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中文論文名稱 個人穿衣風格與知覺服務品牌之研究
英文論文名稱 Service Branding: The Sign of Apparel
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 張慧琪
研究生英文姓名 Hui-Chi Chang
電子信箱 girl110579@hotmail.com
學號 699610670
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-05-09
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-張瑋倫
委員-李月華
委員-許瑋元
中文關鍵字 服務品牌  服務品牌個性  服務體驗  穿衣風格 
英文關鍵字 Service brand  service brand personality  service experience  customer apparel style 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 在這個以服務為導向的時代,如何建立服務品牌的議題日漸備受矚目,若企業能藉由品牌去創造、及成功傳遞品牌印象給顧客,可以幫助企業建立獨特的競爭優勢;然而,由於服務的無形性使每個人所知覺到服務品牌印象有所差異。根據符號互動理論的概念,服裝可以作為非語言溝通的媒介,服裝可以用來傳遞個人訊息,人們會賦予服裝符號意義,並根據符號意義去擇其所需要且合適穿著,進而在特定的社會情境中,運用服裝向他人傳遞訊息。因此,本研究將從顧客個人的穿衣風格,去探索其在特定的服務環境下所知覺到的服務品牌印象,進而去打造顧客心中最佳化的服務品牌。本研究的問題可歸納為下列三點:1.什麼是影響顧客所知覺到的服務品牌印象的關鍵因素? 2.顧客的穿衣偏好是否能夠透露其個人所知覺到的服務品牌印象?以及3.什麼是顧客心中最佳化的服務品牌?
本研究根據過去的文獻,將服務品牌個性和服務體驗考慮為影響服務品牌印象的兩大因素,進而建立服務品牌的概念性模型、提出命題、並運用基因演算法去探索命題、打造顧客心中最佳化的服務品牌。本研究選擇王品集團旗下、在不同市場區隔中的兩家連鎖服務餐廳作為探討對象,分別為王品牛排和西堤牛排餐廳,並且總共蒐集了275份樣本作為分析。

本研究首先個別從西堤牛排與王品牛排選擇前兩大最多顧客的穿著風格做比較,分析結果顯示,在「西堤牛排」個案中,休閒風的顧客所佔比率最多、優雅風次之,休閒風顧客認為西堤是「誠摯」的、並且知覺到「人員服務」較核心服務與服務環境好;而優雅風顧客認為西堤是「有能力的」、並且知覺到「核心服務」相較於其他服務好。在「王品牛排」個案中,休閒風的顧客所佔比率最多、優雅風次之,兩類的顧客在服務品牌個性與服務體驗的知覺上,雖然不及「西堤牛排」個案中有明顯差異,但在服務品牌印象上仍有些微的顯著差異。
本研究進一步分析顧客所知覺到的最佳化服務品牌,其結果顯示顧客認為「西堤」服務品牌是誠摯的,並且知覺到人員服務與核心服務較服務環境好;而顧客認為「王品」服務品牌是有能力的,並且知覺到核心服務最好。

綜言之,雖然西堤與王品牛排都是隸屬於王品集團,但是顧客所知覺到的服務品牌是有顯著差異,從顧客的觀點而言,最佳化的「西堤」服務品牌就像是一個天真無邪(誠實、誠摯、健康、友善的)、需要人們無時關懷(人員服務)、且挑食(核心服務)的小孩;而最佳化的「王品」服務品牌就像是一個有能力(成功、有自信、可靠的)、已嘗遍山珍海味、對味道特別挑剔(核心服務)的貴婦。

隨著以服務為導向的時代來臨,本研究主要從顧客的角度去探索其所知覺到的最佳化服務品牌,本研究填補了過去企業以商品為導向的概念去打造服務品牌的缺口,其次,當服裝能夠傳遞顧客心中服務品牌印象的符號時,便能幫助公司預測及傳遞顧客所期望的服務,而當公司所提供的服務能夠達到顧客期望時,便能使顧客容易感到心滿意足,再者,若公司了解影響顧客心中所知覺到服務品牌印象的關鍵因素,可以幫助公司控制影響傳遞印象的因素、並規劃更佳能符合顧客期望的服務傳遞方式。
英文摘要 The emerging service-dominant concept has highlighted the significant issue of service brand building. Creating and succeeding in selling a service brand image to consumers can help a firm build competitive advantage. However, image perception of a service brand differs between people based on personal differences. Because clothing can be a form of nonverbal communication, it can help people express themselves and send messages to others. The theory of symbolic interactionism, proposed by Kaiser (1983), indicated that people create their features by managing their appearance in using clothing, and they dress based on symbolic meanings attached to clothing. Hence, this study explores service brand from people’s apparel preferences.

