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系統識別號 U0002-1907200516465600
中文論文名稱 不同進料組成對沉浸式薄膜過濾系統性能之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on the Performance of Submerged Membrane Filtration with Different Feed Composition
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程與材料工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 李日瑋
研究生英文姓名 Zeh-Wae Lee
電子信箱 u6360257@yahoo.com.tw
學號 692361115
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-06-07
論文頁數 112頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭東文
委員-葉和明
委員-蔡少偉
中文關鍵字 沉浸式薄膜  傾斜  通氣  濃度極化 
英文關鍵字 Submerged Membrane  Inclination  Aeration  Concentration Polarization 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究是探討在不同的操作參數下沉浸式薄膜過濾系統其過濾系統之表現。 其中操作參數包括溶質種類、濃度和組成,薄膜模組之傾斜角,薄膜種類,曝氣量,透膜壓差,與間歇式操作的運用。在固定壓差法下,利用實驗中各參數的變化來獲得濾速對時間的變化。實驗結果顯示:各實驗系統在曝氣為零的情況下濾速衰退的情況非常快且容易達到與壓差無關的臨界濾速,而曝氣不為零的情況下,在溶質為Dextran T500的系統中,在100k MWCO薄膜中少量曝氣即可以達到與大量曝氣同樣減緩濾速快速衰退的情形,而在500k MWCO 薄膜中不同的曝氣量有著較顯著的不同之濾速提升情形。溶質為PMMA顆粒的系統下,在100k MWCO薄膜中曝氣量的多寡對濾速影響並不明顯且其濾速值與純水濾速相近,而在500k MWCO薄膜中濾速有著比在Dextran T500溶質系統中曝氣有著更明顯的影響。在Dextran T500與PMMA顆粒混合溶液中,溶質比例的不論如何變化,即使在提升大顆粒的附著性系統中(PMMA顆粒濃度高達7.5 kg/m3),其濾速行為仍然與只有Dextran T500溶質系統的濾速行為相近。薄膜傾斜角度的變化(900-1600) 對於在500k MWCO 薄膜下PMMA溶質系統中濾速的改善非常顯著,而在Dextran T500溶質系統中,在1600下少量曝氣即具有在900下大量曝氣同樣的效果。
英文摘要 In the study, the performance of the submerged membrane filtration system was investigated in different experimental parameter. and fixed trans-membrane pressure difference method was used. The operated condition in the study included the concentration and composition of the solute, the inclination angle of the membrane module, the rejection rate (MWCO) of membrane, aeration rate, and trans-membrane pressure difference. In the system of no aeration, the flux inclination was very serious and reached the critical flux easily. In the filtration system of Dextran T500, the effect of little aeration rate is equal to the membrane performance of large aeration rate in 100k MWCO membrane, and the different aeration rates had more obvious different effects in 500k MWCO membrane than in 100k MWCO. Dextran T500 was also measured in different aeration rates and inclination angles. The aeration had more effect in the filtration system of PMMA powders than in that of Dextran T500.In the double solute system, Dextran T500 played a major role in the flux behavior of the filtration system even if the concentration of T500 was a quite low concentration. The concentration boundary layer thicknesses calculated by concentration polarization model and boundary layer model were discussed in the study.
論文目次 CONTENTS
FIGURES III
TABLES IX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 PREFACE 1
1.2 MEMBRANE SEPARATION 1
1.3 THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE 3
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY 9
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION 11
2.2 THE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM 13
2.3 A NOVEL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM - MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR 15
2.4 THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MBR EQUIPMENT 20
CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL CALCULATION 29
3.1 THE ANALYSIS OF THE FILTRATION RESISTANCE 29
3.2 MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND CONCENTRATION BOUNDARY LAYER 30
ACCORDING TO THE BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY, WHEN A FLUID FLOWS THROUGH A PLATE, THE THICKNESS OF THE HYDRAULIC BOUNDARY LAYER IS: 30
CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHOD 35
4.1 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS 35
4.2 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 35
4.3 MATERIALS 36
CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40
5.1 THE PURE WATER FLUX OF MEMBRANES 40
5.2 SINGLE SOLUTE SYSTEM 41
5.2.1 0.8 μm PMMA system 42
5.2.2 Dextran T500 system 44
5.3. BISOLUTE SYSTEM 46
5.3.1 System with θ=900 46
5.3.2 System with θ=1600 47
5.4 EFFECT OF PERIODIC OPERATION 48
5.5 STUDY OF THE PHENOMENA ON THE MEMBRANE SURFACE 48
5.6 FILTRATION RESISTANCE 50
5.7 THEORETICAL FLUX OBTAINED FROM CONCENTRATION BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS 53
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 100
NOMENCLATURE 102
REFERENCES 104
APPENDIX 110



Figures

Figure 1.1 Schematic representations of dead-end filtration and cross-flow filtration 10
Figure 2.1 The schematic representation of membrane filtration is by crossflow 25
Figure 2.2 Evolution of water reclamation treatment trains 25
Figure 2.3Schematic presentation of a bioreactor 26
Figure 2.4Under fixed flux method, variation of stabilized flux with TMP for different circulation velocities, T= 20oC, Suspended Solids at 10g/l 26
Figure 2.5 Experimental determination of critical flux 27
Figure 2.6 Under fixed TMP method, variations of permeate flux with time under step increments of trans-membrane pressure, u = 4 m/s, T= 20oC, Suspended Solids at 10g/l 27
Figure 2.7 Trans-membrane pressure changes during long-term constant flux in the membrane bioreactor in stabilized biological conditions 28
Figure 4.1 The schematic representation of flat sheet submerged membrane bioreactor 36
Figure 4.2 Schematic representation of flat sheet submerged membrane bioreactor 37
