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中文論文名稱 貿易在中華民國與布吉納法索外交關係的角色
英文論文名稱 The Role of Trade in ROC-Burkina Faso Diplomatic Relations
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 陶瑞珊
研究生英文姓名 TRAORE SAFIATOU
電子信箱 ruishan_safia@yahoo.fr
學號 604335017
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
第二語文別 中文
口試日期 2016-06-14
論文頁數 98頁
口試委員 指導教授-王高成
共同指導教授-嚴震生
委員-嚴震生
委員-戴萬金
中文關鍵字 貿易  外交關系  中華民國  布吉納法索  金錢外交  國際關系  全民外交  聯網外交 
英文關鍵字 diplomatic relations  trade  The Republic of China  Burkina Faso  aids  flexible diplomacy  diplomacy from below  technical assistance  The People’s Republic of China  foreign relations  partnership  people diplomacy  network diplomacy. 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 當一個國家與別國貿易往來越頻繁,國力就越強”
“貿易” 對於以經濟發展來維持雙邊外交而言是不可或缺的,因為貿易提供了國與國之間非常多的套利機會。檢視過去台灣與布吉納法索兩國的合作關係,大多聚焦在在人道救援和技術援助,而忽略了貿易與商業交流。
根據托馬斯·謝林克倫比教授所提出的貿易與國際關係的理論:「廣義的貿易策略重要性包括投資,航運,觀光和企業管理;大部份的國際關係就是關於貿易」。台灣於1961年與布吉納法索建立外交關係,爾後布吉納法索與台灣斷交,又於1994年恢復兩國邦交。因此本論文要探討在台灣與布吉納法索的外交關係中,「貿易」所扮演之角色與重要性。
在布吉納法索和台灣的20年的外交關係中,貿易模式是什麼樣子呢?兩國之間是否有使用任何經濟策略?在中國極力拉攏非洲多數國家的時代,貿易又在促進與維持兩國穩定的邦交關係中扮演了怎麼樣的角色呢?
在兩國有邦交關係的期間,台灣方面致力於如何幫助布吉納法索發展農業與提升國人健康狀況和教育水平。而人道救援也是台灣的務實外交的一部分,其中務實外交還包括金錢外交,藉此來維持台灣在發展中國家的國際認同。雖然不能說是完全的成功,但我們可以注意到在這20年來各方面都有顯著的改善。但同時,也可以觀察到台灣與布基納法索在貿易方面的互動嚴重不足。
在2008年,我們可以看到外交政策的改變—馬英九總統上任並推行活絡外交,對邦交國採取更可行的外交策略。但令人想不到的是,這項計畫雖著重在發展貿易與商業交流的外交政策,但並沒有帶來顯著的正面效益。
雖然布吉納法索在世界的經濟地位不高,但對於西非國家經濟共同體和西非經濟貨幣聯盟聯合市場還是非常有潛力。此外,這幾年來布吉納法索為非洲第四大生產黃金的國家,同時也為油籽.棉花.動物皮的最大出口國。對中華民國來說,布吉納法索會是一個有潛力的貿易合作夥伴。因布吉納法索缺乏能源與水資源,台灣在布吉納法索的工業投資並沒有很多,儘管如此,雙方並沒有放棄商業方面的合作,例如:出口商品和輸出技術至布吉納法索。
最後,建議兩國可以以觀光來促進文化交流與進行國民外交。而「聯網外交」將外交行為擴展至一般私人企業與個人,也就是所謂的「全民外交」(由下而上的外交)。就如名作家Mohammad Khan Guive 在2014年發表在當代中國事務研究期刊的論文「中國與布吉納法索目前情勢」裡所提到的「中非全民合作」。
英文摘要 Nations are almost always better off when they buy and sell from one another”, moreover trade is essential in maintaining bilateral diplomatic relations with developing economies as they today have much opportunities for arbitrage. In the history of Burkina Faso and the Republic of China bilateral relations, humanitarianism and technical assistance have been the sole focus, neglecting trade and commercial exchange.
We based our research on the definition of trade in international relation given by Professor Thomas Crombie Schelling: “the strategic importance of trade broadly defined is include investment, shipping, tourism and management of enterprises; trade is what most of the International Relations are about”. So that we could question the place and importance of trade in the diplomatic relations between the Republic of China and Burkina Faso since the entering of Taiwan in Africa in 1961, and later again when the two nations resumed their relations in 1994.
What have been the trade pattern in the twenty years of bilateral diplomatic relations between Burkina Faso and Taiwan? Is there any use of economic statecraft between the two diplomatic allies? What is the possible role trade could play in facilitating and guaranteeing an irreversible alliance between Taiwan and Burkina Faso in an era where the People’s Republic of China is hooking most African countries?
In twenty and plus years of relations, ROC and BF have focused in developing agriculture, health quality, and education level in Burkina Faso. While these cooperation enter in the domain of humanitarianism, they are also part of Taiwan’s pragmatic diplomacy which also include the use of checkbook to maintain official recognition from developing nations. There have been many cooperation in those areas, while we can’t claim a total success, we do recognize a large improvement in these sectors after 20 years. Also, we witnessed a serious lack of trade between the two strategic allies.