Service brand is too abstract and dynamic. There are certain factors that affect the perception of customers’ image toward a service brand. Thus, this study proposes three questions: (1) What are the major factors influencing service image branding? (2) Can customer apparel preference reveal their service image of a service brand? (3) What is the optimal service brand in the minds of customers?

Existing researchers reveal the significant roles of service brand personality and service experience that affect the perception of customers’ image toward a service brand respectively. This study takes the two influential factors into account, proposes a conceptual model of service branding, and uses Genetic Algorithms approach to optimize a service brand. The research collects 275 samples from two selected steakhouses, which are located in different market segmentation and provide different service experience. One is TASTY, a middle-end steakhouse. The other one is Wang Steak, a high-end steakhouse.

This study also provides cross analysis between the top two wearing styles among TASTY and Wang Steak respectively. Meanwhile, we examine the perceived differences of customers with different apparel styles on optimal service brand. Firstly, the evaluation of samples with the top two styles on TASTY service brand demonstrates that customers with casual styles are associated with sincerity the most, and they perceive employee service the greater. One the other hand, customers with elegant style are associated with competence the most and score core service higher than employee service and servicescape. Next, the analysis of respondents with the top two styles on Wang Steak service brand reveals that customers with casual style, which occupied the most ratios among all styles, perceive competence the most. Besides, they score core service the highest. Similarly, customers with elegant style are associated with competence the highest and they score core service the greatest. The findings indicate that the perceived differences of service brand significantly exist between customers with casual and elegant styles in the case of TASTY but slightly significance in Wang Steak.

Further, the analysis reveal that customers associate TASTY service brand with sincerity the highest, and they score core service and employee service the greatest. One the other hand, customers associate Wang Steak service brand with competence the most, and they perceive core service higher than employee service and servicescape. Although TASTY and Wang Steak are both managed by Wang Group, the two steakhouses are located in different market segments. The results show the different significance perceptions regarding TASTY and Wang Steak service from the perspective of customers. Customers consider TASTY as an “honest, sincere, wholesome, and friendly” service brand like an innocent child who is picky with the food (core service) and always needs someone’s attention and protection (employee service). Customers regard Wang Steak as a “successful, confident, reliable, and corporate” service brand like a noble woman who has tried many delicious foods, and thus, is particular about taste (core service).

Because of the coming of the service-centered era, this study explores service brand from the customer perspective. A gap of branding service from the customer perspective can be filled in the literature, which used to place weight on branding from the marketer’s view or in the goods-dominant logic view. Next, a gap exists between the service delivery and the perception of service due to the dynamic service. Thus, service providers can not only focus on the way how the service presents, but also need to focus on the perception of customers toward service brand. Tangible cues of apparel may be able to predict the abstract service image in customers’ mind so that firms can manage customers’ expectation and perception easily. Once the service quality meets customer expectation, customers will be easily satisfied. Thirdly, realizing what the optimization of service brand is in the minds of customers can help firms create a unique service image, which can help firms differentiate from competitors and gain an edge in the fiercely competitive service market. A firm can control the key factors for a service image after understanding what the key factors are that affect customer imagination for service and what the key elements are that create value for customers. Firms can help themselves by sketching a service image and then planning better service delivery that is consistent with customer expectations and imagery of the service brand.
論文目次 Table of Contents......................................... i
List of Figures ......................................... ii
List of Tables ..........................................iii
CHAPTER 1 .................................................1
INTRODUCTION ..............................................1
1.1 Background ............................................1
1.2 Problem Statement .....................................4
1.3 Research Question .....................................6
1.4 Purpose of the Study ..................................7
1.5 Organization of the Study .............................8
CHAPTER 2 .................................................9
LITERATURE ................................................9
2.1 Service Brand Image ...................................9
2.2 Service Brand Personality ............................11
2.3 Service Experience ...................................13
2.4 Apparel ..............................................15
CHAPTER 3 ................................................19
RESEARCH METHOD ......................................... 19
3.1 Conceptual Model .....................................19
3.1.1 Concept of Branding ................................19
3.1.2 Theoretical Foundation: Symbolic Interactionism ....20
3.2 Method ...............................................23
3.2.1 Genetic Algorithm ................................. 23
3.2.2 Research Process A. Apparel styles ................ 26
CHAPTER 4 ............................................... 32
ANALYSIS................................................. 32
4.1 Questionnaire Design ................................ 32
4.2 Data Collection ..................................... 32
4.3 Case study 1---TASTY Steakhouse ..................... 33
4.3.1 Analysis of Reliability and Descriptive Statistics .33
4.3.2 Data Analysis ..................................... 36
4.4 Case study 2---Wang Steakhouse ...................... 41
4.4.1 Analysis of Reliability and Descriptive Statistics 41
4.4.2 Data Analysis ......................................44
CHAPTER 5 ............................................... 49
Conclusion ...............................................49
5.1 Cross Analysis ...................................... 49
5.1.1 Top Two Styles on TASTY Service Brand ..............49
5.1.2 Top Two Styles on Wang Service Brand .............. 51
5.1.3 Five Styles on TASTY and Wang Service Brand ....... 53
5.2 Conclusion .......................................... 55
5.3 Contribution and Managerial Implications............. 57
5.4 Research Limitation and Suggestions for Future Research..................................................59
REFERENCES ...............................................60
APPENDIX ................................................ 65

