||NEEDS ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CURRICULUM DESIGN OF AN ENGLISH TEXTBOOK FOR CHLDCARE LEARNERS: A CASE STUDY OF A PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IN NORTHERN TAIWAN
||Department of English
Needs Analysis of ESP Childcare English
ESP Childcare Curriculum Design
Quantitative Results for ESP Childcare Curriculum
Qualitative Results for ESP Childcare Curriculum
在聽力，口語，閱讀或寫作部分，研究結果顯示：實驗組和控制組的後測成績之間存在顯著差異。在聽力部分，獨立樣本的T檢定顯示，聽力部分的實驗組和控制組的後測評分存在顯著差異（t = 13.12，p <0.001）。實驗組（平均值= 69.19，SD = 11.53）比控制組（平均值= 38.21，SD = 11.47）得分更高。
在口說部分，獨立樣本的T檢定顯示，口語部分的實驗組和控制組的測試後評分之間存在顯著差異（t = 19.2，p <0.001）。實驗組（平均= 79.79，SD = 10.00）的得分高於控制組（平均= 39.57，SD = 10.42）。
在閱讀部分，獨立樣本T檢定顯示，閱讀部分的實驗組和控制組的測試後評分之間存在顯著差異（t = 7.75，p <0.001）。實驗組（平均= 52.54，SD = 13.13）的得分高於對照組（平均= 33.77，SD = 10.30）。
在寫作部分，獨立樣本T檢定顯示，寫作部分的實驗組和控制組的測試後評分之間存在顯著差異（t = 9.99，p <0.001）。實驗組（平均值= 55.10，SD = 13.97）比控制組（平均值= 27.66，SD = 12.76）得分更高。該研究還調查了聽力（平均值= 69.19，SD = 11.53）和口說（平均值= 79.79，SD = 10.00）之間的相關性。皮爾森（Pearson）的相關性分析表明，聽和說之間存在顯著的相關性（r = 0.76，p <0.01）。同樣地，該研究也調查了閱讀（平均值= 52.54，SD = 13.13）和寫作（平均值= 55.10，SD = 13.97）之間的相關性。皮爾森（Pearson）的相關性分析顯示，讀寫之間存在顯著的相關性（r =0 .73，p <0.01）。
||The purpose of this study was primarily aimed at developing an English textbook customized for the students from the Department of Child Care and Education in Taiwan so as to prepare our students as the professional ESP kindergarten teachers if they expect to work overseas. Moreover, after taking ESP Childcare English, the effectiveness of the curriculum design will be discussed as well so as to make an improvement of the textbook that will be used in the future.
This study was conducted at a vocational university in Taoyuan, Taiwan, and two classes from the Department of Child Care and Education were selected to participate in this study. One class with 48 students were chosen as experimental group and the other class with 47 students were chosen as control group. Both groups would take the pre-test to see their current level and after one semester, they would take the post-test to see whether they had made a progress after taking ESP childcare English course. The tests the students took was based on the content of the customized textbook.
The experimental group would be provided with ESP teaching materials while the control group would be provided with EGP teaching materials. The teaching materials were edited on the basis of the needs analysis of 204 students from the Department of Child Care and Education. After one semester, the learning efficiency for the experimental group would be evaluated. Aside from the quantitative method, 7 written open questions (see Appendix IX) were conducted to perceive the perspectives of the students and their insights towards the ESP curriculum design. The learners’ viewpoints were taken as a basis for the future improvement of the textbook.
With regard to the section of listening, speaking, reading, or writing, the results revealed that there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental class and control class. An independent-samples t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and control group (t = 13.12, p < 0.001) for the listening section. The experimental group (Mean = 69.19, SD= 11.53) received higher scores than the control group (Mean = 38.21, SD = 11.47). An independent-samples t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and control group (t = 19.2, p < 0.001) for the speaking section. The experimental group (Mean = 79.79, SD = 10.00) received higher scores than the control group (Mean = 39.57, SD = 10.42). An independent-samples t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and control group (t = 7.75, p < 0.001) for the reading section. The experimental group (M= 52.54, SD = 13.13) received higher scores than the control group (Mean = 33.77, SD = 10.30). An independent-samples t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and control group (t= 9.99, p < 0.001) for the writing section. The experimental group (Mean = 55.10, SD = 13.97) received higher scores than that of the control group (Mean = 27.66, SD = 12.76).
