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系統識別號 U0002-1906200616075600
中文論文名稱 美國國家安全會議:協調外交與國防政策功能之研究
英文論文名稱 United States National Security Council: Coordinating Function on Foreign and Defense Policies
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 洪士美
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Mei Hung
電子信箱 claire_827@yahoo.com
學號 692220014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-08
論文頁數 132頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳明
委員-包宗和
委員-陳一新
中文關鍵字 國家安全會議  國家安全顧問  協調  整合  外交政策  國防政策 
英文關鍵字 National Security Council  NSC  National Security Advisor  NSA  coordination  integration  foreign policy  defense policy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 根據一九四七年國家安全法設置之美國國家安全會議可說是美國政府於二十世紀最重要的變革之一,對協調、整合與國家安全相關之政策、促進各機構之間的合作、擔任總統安全顧問的角色皆有貢獻。本論文的重點放在解構國家安全會議協調各機構之功能,除了透過分析其與國務院、國防部及中央情報局之互動關係,以運作實務來了解其協調各機構功能的發揮之外,另將透過兩個個案研究深入的建構出國家安全會議在國家面對攻擊及對外發動戰爭的決策過程中扮演的協調角色。
英文摘要 The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947, can be regarded as one of the most important revolutionary in American government. The Council not only serves as the main actor in coordinating foreign and defense policies among various government agencies, but also President’s principal advisor. This thesis focuses and analyzes the coordinating function of NSC by looking at its interrelations with Department of State, Department of Defense, and Central Intelligence Agency. Furthermore, by studying the case of 911 and Iraq War, this thesis try to find out the coordinating function the NSC play in the decision making process.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第二章 國家安全會議之職權與組織架構 6
第一節 國家安全會議之成立與發展 8
第二節 國家安全會議之組織架構與運作模式 17
第三節 國家安全會議之功能 31
第三章 國家安全會議之職權 40
第一節 國家安全顧問之成立與發展 42
第二節 國家安全顧問之職權 50
第三節 國家安全顧問扮演之協調功能 55
第四章 國家安全會議協調各機構之權力與運作方式 67
第一節 國家安全會議之跨部會協調功能 69
第二節 國家安全會議與國務院、國防部、中情局之互動模式─合作與衝突 80
第五章 國家安全會議協調各機構之權力與運作方式─個案分析 89
第一節 從「911事件」檢視國家安全會議扮演之協調角色 90
第二節 從「伊拉克戰爭」檢視國家安全會議扮演之協調角色 101
第六章 結論 110
附錄一 117
參考文獻 118

圖目錄
圖表一:艾森豪政府之國安會組織 ………………………………………………18
圖表二:尼克森政府之國安會組織 ………………………………………………23
圖表三:小布希政府之國安會組織 ………………………………………………30
圖表四:前甘迺迪時期與近代國安會功能之分野 ………………………………33
圖表五:國安會委員會之架構 ……………………………………………………70
參考文獻 參考書目

一、 中文部分:
書籍
王緝思,高處不勝寒,北京:世界知識出版社,1999年。
朱增郁,美國國家安全會議,台北:嘉新水泥公司文化基金會,民國58
年。
布里辛斯基,布里辛斯基的外交觀:卡特總統外交政策的趨向,台北:黎明文化事業公司,民國65年。
沙克,萊斯:世界上最有權利的女人,台北:晨星出版公司,民國94年。
陳明,布希政府之兩岸政策走向,台北:兩岸交流遠景基金會,民國91
年。
國防大學譯,美國國家安全架構,台北:國防大學,民國91年。
薩克萱,美國國家安全,台北:國防部史政編譯室,民國94。

碩士論文
呂志翔,美國外交決策過程─總統國家安全事務助理之取權與功能,淡江大學美國研究所,民國68年。
紀舜傑,美國國務卿與國家安全顧問權限之研究,淡江大學美國研究所,民國79年。
張守珩,小布希政府國家安全戰略之研究,政治大學外交研究所,民國92年。

