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系統識別號 U0002-1902201020390400
中文論文名稱 以英文單字聯想法評估台灣大專生英語能力之研究
英文論文名稱 WORD ASSOCIATION SKILLS AS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN EVALUATING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY LEVELS OF COLLEGE EFL LEARNERS IN TAIWAN
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 黃淑宜
研究生英文姓名 Su-yi Huang
學號 892010223
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-01-15
論文頁數 278頁
口試委員 指導教授-林春仲
委員-黃自來
委員-陳秀潔
委員-范瑞玲
委員-王藹玲
中文關鍵字 單字聯想測驗  標準化測驗  語法聯想  語意聯想  事件式聯想 
英文關鍵字 Word Association Test (WAT)  standardized test  syntagmatic responses  paradigmatic responses  episodic memory 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在從台灣大專生英文單字聯想類型評估學生英語能力之可行性研究。總計台灣北部兩所大學三百零七名學生參加本研究。受測者依多益成績,以歐盟語言能力分級標準做為英文能力分級標準。研究工具為2006年版多益官方模擬測驗、施密特單字量測驗、單字聯想測驗及社經背景問卷。本研究先確立提示字之詞類為干擾因素後,就單字聯想類型與以多益成績為指標的英文能力做相關係數分析,進而確立一迴歸模式,以彰顯英文單字聯想類型在推估學習者整體英語能力上的具體貢獻。研究結果顯示語意聯想能力與英語整體能力有顯著正相關,字形與語音聯想比率則與英文能力有顯著負相關。而所建立的迴歸模式確認,可經由單字量與單字聯想測驗中的語意聯想及字形字音聯想,有效推估學生英文水準。此外,從聯想測驗的質性研究中,亦針對語意、語音及搭配詞等聯想實例及謬誤加以分析,透過單字聯想測驗成果,除確認單字深度與英文能力之關聯性外,並就聯想字所展現母語語言、文化之影響,剖析藉單字聯想實例,映證第二語言習得之理論。
英文摘要 This dissertation aims to better understand the interrelatedness of language proficiency and word association skills among Taiwanese L2 learners, and the impact of L1 on Taiwanese EFL learners' L2 mental lexicon. The study examines the correlation between Taiwanese EFL learner’s word association skills and their English proficiency levels. A mock TOEIC test, a vocabulary size test, a word association test (WAT), and a socio-linguistic questionnaire were administered to 307 subjects from two universities in northern Taiwan. Findings showed that the parts of speech of the stimulus words were a moderating variable in affecting the response types in the WAT. Based on this result, a regression model was set up to test the feasibility of using word association skills as a contributing factor in evaluating learners’ English proficiency. Results from multiple regression analyses confirmed that in addition to vocabulary size, two types of responses (i.e., semantic and formal associations) in the WAT were useful factors for interpreting the variation in English proficiency. In terms of semantic associations, there is significant correlation between English proficiency and the proportion of syntagmatic responses in a WAT. As to formal associations, there is significant inverse correlation between the proportion of phonological/ orthographical associations and these learners’ English proficiency levels. Moreover, qualitative analyses were conducted to provide evidence of L1 influence on word association skills, and to demonstrate the collocational mismatches caused by differences between L1 and L2. More specifically, responses related to L1 influences, both linguistically and culturally, were analyzed to shed light on the impact of the mother tongue on second language acquisition. Pedagogical implications and teaching applications of word association research were also proposed.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………….i
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………iv
English Abstract………………………………………….……………v
Table of Contents…………………………………………………vii
List of Tables…………………………………………………….xi
List of Figures…………………………………………………….xiv
List of Appendices………………………………………………...xv
Chapter One Introduction…………………..……………..…….1
Statement of the Problem………………..…………..……6
Statement of the Purpose…………………………........7
Research Questions……………………………………….…10
Definition of Terms…………………………………………11
Significance of the Study……………………….…….…15
Organization of the Dissertation………………….….17
Chapter Two Review of the Literature……….………….....20
Background of Vocabulary Acquisition………………...20
Word Association Studies…………………………………48
English Proficiency and Word Association
Studies...............................……………..92
Summary……………………………………………………….95
Chapter Three Methodology…………………..………………..98
Participants……………………….……..……………...98
Instruments……………….………………..…………….102
Procedure…….…..…………………….…………………105
Scoring…………….……………………………………….108
Data Analysis….….………………………………………113
Chapter Four Results…………………..………………………115
English Proficiency vs. Vocabulary Size and
Vocabulary Depth……………………………………….…116
Correlation Analysis…………………………………….120
Part of Speech of the Prompt Words as a
Moderating Variable……………………………………….123
Setting up a Multiple Regression
Model.............................................125
Results from the Word Association Test (WAT)......133
Results from the Socio-linguistic Questionnaire….142
Summary……………………………………………………...147
Chapter Five Discussion…………………………………...….150
English Proficiency vs. Vocabulary Size and
Vocabulary Depth………….………………..…………….150
Part of Speech of the Prompt Words as a Moderating
Variable……………………………………………........162
Verification of the Regression Model………………..168
Findings from the Word Association Test (WAT)…….173
Qualitative Analysis of WAT in Reference to
the Impact of L1……..……………………………….….177
Summary…………………………………………….........181
Chapter Six Conclusions…………………………….........183
Word Association Skills and English Proficiency
Levels………......................................184
The Impact of L1 on Word Association Skills……….187
Pedagogical Implications…………....…............189
Limitations of the Study………………………………..191
Suggestions for Further Study………………………….194
References……………………………………………………......197
Appendices…………………………………………………........224
Appendix A…………………………………………………........224
Appendix B……………………………………………………......225
Appendix C……………………………………………………......230
Appendix D……………………………………………………......234
Appendix E..............................................236
Appendix F..............................................265
Appendix G..............................................270
Appendix H..............................................274
Appendix I..............................................277