The study also investigated the relationship between listening (Mean= 69.19, SD = 11.53) and speaking (Mean = 79.79, SD = 10.00). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between listening and speaking (r=0.76, p < 0.01). Likewise, the study investigated the relationship between reading (M= 52.54, SD = 13.13) and writing (M= 55.10, SD = 13.97). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between reading and writing (r=0.73, p < 0.01).
Apart from that, the qualitative results revealed that ESP childcare curriculum was beneficial to the childcare learners to a certain extent. childcare learners felt that ESP Childcare English provided both professional knowledge and general English at the same time. The reasons that learners favored ESP childcare courses were as follows: (1) They had an opportunity to study professional terminology and knowledge relevant to their childcare major; (2) They felt their motivation and interesting upgraded for the reasons that the textbook was associated with the field of childcare and the learning was meaningful for them; (3) They felt the content of the course was interesting, plentiful and diverse; (4) The ESP content was both lively and practical for future career; (5) The content of the textbook was extremely uncomplicated and easy to understand as the textbook was customized for them.
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 01
1.1 Background of the Study 01
1.2 Statement of the Problem 05
1.2.1 English Policy in Singapore 05
1.2.2 English Policy in Taiwan 07
126.96.36.199 English Education in Elementary Schools 08
188.8.131.52 English Language Exit Policy 09
184.108.40.206 English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Higher Education 10
1.2.3 Present English Problem for Taiwanese Childcare Learners 12
1.3 Purpose of the Study 13
1.4 Research Questions 14
1.5 Significance of the Study 15
1.6 Definition of Terms 15
1.7 Organization of the Study 17
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.1 English for Specific Purposes 21
2.1.1 The Origins of ESP 21
220.127.116.11 The Demands of a Brave New World 22
18.104.22.168 A Revolution in Linguistics 23
22.214.171.124 Focus on the Learner 24
2.1.2 The Development of ESP 25
126.96.36.199 The Concept of Special Language: Register Analysis 25
188.8.131.52 Beyond the Sentence: Rhetorical or Discourse Analysis 26
184.108.40.206 Target Situation Analysis 27
220.127.116.11 Skills and Strategies 28
18.104.22.168 A Learning-Centered Approach 29
2.1.3 Definition and Characteristics of ESP 29
2.1.4 The Classification of ESP 31
2.1.5 The Advantages of ESP courses 38
2.1.6 Related ESP Research with childcare English Curriculum Design 39
2.2 Needs Analysis (NA) 43
2.2.1 Meanings of Needs and Needs Analysis 44
2.2.2 Components of ESP Needs Analysis 47
22.214.171.124 Target Situation Analysis (TSA) 48
126.96.36.199 Learning Situation Analysis (LSA) 49
188.8.131.52 Present Situation Analysis (PSA) 49
184.108.40.206 Means Analysis 50
2.2.3 Four Models of ESP Need s Analysis 51
220.127.116.11 Munby’s Model of ESP Needs Analysis 51
18.104.22.168 McDonough’s Model of ESP Needs Analysis 53
22.214.171.124 Hutchinson and Waters’ Model of ESP Needs Analysis 54
126.96.36.199 Dudley-Evans and St. John’ Model of ESP Needs Analysis 56
2.2.4 Implementation of Needs Analysis (NA) in ESP Course Design 58
2.3 ESP Curriculum 60
2.3.1 Course Design for ESP 60
2.3.2 Parameters of Course Design 60
2.3.3 Approaches to Course Design 61
188.8.131.52 Language-Centered Course Design 62
184.108.40.206 Skills-Centered Course Design 63
220.127.116.11 A Learning–Centered Approach 65
2.4 Materials for ESP 68
2.4.1 Authenticity 68
2.4.2 Materials Evaluation 71
2.5 Course Evaluation 72
2.5.1 What Should Be Evaluated 72
2.5.2 How Could ESP Courses Be Evaluated? 73
2.5.3 Who Should be Involved in the Evaluation? 73
2.5.4 When Should Evaluation Take Place? 74