期刊
林正義,「美國總統運用國家安全會議之研究」,美國總統制之運作 ,台北:中央研究院美國文化研究所,民國78年。
陳一新,「柯林頓政府台海危機決制過程─個案研究」,遠景基金會季刊, 台北:兩岸交流遠景基金會季刊,第一卷第一期。
陳明,「尼克森政府的國家安全會議」,問題與研究,十三卷,七期。

二、 英文部分:
Books
Allen, John Williams, Robert A. Vitas, U.S. National Security Policy and Strategy, 1987-1994: Documents and Policy Proposals, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Asher, Rober E., Maynard B. Barnes, Harrison Brown, Holbert N. Carroll, Robert E. Elder, H. Field Haviland, Edward L. Katzenbach, John Lindeman, Charlton Ogburn, William Reitzel, Burton M.Sapin, and Charles A. H. Thomson, The Formulation and Administration of United States Foreign Policy, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1960.
Ashton B. Carter, John P. White, et al, Keeping the Edge: Managing Defense for the Future, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, May 1, 2001.
Bardach, Eugene. Getting Agencies to Work Together: The Practice and Theory of Managerial Craftsmanship, Washing DC.: The Brookings Institution, 1998.
Best, Richard A. Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment, Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers, 2001.
Bloomfield, Lincoln P., The Foreign Policy Process: A Modern Primer, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Bradley H. Patterson Jr., The White House Staff: Inside the West Wing and Beyond, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, In Quest of National Security, Boulder: Westview Press,1988.
Cerf, Christopher, Micah L. Sifry, The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions, New York: Touchstone, 2003.
Clark, Keith and Laurence Legere, The President and the Management of National Security, New York: William Morrow & Co., 1969.
Clarke, Richard A., Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War On Terror, New York: Free Press, 2004.
Cordesmam, Anthony H., The Lessons of the Iraq War Issues Relating to Grand Strategy, Washington DC.: CSIS, 2003.
Crabb and Kevin V. Mulcahy, American National Security: A Presidential Perspective, Pacific Grove: Books/Cole, 1991.
Crane, Keith, James Dobbins, Seth G. Jones, Rollie Lal, John G. Mcginn, Andrew Rathmell, Rachel Swanger, and Anga Timilsina, America's Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, Santa Monica: Rand, 2003.
DeConde, Alexander, The American Secretary of State, New York: Frederick A
Preager, 1962.
Destler, I. M., Presidents, Bureaucrates, and Foreign Policy: the Politics of Organizational Reform, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.
Deutch, John, Arnold Kanter, and Brent Scowcroft, “Strengthening the National Security Interagency Process,” in Ashton B. Carter, John P. White, et al, Keeping the Edge: Managing Defense for the Future, Chapter 10, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001
Dobson, Alan P., U.S. Foreign Policy since 1945, London: Routledge, 2001.
Elder, Robert Ellsworth, The Policy Machine: The Department of State and American Foreign Policy, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1960.
Felix, Antonia, Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story, New York: Newsmarket Press, 2002.
Fesler, James W. and Donald F. Kettl, , The Politics of the Administrative Process Chatham: House Publishers, 1996.
Garrison, Jean A., Games Advisors Play: Foreign Policy in the Nixon and Carter Administrations, College Station: Texas A&M University, 1999.
Genovese, Michael A., The Presidency in an Age of Limits, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1993.)
Graham, Bradley, Hit to Kill, The New Battle over Shielding America from Missile Attack, New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
Hart, John, The Presidential Branch: From Washington to Clinton, Chatham: House Publishers, 1995.
Inderfurth, Karl F., Lock K. Johnson,., Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Jervis, Robert, American Foreign Policy in a New Era, New York: Routledge, 2005.
John Tower, The Tower Commission Report, New York: Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 1987.
Jordan, Amos A., Taylor Jr., William J. Mazarr, Michael J., Sam Nunn, American National Security, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Katzenstein, Peter J., The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
Koh, Harold Hongju, The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power after the Iran-Contra Affair, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Kurian, George Thomas, A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Kuypers. Jim A., Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World, Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Larson, Arthur D., National Security Affairs: A Guide to Information Sources, Westport: Gale Research Co., 1973.
Lippman, Thomas W., Madeleine Albright and the New American Diplomacy, Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.
Lord, Carnes The Presidency and the Management of National Security, New York: The Free Press, 1988.
Lowenthal, Mark M., U.S. Interlligence: Evolution and Anatomy, Westport: Praeger, 1992.
National Security and the U.S. Constitution: the Impact of the Political System Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.
Neustadt, Richard E., Preparing to Be President: The Memos of Richard E. Neustadt, Washington, DC.: American Enterprise Institute, 2000.
Pfaltzgraff, Jr. Robert L., and Uri Ra’anan, National Security Policy: The Decision-making Process, Medford: Archon Books, 1984.
Pfiffner, James P., The Managerial Presidency, College Station: Texas A&M University, 1999.
