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系統識別號 U0002-1906201315035000
中文論文名稱 育兒時間的決定因素-American Time Use Survey 2003-2010實證研究
英文論文名稱 The determinants of parents' time spent on child care: Evidence from the 2003-2010 American time use survey
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Economics
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 張雅琳
研究生英文姓名 Ya-Lin Chang
學號 600570179
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-05-24
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-林亦珍
委員-黃台心
委員-李鈞元
中文關鍵字 育兒時間  美國時間運用調查  受限制工具變數分量迴歸  分量迴歸 
英文關鍵字 Parental time with children  American Time Use Survey  Censored quantile instrumental variable model  Quantile regression 
學科別分類
中文摘要 根據文獻指出,育兒時間對於子女的未來發展影響極大。既有文獻多以最小平方法(ordinary least squares)或是Tobit模型作為研究方法,因而僅能分析育兒時間為平均值的人。此外,既有文獻也未解決育兒時間的實證模型中,薪資於可能為內生的問題。然而,為增加育兒時間並進而提升人力素質,必須關心的是育兒時間較少的人,其育兒時間的決定因素為何。因此本文採用「受限制工具變數分量迴歸模型 (censored quantile instrumental variable model)」為估計方法,利用美國時間運用調查(American Time Use Survey) 2003至2010的個體資料,研究育兒時間的決定因素。實證結果指出,其它種族虛擬變數,在低分量時顯著為負,在高分量時不顯著。顯示政府應針對非西語裔的其它種族,加強宣導育兒的重要性。
英文摘要 Parents’ time on child care has profound impact on children’s human capital formation. Previous studies on parental time with children, which use ordinary least squares and Tobit model as their estimation method, focus on conditional mean of parental time with children. As far as we know, no empirical attention has been paid to parents that spent little time with children. Since wage is likely to be endogenous to time spent with children, this thesis uses censored quantile instrumental variable estimator to analyze the determinants of time spent on child care. Based on micro data from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Survey, we found that the dummy variable for non-hispanic non-black and non-white is statistically significantly negatively associated with time spent with children. This result implies that more resources should be directed to facilitating and promoting parental time with children
among non-hispanic non-black and non-white parents.
論文目次 目錄
第一章、 緒論 1
第二章、文獻回顧 3
第一節、分量迴歸應用 3
第二節、時間運用應用 4
第三章、研究方法 8
第四章、資料來源與變數定義 11
第一節、資料來源 11
第二節、資料合併過程 11
第三節、變數定義 12
第四節、敘述統計量 13
第五章、實證結果 14
第一節、工具變數相關檢定 14
第二節、受限制工具變數分量迴歸估計結果 15
第六章 結論 20
附錄一:OLS估計結果 58
附錄二:Tobit估計結果 59
附錄三:全部樣本QR估計結果 60
附錄四:女性樣本QR估計結果 61
參考文獻 62

圖目錄
圖4-1 資料合併過程 22
圖5-1 CQIV分量係數:female 23
圖5-2 CQIV分量係數:age 24
圖5-3 CQIV分量係數:age2 25
圖5-4 邊際效果:age 26
圖5-5 CQIV分量係數:merried 27
圖5-6 CQIV分量係數:hagrad 28
圖5-7 CQIV分量係數:somecollege 29
圖5-8 CQIV分量係數:collegegrad 30
圖5-9 CQIV分量係數:advdegree 31
圖5-10 CQIV分量係數:blacknonhisp 32
圖5-11 CQIV分量係數:hispanic 33
圖5-12 CQIV分量係數:otherrace 34
圖5-13 CQIV分量係數:nmchild 35
圖5-14 CQIV分量係數:kids0_5 36
圖5-15 CQIV分量係數:kids6_13 37
圖5-16 CQIV分量係數:finalwage 38
圖5-17 CQIV分量係數:unemployed 39
圖5-18 CQIV分量係數:notinlaborforce 40
圖5-19 CQIV分量係數:newmetsta 41
圖5-20 CQIV分量係數:weekday 42
圖5- 21 CQIV分量係數:unemprate 43
圖5- 22 CQIV分量係數:pci 44

表目錄
表4-1 資料來源 45
表4-2 各項變數定義說明 46
表4-3 敘述統計量 48
表5-1 第一階段估計結果 49
表5-2 第二階段估計結果 50
表5-3 CQIV估計結果 51

參考文獻 參考文獻
英文部分
Aguiar, M and E. Hurst (2007a). Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time over Five Decades. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 969-1006.

