||The Effects of Ethical Work Climate on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Commitment in the Taiwanese Military：the Mediating Role of Person-Organization Fit
||Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
ethical work climate(EWC)
organizational citizenship behavior(OCB)
person-organization fit(P-O fit)
||軍事組織是一個特別、高風險及高度科層制度的環境。軍隊中若發生不道德或虐待行為則常導致人員傷亡並引起社會的不安。每一個組織都它自己的倫理氣候，而軍事單位也不例外。軍事組織與企業以及一般機構相似，事實上現代的CEO功能與制度是根據德國總參謀部(German General Staff)演變而來。本研究是首次對軍事單位調查有關倫理工作氣候(ethical work climate, EWC)對組織公民行為及組織承諾的影響，並以個人與組織配適度(person-organization fit, P-O fit)做為中介關係進行探討。
2.法律與規範型氣候(law and code climate)和角色內行為、對組織有利的組織行為(OCBO)之間有顯著性關係，且個人與組織配適在其中也具有部分中介關係。
本研究對於倫理工作氣候的應用與管理實務進行諸多討論，並對未來研究方向提出一些建議。特別的是我們對於國家民族性差異(nationality differences)的華人文化脈絡相關應用進行討論，例如：權力距離(power-distance)、儒家中庸思想(Confucian Doctrine of the Mean)、五倫(wu-lun)、關係(quanxi)以及報(pao)的觀念。
||The military has a distinctive, high risk, and hierarchical organizational environment. Unethical or abusive behavior occurs in the military that leads to casualties and causes social unrest. Every organization has its own ethical climate, and military organizations are no exception. This is the first study to investigate how ethical work climates (EWCs) are related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational commitment (OC) in military units by considering the mediating role of person-organization fit (P-O fit).
Research hypotheses were examined using sample data collected from 508 military officers in Taiwan. The results indicated that the EWC was significantly positively related to OCB, OC, and P-O fit. The P-O fit was significantly positively associated with OCB and OC. Therefore, the relationships between EWC and OCB and that between EWC and OC were partially mediated by P-O fit.
Regarding the results concerning the mediating effect of P-O fit on the relationships between types of EWCs and facets of OCB are as follow:
1.The relationships between the caring climate and IRB and that between the caring climate and OCBI were partially mediated by P-O fit.
2.The relationships between the law and code climate and IRB and that between the law and code climate and OCBO were partially mediated by P-O fit.
3.The relationships between the rules climate and IRB and that between the rules climate and OCBI were partially mediated by P-O fit. In addition, the relationship between the rules climate and OCBO was partially mediated by P-O fit.
4.The relationship between the instrumental climate and OCBO was partially mediated by P-O fit.
5.The relationships between the independence climate and OCBI and that between the independence climate and OCBO were partially mediated by P-O fit.
The relationships between EWC types and components of OC are as follow:
1.The relationships between the caring climate and AC and that between the caring climate and NC were partially mediated by P-O fit.
2.The relationships between the law and code climate and CC and that between the law and code climate and NC were partially mediated by P-O fit.
3.The relationships between the rules climate and AC and that between the rules climate and CC were partially mediated by P-O fit, but between the rules climate and NC was fully mediated by P-O fit.
4.The relationships between the instrumental climate and AC and that between the instrumental climate and CC were partially mediated by P-O fit.
5.The relationship between the independence climate and CC was partially mediated by P-O fit, but between the independence climate and NC was fully mediated by P-O fit.
Implications of EWC and practical management are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested. Especially, we discussed the implications of nationality differences about Chinese culture context, like power-distance, Confucian Doctrine of the Mean, wu-lun, quanxi, and pao.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT IN CHINESE ------------II
ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH ------------IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS --------------VI
LIST OF FIGURES-----------------IX
LIST OF TABLES-------------------X
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION----1
1.1 Background and motivation----1
1.2 Research questions and objectives----2
1.3 The organization of this dissertation----6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW, THEORETICAL INFERENCE AND HYPOTHESES----7
2.1 Ethical work climate----7
2.1.2 Law and code----8
2.1.6 Implications of the ethical work climate in military units----------9
2.2 Organizational citizenship behavior----------10
2.2.1 Organizational citizenship behavior in military units----------11
2.2.2 Ethical work climate and organizational citizenship behavior in military units----------11
Akdogan, A. A., & Demirtas, O. (2015). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130, 59–67.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252–276.
Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical climate: The influence of person–organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 323–333.
Andrews, M. C., Baker, T., & Hunt, T. G. (2011). Values and person-organization fit. Does moral intensity strengthen outcomes? Leadership & Organization, 32(1), 5-19.
Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086–1120.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Academy of Marking Science, 16(1), 76–94.
Barnett, T., & Schubert, E. (2002). Perceptions of the ethical work climate and covenantal relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(3), 279–290.
Barksdale, K., & Werner, J. M. (2001). Managerial ratings of in-role behaviors, organizational citizenship behaviors, and overall performance: Testing different models of their relationship. Journal of Business Research, 51(2), 145–155.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between and employee citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587–595.
Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588–600.
Birtch, T. A., & Chiang, F. F. (2014). The influence of business school’s ethical climate on students’ unethical behavior. Journal of Business Research, 123(2), 283–294.
Blakely, G. L., Srivastava, A., & Moorman, R. H. (2005). The effects of nationality, work role centrality, and work locus of control on role definitions of OCB. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(1), 103–117.
Blau, P. (1964). Power and exchange in social life. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Bowen, D. E., Ledford, Jr. G. E., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Executive, 5(4), 35–51.
Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of 77 subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 875–884.
Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person-organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(3), 294–311.
Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Interviewers’ perceptions of person– organization fit and organizational selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 546–561.
Caplan, R. D. (1987). Person