Figure 5.1 Pure water fluxes at different pressures of new membranes (MWCO=100k & 500k) 56
Figure 5.2 SEM photomicrographs of a new 500k membrane at 30KX, 50 KX , 100 KX, 1000 KX were taken from the top surface 56
Figure 5.3 SEM photomicrographs of a new 500k membrane at 10 KX, 20 KX, 30KX, 50 KX, 100 KX were taken from the cross section 57
Figure 5.4 Calibration curves of gas flow meters no.1 and no.2, respectively. 58
Figure 5.5 Fluxes at different trans-membrane pressures and at different aeration amounts (MWCO=100k, θ= 900, C0.8μm PMMA = 3 kg/m3) 58
Figure 5.6 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (ΔP=-20 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900, C0.8μm PMMA = 3 kg/m3) 59
Figure 5.7 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (ΔP=-40 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900, C0.8μm PMMA = 3 kg/m3) 59
Figure 5.8 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (ΔP=-60 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900, C0.8μm PMMA = 3 kg/m3) 60
Figure 5.9 Flux behavior in a long period (θ= 900, C0.8μm PMMA = 3 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 60
Figure 5.10 Different retention rates at different trans-membrane pressure differences (θ= 900, C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, G = 0L/min) 61
Figure 5.11 Different retention rates at different aeration amounts (ΔP=-30 cmHg, C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, θ= 900) 61
Figure 5.12 Fluxes at different trans-membrane pressures (C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, G = 0 L/min, θ= 900) 62
Figure 5.13 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k, θ= 900) 62
Figure 5.14 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900) 63
Figure 5.15 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k & 500k, θ= 900) 63
Figure 5.16 Different retention rates at different inclined angles (ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k, C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3) 64
Figure 5.17 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500 + C0.8μmPMMA =1 kg/m3 + 0.5 kg/m3 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k , θ= 900) 64
Figure 5.18 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500 + C0.8μmPMMA =1 kg/m3 + 0.5 kg/m3 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k, θ= 900) 65
Figure 5.19 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k , θ= 900) 65
Figure 5.20 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k , θ= 900) 66
Figure 5.21 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3 , C0.8μmPMMA= 0.75 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k, θ= 900) 66
Figure 5.22 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3 , C0.8μmPMMA= 0.75 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900) 67
Figure 5.23 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=0.5 kg/m3, C0.8μmPMMA= 1 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k, θ= 900) 67
Figure 5.24 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C Dextran T500=0.5 kg/m3, C0.8μmPMMA= 1 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 900) 68
Figure 5.25 Fluxes at different aeration amounts ( C0.8μmPMMA= 1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, θ= 900) is the flux of pure water of 100k MWCO 68
Figure 5.26 Fluxes at different aeration amounts ( C0.8μmPMMA= 1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=500k, θ= 1600) 69
Figure 5.27 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (C0.8μmPMMA= 0.75 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=500k, ΔP=-30 cmHg, θ= 1600) 69
Figure 5.28 Fluxes at different aeration amounts ( C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=500k, ΔP=-30 cmHg, θ= 900) 70
Figure 5.29 Fluxes at different aeration amounts ( C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=500k, ΔP=-30 cmHg, θ= 1600) 70
Figure 5.30 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 71
Figure 5.31 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 71
Figure 5.32 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 72
Figure 5.33 Fluxes at different aeration amounts (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 72
Figure 5.34 Fluxes at a periodic suction method (operation: 8 min; pause: 2min) of different aeration amounts (C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3 , MWCO=100k, ΔP= -60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 73
Figure 5.35 Fluxes at a periodic suction method (operation: 8 min; pause: 2min) of different aeration amounts (C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=500k, ΔP= -60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 73
Figure 5.36 Fluxes at a periodic suction method (operation: 8 min; pause: 2min) of different aeration amounts (C0.16μm PMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=100k, ΔP= -60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 74
Figure 5.37 Fluxes at a periodic suction method (operation: 8 min; pause: 2 min) of different aeration amounts (C0.16μm MMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, MWCO=500k, ΔP= -60 cmHg, θ= 1600) 74
Figure 5.38 Size distribution report by intensity of Dextran water solution CDextran T500=0.75 kg/m3 (by TREKINTAL CORP.) 75
Figure 5.39 Size distribution report by intensity of PMMA water solution C0.8μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 (by TREKINTAL CORP.) 75