List of Tables
Table 2.1 Sample of Kent-Rosanoff's Association Frequency Table……………..50
Table 2.2 Average Percentages of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Associations for Nine Adult Normative Collections:
1910—2009………………………………………………………………..74
Table 2.3 Distribution of Word Class for Stimulus Words and Responses
in WAT…………………………………………………………………...75
Table 3.1 Conversion Chart of the Proficiency Levels for TOEIC and GEPT
on the CEFR Scale……………….…………………………………….100
Table 3.2 Grouping of the Participants in the Present Study…………………...101
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics Regarding English Proficiency, Levels of
Vocabulary Size and Response Types in WAT………………………...117
Table 4.2 Correlation Coefficients between Language Proficiency and
Levels of Vocabulary Size ...……………………………………………120
Table 4.3 Correlation Coefficients between English Proficiency and Response
Types in the WAT......................................................................................121
Table 4.4 Chi-Square Analysis between Parts of Speech of the Stimuli and
the Response Types……………………………………………………..124
Table 4.5 Parameter Estimates of the Regression Model……………………….126
Table 4.6 Overall Test of the Multiple Regression Model ..…………………….127
Table 4.7 Parameter Estimates of the Regression Model by Noun…………….128
Table 4.8 Parameter Estimates of the Regression Model by Verb……………..129
xi i
Table 4.9 Parameter Estimates of the Regression Model
by Adjective…………………………………………………………….130
Table 4.10 Proportion of Syntagmatic, and Paradigmatic Responses
by Proficiency…………………………………………………………..132
Table 4.11 Average Formal Responses in Reference to
English Proficiency…………………………………………………..132
Table 4.12 Responses to the Prompt Word Needle and its
Frequency Count……………..………………………………………133
Table 4.13 Distribution of Responses in the WAT……………………………...134
Table 4.14 Descriptive Statistics of the Responses in the Word
Association Test………………………………………………………135
Table 4.15 Sample of the Prompt and Related Information ...………...……....136
Table 4.16 Phonological Responses in the WAT……………………………..….137
Table 4.17 Examples of Misspelled Words…………………………………..….138
Table 4.18 Examples of Syntagmatic Errors from L1 Literal
Translation in L2…………………………………………………....139
Table 4.19 Clustering of Episodes/ Events in WAT Responses……………….140
Table 4.20 Associations with Cultural notes……………………………...……141
Table 4.21 Responses Related to the Influence of Mass Media………………141
Table 4.22 Educational Background of the Participants’ Parents…………...143
Table 4.23 The Participants’ TOEIC Scores by Response Type
in the WAT…………………………………………………….……144
xi ii
Table 4.24 Mean Score by Parents’ Monthly Incomes……………………..144
Table 4.25 Survey Concerning Participants’ English
Learning Habits………………………………………………….146
Table 4.26 Factors Affecting Word Association Results in
the Order of Importance……………………………….…..…....147
Table 5.1 Identical Primary Responses in Two Studies………….…..…….176
Table 5.2 Coordinate Responses in Two Studies……………..…………….177

List of Figures
Figure 2.1 The Internal Structure of the Lexical Entry..…………………………38
Figure 2.2 Lexical Representation and Processing at the Initial Stage
of Lexical Development in L2………….………………………………40
Figure 2.3 Lexical Representation and Processing
in L2 at the Second Stage...………………….………………………….42
Figure 2.4 Lexical Representation and Processing
in L2 at the Third Stage….……………………………………………..42
Figure 2.5 Lexical Development in L2: from the Formal Stage
to the Integration Stage…………………………………………………43
Figure 4.1 Model for Evaluating English Proficiency………………..………….119

List of Appendices
Appendix A Score Conversion Chart by the Executive Yuan
in Taiwan………….………………………………………………224
Appendix B Schmitt’s Vocabulary Level Test (Version 2)………………….…225
Appendix C Socio-linguistic Questionnaire & Its Results…………………….230
Appendix D Word Association Test…………………………………………….234
Appendix E List of Non-idiosyncratic Responses and
Their Frequencies………………………………………………….236
Appendix F Distribution of the Responses in the WAT……………………….265
Appendix G Prompt Words and Related Data………………………………...270
Appendix H Examples of the Clustering of Concepts/ Images for Paradigmatic
and Syntagmatic Responses in the WAT……………..………....274
Appendix I Comparison of Stimuli and Responses between this Study and
Koff & Feldman’s Study.…………………..……………………277
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