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系統識別號 U0002-1906201023041200
中文論文名稱 應用睡眠排程於無線感測網路之路由協定
英文論文名稱 A Routing Protocol based on Power-controlled Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 林育朱
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Chu Lin
學號 797410023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-05-25
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-陳振炎
委員-逄愛君
委員-梅興
委員-王英宏
中文關鍵字 無線感測網路  路由協定  傳輸功率控制 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Sensor Networks  Routing Protocol  Transmission Power Control 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks, WSNs)是由一群分散的感測器和基地台所組成,可使用在各種遠端監控系統的應用上。感測器將其所感測的資料透過多重跳躍(multi-hop)方式回傳給基地台,這些感測器通常使用電池來運作,當能源耗盡時是不能替換電池,因此如何有效的節省電能的使用以延長整體感測網路的工作時間是個重要的議題。
本篇研究中,我們將以「應用於無線感測器網路中以休眠排程為基礎之電源管控機制」為研究基礎,提出應用休眠排程於無線感測網路之路由協定。安排休眠機制的感測網路環境中,雖然時間同步,但各個節點的活動時間會依狀態調整而提早進入睡眠狀態,在多重跳躍的傳輸模式下,每個節點需透過廣播封包確認下一個代傳節點後才能將資料送出。因此我們希望透過建立路由資訊,以減少傳輸過程的廣播次數,而當路徑節點剩餘電量不足無法轉送時,利用中斷處理程序尋找新的路徑,以維持路徑的完整,減少傳送過程中封包的遺失。
在最後,依據論文中所提出的演算法,我們將透過模擬來驗證資料傳輸過程中能有效的減少電能的消耗,達到省電的效益。
英文摘要 Wireless Sensor Networks is dispersed by a group composed of sensors and Base Stations. It can be used in various applications of remote monitoring system. Sensor nodes route the collected data to the Base Station via multi-hop wireless links. These sensors typically use batteries to operate, the battery cannot be replaced when the depletion of energy resources. Therefore, how to use energy-saving sensor networks to extend the overall working time efficiently is an important subject.
Our research is base on “A Power Control Mechanism based on Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks”. We proposed a refined mechanism of routing protocol for wireless sensor networks with sleep scheduling. In wireless sensor network with sleep scheduling, active node adjusts its working time and even step in sleeping state earlier. In the multi-hop transmission mode, each node broadcasts the packet to confirm the receiving node. Therefore, we use routing information to reduce the number of broadcasting during transmission. When route node with low rest power cannot transfer, to remain completed route, we can execute interrupt handler procedure to reduce the package loss.
Finally, to achieve power efficiency, we will simulate if the proposed algorithm can reduce energy consumption effectively in the data transmission procedure.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論1
1.1 研究背景4
1-2 研究動機6
1-3 研究目的8
1-4 論文架構9
第二章 相關技術與研究10
2.1 傳輸功率控制技術11
2.1.1 Adaptive Transmission Power Control (ATPC)11
2.2 路由協定技術15
2.2.1 Geographic Random Forwarding(GeRaf)17
2.3 睡眠機制在無線感測網路之應用18
2.3.1 非同步的睡眠機制18
2.3.2 同步的睡眠機制19
2.3.3 集中控制的睡眠機制20
2.4 應用於無線感測器網路中以休眠排程為基礎之電源管控機制21
2.4.1 傳輸功率控制(Transmission Power Control)21
2.4.2 休眠排程(Sleep Scheduling)24
2.4.3 路由協定(Routing Protocol)27
第三章 應用睡眠排程於無線感測網路之路由協定31
3.1 網路環境及假設 32
3.2 建立虛擬階層資訊35
3.2.1 階層距離定義 35
3.2.2 設定階層級數 36
3.2.3 消耗電量的臨界值計算37
3.3 建立資料傳送路徑39
3.3.1 路徑資料的建立39
3.3.2 建立路徑程序 42
3.4 路徑中斷處理46
3.5 特性及優勢49
第四章 模擬比較與分析50
4.1 模擬環境52
4.2 模擬結果與分析比較53
第五章 結論與未來研究方向59
5.1結論59
5.2未來研究方向60
參考文獻61
附錄-英文論文63