Aguiar, M. and E. Hurst (2009). A Summary of Trends in American Time Allocation:1965–2005. Soc Indic Res, 93, 57–64.

Aguiar, M., E. Hurst, and L. Karabarbounis (2012). Recent Developments in the Economics of Time Use. Annu. Rev. Econ.

Aguiar, M., E. Hurst, and L. Karabarbounis (2012). Time Use During the Great Recession. NEBR Working Paper.

Apps, P. and R. Rees (2002). Household production, full consumption and the costs of children. Labour Economics, 8, 621–648.

Becker, G. S., and N. Tomes (1986). Human capital and the rise and fall of families. Journal of Labor Economics, 4((3, part 2)), S1–S39.

Chernozhukov, V. and H. Hong (2002). Three-step censored quantile regression and extramarital affairs. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97, 872–882.

Connelly, R and J. Kimmel (2009). Spousal Economic Factors in ATUS Parents’ Time Choices. Soc Indic Res, 93, 147–152.
Fernandez, R., A. Fogli, and C. Olivetti (2004). Mothers and sons: Preference formation and female labor force dynamics. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(4), 1249–1299.

Ramey, G. and V. A. Ramey (2010). The Rug Rat Race. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, 129-76.

Gustavsen, G. W., D. Jolliffe, and K. Rickertsen (2008). Censored Quantile Regression and Purchases of Ice Cream. Working paper.

Guryan, J., E. Hurst, and M. Kearney (2013). Parental Education and Parental Time with Children. NBER Working paper.

Guryan, J., E. Hurst, and M. Kearney (2008). Parental Education and Parental Time with Children. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(3) , 23-46.

Heckman, J. (1979). Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error. Econometrica, 47, pp. 153-162.

Schmillen, A and J. Möller (2012). Distribution and determinants of lifetime unemployment. Labour Economics, 19, 33–47.

Kalenkoski, C. M., D. C. Ribar, and L. S. Stratton ( 2007). The effect of family structure on parents’ child care time in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rev Econ Household, 5, 353–384.

Kalil, A., R. Ryan, and M. Corey (2012). Diverging Destinies: Maternal Education and the Developmental Gradient in Time With Children. Demography, 49, 1361–1383.

Kimmel, J. and R. Connelly (2006). Is Mothers' Time With Their Children Home Production or Leisure? Discussion Paper No. 2058.

Koenker, R. and B. Gilbert (1978). Regression Quantiles. Econometrica, 46, 33–50.

Leibowitz, A. (1974). Home Investments in Children. Journal of Political Economy 82(2), 111-131.

Liana, S., S. Bianchi, and J. Robinson (2004). Are Parents Investing Less in Children? Trends in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Time with Children. The American Journal of Sociology, 11, 1-43.

Powell, J. (1986). Censored Regression Quantiles. Journal of Econometrics, 32, 143–155.

Sargan, J.D. (1958). The estimation of economic relationships using instrumental variables, Econometrica, 26, 393–415.

Sayer, L., A. Gauthier, and F. Fursternberg (2004b). Educational differences in parents’ time with children: Cross-national variation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 1152–1169.

Stock, J., and M. Yogo (2005). Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression, in Identification and Inference for Econometric Models: Essays in Honor of Thomas Rothenberg, eds. D. W. K. Andrews, and J. H. Stock, pp. 80–108.

Chernozhukov, V., I. Fernández-Val, and A. Kowalski (2011). Quantile Regression With Censoring And Endogeneity. Cowles Foundation Discussin Paper No. 1797.

中文部分
王心妙 (2005),影響新生兒體重的因素分析:分量回歸的應用,政治大學經濟學系碩士論文。

嚴婉禎 (2007),廠商規模與存活:受限制分量迴歸之應用,中原大學國際貿易學所碩士論文。
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