Figure 5.40 Size distribution report by intensity of PMMA water solution C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 (by TREKINTAL CORP.) 76
Figure 5.41 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 76
Figure 5.42 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 77
Figure 5.43 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 77
Figure 5.44 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 78
Figure 5.45 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 78
Figure 5.46 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 79
Figure 5.47 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 79
Figure 5.48 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 80
Figure 5.49 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 80
Figure 5.50 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 81
Figure 5.51 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 81
Figure 5.52 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3& C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=4 L/min) 82
Figure 5.53 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 82
Figure 5.54 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 83
Figure 5.55 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 83
Figure 5.56 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 84
Figure 5.57 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 84
Figure 5.58 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the top surface (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 85
Figure 5.59 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 1KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 85
Figure 5.60 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 1KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 86
Figure 5.61 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 86
Figure 5.62 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 30KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 87
Figure 5.63 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 87
Figure 5.64 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 50KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 88
Figure 5.65 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 88
Figure 5.66 SEM photomicrograph of the cake on 500k membrane at 100KX was taken from the cross section (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 1600, C0.16μmPMMA= 7.5 kg/m3 & C Dextran T500=0.75 kg/m3, G=0 L/min) 89
Figure 5.67 Different resistances at different pressure differences (ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 900, C0.8μmPMMA= 3 kg/m3) 89
Figure 5.68 Different resistances at different pressure differences (ΔP=-30 cmHg, θ= 900, G= 0 L/min) 90
Figure 5.69 Different resistances at different inclination angles and aeration rates (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-30 cmHg, C0.8μmPMMA= 1.5 kg/m3) 90
Figure 5.70 Different resistances at different solute compositions and aeration rates (MWCO=500k, ΔP=-60 cmHg, θ= 900) 91
Figure 5.71 Bubble sizes at the gas flow rate of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 L/min 92
Figure 5.72 Different bubble velocities at different aeration rates (the inclination angle of the module is 900) 93
Figure 5.73 The tendency of that boundary layer thickness decreases with the increasing flux (100k MWCO the inclination angle of the module is 900) (C Dextran T500 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k , θ= 900) 93
Figure 5.74 Different experimental fluxs and theoretical fluxes were at different aeration rates. (μ:Cb, D:Cb) means that the viscosity(μ) and diffusivity(D) are calculated in the calculation of flux all by using the mean concentration (Cb) in the boundary layer; (μ:Ci, D:Cb) means that μ &D are calculated by using the initial feed concentration(Ci) and Cb respectively; (μ:Ci, D:Cm) means that μ &D are calculated by using the Ci and the concentration on the membrane surface (Cm) respectively. (C Dextran T500 =1.5 kg/m3, ΔP=-30 cmHg, MWCO=100k , θ= 900) 94


Tables

Table 4.1 The list of the flat sheet membrane characteristics 36
Table 5.1 Pure water fluxes of new membranes at different trans-membrane pressures 89
Table 5.2Size ave and zetapotential of PMMA water solution ( C0.16μm PMMA = 0.75 kg/m3) and DEXTRAN water solution(C Dextran T500 = 0.75 kg/m3) and PMMA& DEXTRAN combined water solution by Malvern Zatamaster ( an instrument measuring size and zetapotential) 89
Table 5.3 Experimental parameters in the flux-time experiments. (8;2) means operation: 8min, pause 2min.(0-4) means the aeration is 0 L/min in operation and 4L/min in pause 90
Table 5.4 Different Rfp at different membrane MWCOs, aeration amounts and transmembrane pressure differences 91
Table 5.5 Different Rfp at different solute species and concentrations, membrane MWCOs, and transmembrane pressure differences 91
Table 5.6 Different Rfp at different aeration amounts, and inclined angles 92
Table 5.7 Different Rfp at different solute species and concentrations, and aeration amounts 92
Table 5.8 Data of estimating the rise velocity of bubble 93
Table 5.9 Concentration boundary layer thickness obtained from boundary-layer model 93
Table 5.10 Different fluxes obtained from concentration polarization model 93
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