Ⅵ
表目錄......................................................Ⅷ
第一章 緒論.................................................1
1.1 前言...................................................1
1.2 研究動機...............................................2
1.3 論文架構...............................................3
第二章 視訊壓縮標準簡介.....................................4
2.1視訊壓縮簡介...........................................4
2.2 H.264/AVC視訊壓縮標準簡介.......................6
2.2.1 色彩取樣.........................................9
2.2.2 H.264/AVC影像格式階層架構.......................11
2.2.3 Slice的編碼模式...................................13
2.2.4畫面間預測(Inter Prediction) .........................16
2.2.5 離散餘弦轉換(Discrete Cosine Transform, DCT) ...18
2.2.6量化(Quantization) ..............................20
2.2.7 Zigzag掃瞄(Zigzag Scan).......................23
2.2.8 Entropy Coding..................................24
2.2.9 去區塊濾波器(De-blocking Filter)...................25
第三章 畫面內預測編碼......................................26
3.1 Intra_4×4..............................................27
3.2 Intra_16×16............................................36
3.3 Intra_8×8............................................38
3.4畫面內預測模式標誌....................................39
第四章 畫面內預測編碼快速模式決策演算法....................40
4.1畫面內預測編碼的重要特性..............................41
4.2畫面內預測編碼快速模式決策機制........................42
第五章 模擬結果與討論......................................49
5.1 環境參數與所使用的視訊樣本 ..........................49
5.2 運用快速畫面內預測模式決策演算法之效果...............51
第六章 結論與未來展望......................................56
6.1 結論.................................................56
6.2 未來展望.............................................56

參考文獻.................................................58














圖目錄

圖2.1 H.264/AVC編碼器........................................8
圖2.2 H.264/AVC解碼器........................................8
圖2.3 YCbCr 4:2:0、4:2:2及4:4:4取樣模式........................10
圖2.4 一個 巨區塊YCbCr4:2:0示意圖...........................11
圖2.5巨區塊分割示意圖.......................................12
圖2.6 8×8 區塊分割示意圖.....................................12
圖2.7 SI slice.................................................14
圖2.8 SP slice................................................15
圖2.9 多重參考畫面移動向量示意圖.............................17
圖2.10 適用於8×8區塊Frame與Field編碼的Zigzag掃瞄...........23
圖2.11 適用於4×4區塊Frame與Field編碼的Zigzag掃瞄...........24
圖3.1標示預測區塊的畫素.....................................28
圖3.2標示編碼區塊及相鄰的區塊...............................28
圖3.3 Intra_4×4的9種預測模式的方向...........................29
圖3.4 標示4×4區塊的X、Y軸................................30
圖3.5採取畫面內預測編碼的4×4 區塊..........................35
圖3.6預測區塊及相對應的SAE值.............................35
圖3.7 Intra_16×16的四種預測模式..............................36
圖3.8 Intra_16×16 及相鄰畫素..................................37
圖3.9 Intra_16×16四種預測模式及SAE值.......................37
圖4.1 兩個方向的Sobel Operators...............................41
圖4.2 Intra_4×4 八種預測模式的方向............................41
圖4.3畫面內預測編碼區塊.....................................43
圖4.4 優先預測的模式........................................44
圖4.5 Intra_4×4快速模式決策流程圖............................47
圖4.6 45度角判斷決策........................................48
圖 5.1 測試編碼的視訊串流....................................50
圖 5.2 QP=28時,不同畫面內預測編碼演算法之編碼後畫面比較.....54











表目錄

表 2.1 量化表...............................................21
表 2.2 相對位置的後續刻度因素 (Post-scaling Factor, PF)...........22
表 5.1 各個視訊串流的畫面張數................................49
表 5.2 實驗數據結果..........................................52
表 5.3 FIPMDA與Pan’s Method之比較..........................55
參考文獻 參考文獻

[1] I. E.G. Richardson, H.264 and MPEG-4 video compression, Wiley, 2003.
[2] 郭其昌/工研院電通所, “H.264先進視訊編解碼標準”, http://www.dvo.org.tw/publication/20050403.html
[3] I. E. G. Richardson, “H.264/MPEG-4 part-10 White Paper,” http://www.vcodex.com , 2002.
[4] B. Meng and O. C. Au, “Fast intra-prediction mode selection for 4×4 blocks in H.264,” in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. 3, pp. 389-392, 2003.
[5] B. Meng, and O. C. Au, C.-W. Wong, and H.-K. Lam, “Efficient intra-prediction algorithm in H.264,” in Proceedings of 2003 International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 837-840, 2003.
[6] F. Pan, X. Lin, S. Rahardja etc. “Fast intra mode decision algorithm for H.264/AVC video coding,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 781-784, 2004.
[7] Gang-yi Jiang, Shi-ping Li, Mei Yu, Fu-cui Li, “An efficient fast mode selection for intra prediction,” in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Workshop for VLSI Design & Video Tech, pp. 257-360, 2005
[8] T. Wiegand, G. J. Sullivan, G. Bjontegaard, and A. Luthra, “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 560-576, 2003.
[9] C. G. Rafael, E. W. Richard, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2002
[10] Mathias Wien,“Variable block-size transforms for H.264/AVC,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 604-613, 2003.
[11] Markus Flierl and Bernd Girod, “Generalized B pictures and the draft H.264/AVC video-compression standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 587-597, 2003.
[12] “Study of final committee draft of joint video specification (ITU-T Rec. H.264|ISO/IEC 14496-10 AVC),” JVT-F100, 6th Meeting; Awaji Island, JP, 5-13 December, 2002 advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services, ITU-T Recommendation H.264, 2003.
[13] Joint Video Team (JVT), Reference Software JM9.0, http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/download/
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