Prados, John, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush, New York: William Morrow & Company, 1991.
Preston, The President and His Inner Circle: Leadership Style and the Advisory Process in Foreign Affairs New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Reagan, Ronald, National Security Strategy of the United States, Mclean: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defense Publishers, 1988.
Relyea, Harold C., ed, The Executive Office of the President: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Guide, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Richelson, Jeffrey T., The U.S. Intelligence Community, Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.
Rositzke, Harry, The CIA’s Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action, Boulder: Westview Press, 1988.
Rothkopf, David J., Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power, New York: Public Affairs, 2005.
Sarkesian, Sam, ed., Defense Policy and the Presidency: Carter’s First Years Boulder: Westview, 1979.
Scott, James A., After the End: Making U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War World, Durham: Duke University Press, 1998
Woodward, Bob, Bush at War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
──────, The Agenda: Inside the Clinton’s White House, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994
──────, Plan of Attack, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004
Zagart, Amy B., Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Journals
Anderson, Paul. A., “Normal Failures in the Foreign Policy Advisory Process”, World Affairs, Vol. 146, 1983.
Borrelli, Maryanne, Karen Hult, and Nancy Kassop, “The White House Counsel's Office,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2001.
Brands, H. W., “George Bush and the Gulf War of 1991,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, 2004.
Burke, John P., “The Contemporary Presidency: Condoleezza Rice as NSC Advisor: A Case Study of the Honest Broker Role,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 35, Issue. 3, 2005.
Colin L. Powell, "The NSC Advisor: Process Manager and More," The Bureaucrat, 18, Summer 1989.
Cyr, Arthur, “How Important is National Security Structure to National Security Policy?” World Affairs, Vol. 146, 1983.
Daalder, Ivo H. and I. M. Destler, “Advisors, Czars and Councils: Organizing for Homeland Security,” The National Interest, Summer 2002.
Destler, I. M., “The Power Brokers: An Uneven History of the National Security Council,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 84, No. 5
Hult, Karen M., “Strengthening Presidential Decision-Making Capacity,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 30, Issue 1, 2000.
Hult, Karen M. and Kathryn Dunn Tenpas, “The Office of the Staff Secretary” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2001.
Inderfurth, Karl F. and Loch K Johnson, “The Evolving Role of the National Security Adviser: From Executive Secretary to Activist Counselor”, White House Studies, Vol. 4, 2004.
Jasper, William F., “Bush’s Wilsonian Internationalism: How Radical Is President Bush’s Globalist Agenda? Establishment Pundits Approvingly Compare Him to President Woodrow Wilson, the Icon of Modern One-Worldism,” The New American, Vol. 18, Issue 18, September 9, 2002.
Kelly, Terrence. “An Organizational Framework for Homeland Defense,” Parameters, Vol. 31, 2001.
Kurlantzick, Joshua, “The Rice Capades: Condi’s Problems Hardly Started with the 9-11 Commission. She’s been Screwing Up from the Start-And Her Mistakes Tell a Larger Story about Conservative Foreign-Policy Failures,” The American Prospect, Vol. 15, May 2004.
Lansford, Tom. “Homeland Security from Clinton to Bush: An Assessment”, White House Studies, Vol. 3, 2003.
Lobe, Jim, “Hawks flying High with Posting of Condoleezza Rice to State Department,” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Vol. 24, Issue 1, 2005.
Loch K. Johnson, and Karl F. Inderfurth “The Evolving Role of the National Security Adviser: From Executive Secretary to Activist Counselor,” White House Studies, Summer, 2004.
Newmann, W. William, “Causes of Change in National Security Processes: Carter, Reagan, and Bush Decision Making on Arms Control,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, Issue 1, 2001.
──────, “The Structures of National Security Decision Making: Leadership, Institutions, and Politics in the Carter, Reagan, and G.. H. W. Bush Years,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34, Issue 2, 2004.
Pfiffner, James P., “Did President Bush Mislead the Country in His Arguments for War with Iraq?” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 2004.
Pillar, Paul R., “Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85 Issue 2, Mar/Apr, 2006.
Relyea, Harold C., “The Law: Homeland Security: the Concept and Coordination Office—First Assessment,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, Issue 2, 2002.
“Present at the Dissolution” The Nation, Vol. 277, Issue 5, August 18, 2003.
“Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change,” The Phase III Report of the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century, February 15, 2001.
Rockman, Bert A., “America’s Departments of State: Irregular and Regular Syndromes of Policy Making”, American Political Science Review, Dec., 1981
Rothkopf, David J., “Inside the Committee That Runs the World,” Foreign Policy, Issuse: 147, March-April 2005.
Wert, Joseph L., “In the Web of Politics: Three Decades of the U.S. Federal Executive,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 61, Issue 4, 2001.