2.6 The Role of ESP Teacher 75
2.6.1 The ESP Practitioner as Teacher 75
2.6.2 The ESP Practitioner as Course Designer and Materials Provider 76
2.6.3 The ESP Practitioner as Collaborator 77
2.6.4 The ESP Practitioner as Evaluator 77
2.7 Evaluation of ESP Learners 78
2.7.1 Placement Tests 79
2.7.2 Achievement Tests 80
2.7.3 Proficiency Tests 81
2.8 The Changing Role and Importance of ESP in Asia 81
2.8.1 Views on the Future of ESP 82
2.8.2 Three Trends for Future ESP Teaching 83
18.104.22.168 The Impact of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in ESP 83
22.214.171.124 ESP in support of English-Mediated Instruction (EMI) 84
126.96.36.199 Corpus-Informed ESP teaching 86
2.9 Summary 87
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 88
3.1 Research Design 88
3.2 Research Questions 90
3.3 Participants 92
3.4 Instruments 94
3.4.1 Questionnaire 94
3.4.2 The Pre-test and Post-test for Listening and Reading 95
3.4.3 The Pre-test and Post-test for Speaking and Writing 96
3.4.4 Written Open-ended Questions 97
3.4.5 Description of the Textbook Practical English for Childcare Learners (see Appendix X) 97
3.5 Data Collection 98
3.6 Data Analysis 100
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 102
4.1 What are the Child-Care learners’ TSA (Target Situation Analysis), LSA (Learning Situation Analysis) and PSA (Present Situation Analysis)? 102
4.2 In terms of listening, speaking, reading and writing, were there any significant difference between the post-test scores of the experimental class and those of the control class? 106
4.3 What’s the correlation between learners’ ESP Listening and Speaking performance, and between their Reading and Writing performance? 111
4.4 What are the qualitative results of learners’ viewpoints on the ESP course design? 114
4.4.1 Do you like the content of the textbook for ESP Childcare English? Do you feel that this textbook provides you with some professional knowledge about childcare? 114
4.4.2 In the textbook, which part is your favorite and the most helpful for you? What contents, in your opinion, should be added to this English childcare textbook in order to meet the needs of your workplace? 120
4.4.3 Do you like the listening exercises in the textbook? How did the listening exercises help you? 127
4.4.4 Did you like the conversation part and oral practice sections of the textbook? How did these two parts help you? Please explain your viewpoints in detail. 130
4.4.5: Did you like the sentence-writing practice? How did the sentence-writing practice (sentence merging, sentence rewriting, sentence re-ordering) help you? Please explain your reasons in detail. 136
4.4.6 Did you like the attached parts of the textbook, such as English children’s songs section, childcare internship dialogs and classroom English? How did these parts help you? Please explain your reasons in detail. 139
4.4.7 Do you have any other comments or suggestions regarding the course instruction and textbook? 147
4.5 Summary of Major Findings 149
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 155
5.1 Summary of the Study 155
5.2 Discussions of the Study 158
5.2.1 The Importance of Needs Analysis While Designing ESP Courses 158
5.2.2 The Need to Promote ESP Curriculum for Taiwanese Learners 161
5.2.3 The Need to Teach Relevant Skills (Listening/Speaking or Reading/Writing) in ESP Courses 164
5.2.4 Major Types of Content Suggested for Inclusion in an ESP Childcare Course 166
5.3 Implications and Future Research of the Study 175
5.4 Limitations and Suggestions of the Study 176
Appendix I: Questionnaire for Learners (English Version) 195
Appendix II: Questionnaire for Learners (Chinese Version) 200
Appendix III: Childcare Learners’ Learning Needs 203
Appendix IV: Listening Test for Pre-test and Post-test 206
Appendix V: Speaking Test for Pre-test and Post-test 211
Appendix VI: Reading Test for Pre-test and Post-test 212