List of Figures
Figure 1-1 The services share of GDP ...................................................... 1
Figure 1-2 2011 Ranking of the Top 100 Brands (Interbrand, 2011) .............................................. ......1
Figure 1-3 Brand-building logic from the marketer perspective .............................................. 6
Figure 1-4 Building service brand from the customer perspective ...............................................8
Figure 3-1 Conceptual model ....................................................19
Figure 3-2 The length of a chromosome .............................................. 29
Figure 4-1 Descriptive statistics of gender, age, and career .................................................. 35
Figure 4-2 Distribution of apparel styles in TASTY ................................................... 36
Figure 4-3 Descriptive statistics of gender, age, and career ...................................................43
Figure 4-4 Distribution of apparel styles on Wang steakhouse .............................................. 44
Figure 5-1 Cross analysis of top two styles on TASTY service brand ........................................... 50
Figure 5-2 Cross analysis of top two styles on Wang service brand ................................................... 52
Figure 5-3 Cross analysis on TASTY and Wang service brands ...................................................54

List of Tables
Table 2-1 Literature related to service brand image ....................................................11
Table 2-2 Modified BPS (Musante et al., 2008).................................................... 12
Table 2-3 Literature related to brand personality ............................................. 13
Table 2-4 Literature related to service experience ...............................................15
Table 2-5 Literature related to apparel ..................................................18
Table 3-1 Definitions of apparel styles....................................................26
Table 3-2 Example of apparel styles .................................................. 27
Table 3-3 Attributes of apparel styles ...................................................27
Table 3-4 Encoding of service brand personality ..............................................28
Table 3-5 Encoding of perception of service experience ...............................................29
Table 3-6 Evolution process ..................................................31
Table 4-1 Analysis of reliability ..............................................33
Table 4-2 Evaluation of samples with five styles on the TASTY service brand ..................................... 36
Table 4-3 Example of calculation of ratio ................................................... 37
Table 4-4 Average ratio for samples with five styles on the TASTY service brand ..................................... 38
Table 4-5 Evaluation of casual style samples on TASTY service brand ........................................... 39
Table 4-6 Average ratio for casual style samples on the TASTY service brand ............................ .........39
Table 4-7 Evaluation of elegant style samples on TASTY service brand ........................................... 40
Table 4-8 Average ratio for elegant style samples on the TASTY service brand ..................................... 40
Table 4-9 Analysis of reliability ............................................. 41
Table 4-10 Evaluation of samples with five styles on the Wang service brand ...................................... 44
Table 4-11 Example of the calculation of ratio ....................................................45
Table 4-12 Average ratio for samples with five styles on Wang service brand ............................. .........45
Table 4-13 Evaluation of casual style samples on Wang service brand ........................................... 46
Table 4-14 Average ratio for casual style samples on Wang service brand ........................................... 47
Table 4-15 Evaluation of elegant style samples on Wang service brand............................................ 48
Table 4-16 Average ratio for elegant style samples on Wang service brand ........................................... 48
Table 5-1 Fittest chromosomes of Top two styles on TASTY service brand ........................................... 49
Table 5-2 Elements of chromosomes of top two styles on TASTY service brand ..................................... 50
Table 5-3 Fittest chromosomes of top two styles on TASTY service brand ........................................... 52
Table 5-4 Elements of chromosomes of top two styles on Wang service brand ........................................... 53
Table 5-5 Fittest chromosomes on TASTY and Wang service brands .................................................. 53
Table 5-6 Elements of chromosomes on TASTY and Wang service brand ................................................... 54
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