Newspapers
“Bush: Iraq Invasion My Responsibility,” The New York Times, December 15, 2005.
Isby, David C., “The New National Security Council; Choice of Deputy Advisers Reveals white House Priorities,” The Washington Times, A21, April 26, 2005.
Uranium Quicksand, The New York Times, July 15, 2003.

Websites
Baker Peter, “The Security Adviser Who Wants The role, Not the State,” published on the website of The Washington Post.
Clark, Keith and Laurence Legere, “The President and the Management of National Security,” published on the website of AARC.
Daalder, Ivo H. and I. M. Destler, “A New NSC for a New Administration,” published on the website of the Brookings Institution.
──────., “More than a Few Campaign Stops: How Rice has Changed the Role of National Security Advisor,” published on the website of Center for American Progress.
Equipped for the Future: Managing U.S. Foreign Affair in the 21st Century, published on the website of The Henry L. Stimson Center.
“History of the National Security Council, 1947-1997,” published on the website of The White House.
“Homeland Security Presidential Directive-1,” published on the website of The Organization and Operation of the Homeland Security Council. http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/hspd-1.htm
Interagency Complex Contingency Operations Handbook, published on the website of Air War College Gateway & USAF Counterproliferation Center.
Moens, Alexander, “The Foreign Policy Decision Making Process of the George W. Bush Administration.
“National Security Council Institutional Files,” published on the website of National Archives and Records Administration.
Pfiffner, James P., “President George W. Bush and His War Cabinet,”
“Presidential Directives on National Security from Truman to Clinton,” published on the website of The Digital National Security Archive.
Rice, Condoleezza, “How to Pursue the National Interest,” published on the website of Hoover Institute.
Whittaker, Alan G., Frederick C. Smith, and Elizabeth McKune, “The National Security Policy Process: The National Security Council and Interagency System,” published on the website of the Education and After Action Review (ITEA).


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