Appendix VII: Writing Test for Pre-Test and Post-Test 217
Appendix VIII: Open-Ended Questions for Learners (English Version) 219
Appendix IX: Open-Ended Questions for Learners (Chinese Version) 220
Appendix X: Contents for the Textbook “Practical English for Childcare Learners” 221
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Examples for TSA, LSA, and PSA (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 124) 50
Table 3.1 Recruitment of Students Participants 93
Table 3.2 Students’ Language Proficiency Index 93
Table 3.3 Analysis Methods Applied in the Research 101
Table 4.1 Learning Needs Before the ESP Program 103
Table 4.2 Independent Samples T-est for Listening (Pre-test) 106
Table 4.3 Independent Samples T-test for Listening (Post-test) 107
Table 4.4 Independent Samples T-test for Speaking (Pre-test) 108
Table 4.5 Independent Samples T-test for Speaking (Post-test) 108
Table 4.6 Independent Samples T-test for the Reading (Pre-test) 109
Table 4.7 Independent Samples T-test for the Reading (Post-test) 110
Table 4.8 Independent Samples T-test for the Writing (Pre-test) 110
Table 4.9 Independent Samples T-test for the Writing (Post-test) 111
Table 4.10 The Correlation Between Learners’ ESP Listening and Speaking 112
Table 4.11 The Correlation Between Learners’ ESP Reading and Writing 113
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles (Kachru, 1992, p. 356) 5
Figure 2.1 ELT Tree (Hutchinson and Waters 1987, p. 17) 33
Figure 2.2 ESP classification by experience (Robinson, 1991, p.3) 34
Figure 2.3 ESP Classification by Professional Area (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 6) 35
Figure 2.4 Continuum of ELT course types (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 9) 37
Figure 2.5 Stages in the ESP process (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 121) 44
Figure 2.6 Communication Needs Processor (Munby, 1981) 52
Figure 2.7 ESP Needs Analysis Model (McDonough, 1984) 54
Figure 2.8 ESP Needs as Necessities, Lacks And Wants (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987) 55
Figure 2.9 What Needs Analysis Establishes (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 125) 57
Figure 2.10 A Language-centered Approach to Course Design (Hutchinson &Waters, 1979, p. 66) 62
Figure 2.11 A Skills-centered Approach to Course Design (Hutchinson &Waters, 1979, p. 71) 65
Figure 2.12 A Comparison of Approaches to Course Design (Hutchinson &Waters, 1979, p. 73) 67
Figure 3.1 Flowchart of Study Plan 100
Figure 4.1 The Mean of Learning Needs Before the ESP Curriculum 104
Figure 4.2 The Correlation Between Listening and Speaking 112
Figure 4.3 The Correlation Between Reading and Writing 113
Figure 4.4 The Learners’ Opinions Regarding their Like or Dislike of the Textbook Contents 117
Figure 4.5 The Percentage of Learners Who Felt the Textbook Provided Them with Professional Knowledge about childcare Education 119
Figure 4.6 The Parts of the Textbook that Learners Said Were Helpful to Them 124
Figure 4.7 Student Suggestions Regarding the Content of the Textbook 127
Figure 4.8 Learners’ Opinions about the Usefulness of the Listening Exercises 130
Figure 4.9 Learners’ Opinions about the Usefulness of the Conversation Exercises 133
Figure 4.10 Learners’ Opinions Regarding the Usefulness of the Oral Practice Exercises of the Textbook 136
Figure 4.11 Learners’ Opinions Regarding the Usefulness of the Writing Sections of the Textbook 138
Figure 4.12 Learners’ Opinions Regarding the Usefulness of the Children’s Song Sections of the Textbook 141
Figure 4.13 Learners’ Opinions Regarding the Usefulness of the Practical Childcare Dialogs in the Textbook 144
Figure 4.14 Learners’ Opinions Regarding the Usefulness of the Classroom English Sections of the Textbook 146
Figure 4.15 Learners’ Comments and Suggestions Regarding the Course Instruction and/or the Textbook 149
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