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中文論文名稱 輸入訊息處理教學法對學習英語間接疑問詞問句的成效: 以大一學生為例
英文論文名稱 The Effectiveness of Processing Instruction on Teaching Indirect Wh-questions: A Case Study of University Freshman
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 邱以冠
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Kuan Chiu
學號 690010201
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-07-20
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-范瑞玲
委員-陳純音
委員-林怡弟
中文關鍵字 輸入訊息處理教學法  間接問句 
英文關鍵字 processing instruction  input  indirect wh-question 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文主要研究輸入訊息處理教學法與傳統教學法對文法學習的成效差異。輸入訊息處理教學法是由學者Bill VanPatten所提出,主要強調藉由針對學習者所獲得的訊息給予有效的處理可使學習者在學習新的語言時能有更好的學習效率。 相對來說,由於傳統式教學法著重在文法練習,並未對學習者一開始所接觸到的新訊息做有效的處理,因此有可能會降低學習成效。 本論文的主要目的就在於證明輸入式教學法能提供學習者較好的學習成效,以作為傳統式教學法的一個替代選擇。受試者是三班大一學生,所學習的文法是英文的間接問句。依照班級分為輸入式教學組,傳統式教學組,而另一組不接受任何教學作為對照組。學生於教學後分別接受兩次測驗,兩次測驗當中都包含理解與造句測驗來檢視學生的學習成效。結果顯示,輸入式教學法的成效在理解與造句測驗上皆優於傳統
式教學法,並對學生在長期記憶上有較好的影響。
英文摘要 The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of Processing Instruction on grammar learning, compared with Traditional Instructions. Processing Instruction,proposed by Bill VanPatten, focuses on learners’ input and is able to let learners have better form-meaning connections to learn a new language more efficiently. On the contrary, Traditional Instruction emphasizes more on output practice, which is the last stage of the learning. The target structure of the present study was indirect wh-questions. The subjects were from three language drills classes in a private university located in northern Taiwan. They were divided into three different groups: one received Processing Instruction, another one received Traditional Instruction, and the other one received no instruction to be the control group. An immediate posttest and a delayed posttest were conducted to assess the effect of different instructions. Both posttests consisted of a comprehension task and two types of production tasks. The results showed that PI group performed better than TI group in both comprehension and production tasks. In terms of the long-term effect, PI group also showed better performance than TI group. To conclude, Processing Instruction had better effect than Traditional Instruction on both comprehension and production tasks and also showed its superiority on long-term effect.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………1

1.1 ResearchBackground…………………………………… 1
1.2 Purpose of theStudy……………………………………4
1.3 Research Questions……………………… ……………5
1.4 Significance of the Study……………………………6
1.5 Definition of Terms……………………………………7
1.6 Organization of the Study……………………………8

2. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………10
2.1 The Importance of Input in Second Language Learning..10
2.2 Input Processing………………………………………12
2.2.1 The Rationale of Input Processing…………… 13
2.2.1.1 The Primacy of Meaning…………………………14
2.2.1.2 The First Noun Strategy……………………… 18
2.2.2 Developing System and Output……………………20
2.3 The Traditional Instruction…………………21
2.3.1 Grammar Translation Method (GTM)………………22
2.3.2 Audio Lingual Method (ALM)………………………23
2.3.3 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)……… 25
2.4 Processing Instruction………………………28
2.4.1 Guidelines for Processing Instruction………29
2.5 Findings of Processing Instruction……………31
2.5.1 Positive Findings of Processing Instruction…31
2.5.2 Other Findings of Processing Instruction……38
2.6 Summary of Chapter 2....................40

3. METHDOLOGY……………………………………………42
3.1 Subjects………………………………………………42
3.2 Instruments…………………………………………43
3.3 Treatment and Procedures…………………………45
3.4 Scoring Procedure and Data Analysis…………52

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS…………………………………54
4.1 Results……………………………………………………54
4.1.1 Results of the Comprehension Task………………55
4.1.2 Results of the production tasks…………………60
4.2 Discussions of the findings………………………75
4.2.1 The Immediate Effect of Processing Instruction…75
4.2.2 The Long-term Effect of Processing Instruction…79
4.2.3 Possible Explanations for the Effect of Traditional
Instruction...81
4.3 Summary of Chapter 4……………………………82

5. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………84
5.1 Summary of the Study……………………………84
5.2 Pedagogical Implications………………………86
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further
Research…88

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………90
APPENDIX A: Background Survey Questionnaire…………96
APPENDIX B: Pretest…………………………………………97
APPENDIX C: Posttest……………………………………100
APPENDIX D: Delayed Posttest…………………………103
APPENDIX E: School Syllabus…………………………106
APPENDIX F: TI Lesson Plans…………………………108
APPENDIX G: PI Lesson Plans…………………………112
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Paulston’s Taxonomy of Practice Types and Their Sequential Ordering…….27
Table 3.1 Three Types of Indirect Wh-questions……………………………………….48
Table 4.1 One-way ANOVA of Pretest…………………………………………………54
Table 4.2 Mean Raw Scores and Standard Deviations for the Comprehension Task…55
Table 4.3 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest…………….56
Table 4.4 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest …………………….………………57
Table 4.5 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest …………………….…………………57
Table 4.6 Mean Gain Scores and Standard Deviations for the Comprehension Task…..58
Table 4.7 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest……………...58
Table 4.8 Post-hoc Scheffe of Gain Scores of Immediate Posttest………………………59
Table 4.9 Post-hoc Scheffe of Gain Scores of Delayed Posttest……...………………….59
Table 4.10 Mean Raw Scores and Standard Deviations for the Sentence Completion Task…61
Table 4.11 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………62
Table 4.12 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………….62
Table 4.13 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest…………………........................................63
Table 4.14 Mean Gain Scores and Standard Deviations for the Sentence Completion Task…63
Table 4.15 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………….64
Table 4.16 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest………………..........................................64
Table 4.17 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest………………………………………..……65
Table 4.18 Mean Raw Scores and Standard Deviations for the Sentence Creation Task…….65
Table 4.19 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………….66
Table 4.20 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest…..............................................................67
Table 4.21 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest………………………….………………….67
Table 4.22 Mean Gain Scores and Standard Deviations for the Sentence Creation Task……68
Table 4.23 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………….68
Table 4.24 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest…………………………………………..69
Table 4.25 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest…………………..........................................69
Table 4.26 Mean Raw Scores and Standard Deviations for the Production Task……………70
Table 4.27 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest…………………71
Table 4.28 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest………………………………………….71
Table 4.29 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest…………………..........................................72
Table 4.30 Mean Gain Scores and Standard Deviations for the Production Task…………….72
Table 4.31 One-way ANOVA of Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest………………….73
Table 4.32 Post-hoc Scheffe of Immediate Posttest………………………………………….73
Table 4.33 Post-hoc Scheffe of Delayed Posttest…………………..........................................74
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Second Language Acquisition Model………………………………..13
Figure 4.1 Results of the Comprehension Task Using Mean Raw Scores………56
Figure 4.2 Results of the Sentence Completion Task Using Mean Raw Scores…61
Figure 4.3 Results of the Sentence Creating Task: Using Mean Raw Scores…….66
Figure 4.4 Results of the Production Task: Using Mean Raw Scores…………….70
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