圖 目 錄
圖 1:無線感測網路基本架構圖 10
圖 2: Feedback Closed Loop Overview for ATPC 12
圖 3:Overview of the Pairwise ATPC Design 13
圖 4:Transmission Power vs. RSSI 14
圖 5:After active time slots merged 20
圖 6:Transmission Power Control 22
圖 7: Mica2 device’s power level, energy consumption and range 22
圖 8:Transmit Packets and Adjust TPC 24
圖 9:Sleep Scheduling Algorithm 26
圖 10:同心階層結構27
圖 11:路由協定流程圖29
圖 12:透過虛擬階層建立傳輸路徑示意圖33
圖 13:階層距離與通訊範圍示意圖36
圖 14:階層中各節點位置分布示意圖37
圖 15:建立路徑資料流程41
圖 16:建立路徑流程圖43
圖 17:中斷節點取代示意圖46
圖 18:中斷訊息傳送示意圖47
圖 19:路徑中斷處理流程圖48
圖 20:封包轉送至現有路徑示意圖54
圖 21:傳送封包節點可代傳範圍示意圖54
圖 22:網路中傳送封包頻率與耗電量關係圖55
圖 23:擴大範圍尋找代傳節點的電量耗差異圖56
圖 24:擴大電量廣播的機率與可節省的電量關係圖57

表 目 錄
表1: Neighbor Information Table (NIT) 23
表2: Owner Information Table (OIT) 28
表3: Modified Owner Information Table 32
表4: Connect_Table 39
表5: 回應訊息封包格式 40


參考文獻 [1] V. Potdar, A. Sharif, E. Chang, Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2009, pp. 636 – 641.

[2] H.F. Lu, Y.C. Chang, H.H. Hu, J.L. Chen, Power-efficient scheduling method in sensor networks, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004, vol.5, pp. 4705 – 4710.

[3] M. Kubisch, H. Karl, A. Wolisz, L.C. Zhong, and J. Rabaey , Distributed Algorithms for Transmission Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2003, Vol.1, pp.558-563.

[4] V. Kawadia, P.R. Kumar, Power Control and Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Conference on Computer and Communications Societies, 2003, Vol. 1, pp. 459 – 469.

[5] K. Manousakis, J.S. Baras, Clustering for transmission range control and connectivity assurance for self configured ad hoc networks, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Military Communications, 2003, Vol.2, pp. 1042 – 1047.

[6] S. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Zhou, L. Gu, J. Stankovic, T. He, ATPC: adaptive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, 2006, pp. 223-236.

[7] J. Qiangfeng, D. Manivannan, Routing protocols for sensor networks, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Consumer Communications and Networking, 2004, pp. 93 – 98.

[8] M. Zorzi, R.R. Rao, Geographic Random Forwarding for ad hoc and sensor network : multihop performance, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2003, Vol.2, pp. 337 – 348.

[9] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, “Span:An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2001, pp. 85-96.

[10] Y. Fan, G. Zhong, J. Cheng, S. Lu, L. Zhang, “PEAS: A Robust Energy Conserving Protocol for Long-lived Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2003, pp. 28 – 37.

[11] Y. Wei, J. Heidemann, D. Estrin, Medium Access Control with Coordinated, Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 2004, Vol.12, pp. 493 – 506.

[12] G. Lu, N. Sadagopan, B. Krishnamachari, A. Goel, Delay Efficient Sleep Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the 24th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer and Communications Societies, 2005, Vol.4,
pp. 2470 – 2481.

[13] J. Ma, W. Lou, Y. Wu, X.Y. Li, G. Chen, Energy Efficient TDMA Sleep Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, 2009, pp. 630 – 638.

[14] E. Bulut, I. Korpeoglu, DSSP: A Dynamic Sleep Scheduling Protocol for Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2007, Vol.2, pp. 725 – 730.

[15] C.Y. Yu, A Power Control Mechanism based on Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks, doctoral dissertation, Graduate Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering Tamkang University, 2009。
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