||A Study of the Relationship among Paternalistic Leadership, Psychological Contract, and Turnover Intention on Indonesian Workers in Taiwan
||Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
||本研究的目的在於探討家長式領導、心理契約、與離職傾向，是否對在台灣工作的印尼外勞有顯著的關係。透過發放問卷後，回收之有效問卷為363份，採用SPSS 17.0 及LISREL 8.80作為統計及結構模式分析工具。經過文獻探討與問卷分析後，本研究得到的結論如下：家長式領導跟心理契約有部分關係；心理契約在家長式領導(德行構面及威權構面)及離職傾向之間存在仲介效果。驗證結果也證明了年齡在家長式領導(德行構面及威權構面)及離職傾向之間的關係之調節效果。研究結論及管理意涵，將隨研究結果作進一步的探討。
||To solve the labor shortage problems, Taiwan has started the use of foreign workers since 1989. The number of foreign workers coming to Taiwan is increasing in recent years; the statistic data provides by CLA shows the escalation of Indonesian workers’ missing status since 2009. This study mainly investigates the relationships among paternalistic leadership, psychological contract and turnover intention on Indonesian workers in Taiwan. The samples collected by distributing questionnaires and 363 valid questionnaires received. We use the structural equation model (SEM) by implementing SPSS 17.0 and LISREL 8.80 to empirically explore the relationships. The results show that moral paternalistic leadership positively related with psychological contract. In the other hand, authoritarian paternalistic leadership positively related to turnover intention. Psychological contract fully mediates the relationship between partial paternalistic leadership and turnover intention. This study also flourished by the moderating effect for partial paternalistic leadership and turnover intention.
List of Tables VI
List of Figures VII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background 2
1.2. Research Motivation 7
1.3. Problem 10
1.4. Purposes 12
Chapter 2. Literature Survey 13
2.1. Paternalistic Leadership 13
2.2. Psychological Contract 21
2.3. Turnover Intention 32
2.4. Research Hypotheses 33
2.4.1. The relationship between paternalistic leadership and psychological contract 33
2.4.2. The relationship between psychological contract and turnover intention 34
2.4.3. The relationship between paternalistic leadership and turnover intention 36
2.4.4. The mediating effect of psychological contract 37
2.4.5. The moderating effect of age 38
2.5. Research Map 39
Chapter 3. Research Method 49
3.1. Research Framework 49
3.2. Operational Definition 49
3.2.1. Paternalistic leadership 50
3.2.2. Psychological contract 50
3.2.3. Turnover intention 51
3.2.4. Age 51
3.2.5 Demographic Variables 51
3.3. Pilot study and pre-test of questionnaires 51
3.4. The Data Collection 52
3.4.1. Sampling Method 52
3.4.2. Procedure 52
3.5. Method Analysis 53
3.5.1 Measurement Model 54
3.5.2 Structural Model 56
3.5.3 Multi-group Analysis 58
Chapter 4. Results 59
4.1. Sampling Frame 59
4.2. Measurement Model 60
4.3. Structural Model 70
4.3.1. The Direct Relationship 71
4.3.2. The Indirect Relationship (Mediating Effect) 73
4.2.3. Multi-group Analysis (Moderating Effect) 75
Chapter 5. Discussion 78
5.1. Summary 78
5.2. Implications 81
5.2.1. Academic Implications 81
5.2.2. Managerial Implications 83
5.3. Limitation and Further Research Direction 85
APPENDIX A 98
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Foreign Workers in Taiwan in Productive Industries and Social Welfare by Indonesian Nationality and Gender (Unit: Person) 5
Table 1.2: Foreign Workers in Productive Industries and Social Welfare by Industry and Nationality End of Jan, 2012 (Unit: Person) 6
Table 1.3: Missing Status of Foreign Workers in Productive Industries and Social Welfare (Unit: Person) 11
Table 2.1: Recent Years Definition of Paternalistic Leadership 15
Table 2.2: Paternalistic Leadership - Pros and Contras 17
Table 2.3: Employee and Company’s Expectation 23
Table 2.4: Rousseau’s Definition of Psychological Contract (Since 1989) 25
Table 2.5: Continuum of Contract Terms 31
Table 2.6: Definition of Turnover Intention 32
Table 2.7: Research Map Comprehensive Literature Review 41
Table 4.1: The Profile of Respondents 60
Table 4.2: Initial Model’s Means, Standard Deviation, Kurtosis and Skewness 61
Table 4.3: Initial Model’s Realibility Analysis 61
Table 4.4: Initial Model’s Correlation Matrix of Dimensions 62
Table 4.5: Parameter for Confirmatory Factor Analysis 63
Table 4.6: Initial Model’s Confirmatory Factor Analysis 63
Table 4.7: Final Model’s Confirmatory Factor Analysis 64
Table 4.8: Final Model’s Means, Standard Deviation, Kurtosis and Skewness 65
Table 4.9: Final Model’s Correlation Matrix of Dimensions 66
Table 4.10: Final Model’s Reliability Analysis 66
Table 4.11: Construct Reliability 67
Table 4.12: Convergent Validity Analysis 69
Table 4.13: Discriminant Validity 70
Table 4.14: Variable Path Table 71
Table 4.15: Total and Indirect Effect 74
Table 4.16: Chi-square Difference Test (Moderating Variable: Age) 76
Table 4.17: Comparison of Structural Model Between Young Adults and Middle-aged 77
Table 5.1: List of Hypotheses’ Result 80
List of Figures
Figure 2.1: A Triad Model of Paternalistic Leadership 19
Figure 2.2: Timeline of Psychological Contract (1960-1989) 22
Figure 2.3: Organization Promises 26
Figure 2.4: Employee Promises 27
Figure 2.5: Research Map 40
Figure 3.1: Research Framework 49
Figure 4.1: Result of Proposed Model in LISREL 71
Figure 5.1: Process of Hiring Foreign Workers in Taiwan 84
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