But we beheld a change in the diplomatic dialog in 2008 when President Ma Ying-jeou took office and introduced the new spirit of the flexible diplomacy- a more viable policy towards Taiwan’s foreign allies. Against all odds, the viable foreign policy which had focused in developing more trade and commercial exchanges between Taiwan and its foreign allies, did not bring remarkable positive results.
While Burkina Faso remains a small economy in the world, it is on the other hand the potential gate to West Africa ECOWAS and UEMOA union market. Also, as the fourth largest gold producer in Africa these years and a big exporter of oil seeds, cotton and bovine skins, Burkina Faso is a potential trade partner for ROC. While the lack of energy and water source represent a brake to industrial investment, they constitute themselves an opportunity of import of products and knowhow from Taiwan.
Finally we suggest tourism to be a great possibility for cultural exchange and a mean for conducting a public diplomacy. The network diplomacy extend the conduct of diplomacy to private enterprises, private people creating what we have called “the diplomacy from below” as Mohammad Khan Guive did in his famous essay “The Chinese Presence in Burkina Faso: A sino-african cooperation from Below" published in the Journal of Current Chinese Affairs in 2014.
論文目次 Overview 1
Chapter I: Introduction 3
I- Research Motives and Questions 3
1-Research Motives 3
2- Research Questions 6
II- Literature Review 7
1- ROC’s Bilateral Foreign Policy 7
2- ROC’s Diplomatic Relations with African Countries 10
III- Hypotheses 15
IV- Approach and Methodology 15
1- Historical Approach 15
2- Methodology 16
V- Research Scope and Limitations 18
1-Research Scope 18
2-Limitations 19
VI-Framework 20
Chapter 2: Republic of China and Burkina Faso Diplomatic Relations and its
Dimensions 21
I- Historical Background of ROC in Africa 22
1- International Political Environment 22
2- ROC’s Diplomatic Ties with Burkina Faso: Origins and Aspects 23
3- The Importance of Agriculture Development before 1973 24
II- The Relationship between ROC and Burkina Faso after 1994 25
1- On Agriculture 26
2- On Health 28
3- On Education 30
4- On Trade 32
Conclusion 36
Chapter 3: ROC and BF relations under President Ma’s Administration 38
I- The Flexible Diplomacy of President Ma’s Administration 39
1- Definition and Spirit 39
2- ROC International Relations Under the “New” Flexible Diplomacy 41
II- ROC and Africa Relations under the Flexible Diplomacy
of Ma’s Administration 44
1- ROC and Africa Diplomatic Relations from 2008 to 2014 44
2- ROC-Burkina Faso Relations from 2008 to 2014 46
Conclusion 48
Chapter 4: The Trade Pattern in ROC and African Countries Relations 51
I- ROC’s Trade Relations to its African Economic Allies 52
1- Trade Relations with the Republic of South Africa 52
2- Trade Relations with the Federal Republic of Nigeria 55
II- ROC and Burkina Faso’s Trade and the Impact of Trade on their
Bilateral Relations 58
1- ROC and Burkina Faso Trade Practice and Volume from
1994 to 2014 58
2- Burkina Faso: Diplomatic Relations with ROC, and Trade
with PRC 63
Conclusion 67
Chapter 5: New Perspectives to ROC and BF Diplomatic Relations 70
I- The Diplomacy from Below 71
II- ROC and BF Trade Opportunities 73
Conclusion 77
Conclusion 80
I- Research Findings 80
1- The Relations between ROC and BF is Interest Oriented as all
Other country to country Relations 80
2- The Bandwagoning Behavior Undermined the choice of BF
to Severe Diplomatic Relations with ROC in 1973 80
3- ROC Diplomacy to Burkina Faso is Humanitarian Based,
Creating an Imbalance and opening Doors to Arbitrage 81
4- Trade is Becoming a Necessity as Technical Assistance is
Never Ending in Most Areas of Cooperation 82
II- Hypotheses Verification 83
1- Large Number of Developing Countries Values Trade to Mere
Non-Trade Diplomatic Relations 83
2- Trade Diplomacy is not well used in ROC Relations to
the Developing Countries 83
3- Trade is still at Infancy in ROC and BF after Twenty
Years of Relations 84
III- Future Perspectives 84
Annex I: Interview Questions Sample 88
Bibliography 90
Books 90
Online Journal Articles 92
Journal Articles 93
Others Scholarship Papers and Thesis 94
Government Publications 94
Interview 95
Internet Websites 96
參考文獻 Bibliography

Books:
Bellows, Thomas J. 1996. The Republic of China on Taiwan in the 1970's. Jamaica, NY: Center of Asian Studies, St.John's U.
Brautigam, Deborah, 2009. The Dragon’s gift: the real story of china in Africa, New York, Ox-ford University.
Chan, Gerald. 2013. ""Diplomatic truce" in cross-strait relationss: Limits and prospects." In new dynamics in cross-Taiwan strait relationss: How far can the rappROChement go?, by Zheng Yongnian, 97-114. London: Routledge.
Chen, Jie, 2002. Foreign policy of the new Taiwan : Pragmatic diplomacy in SouthEast Asia . Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Chu, Shulong. 2014. "Mainland China's peaceful development strategy and cross-strait relationss." In Political changes in Taiwan under Ma Ying-Jeou, by Routledge Research on Taiwan, edited by Dafydd Fell, 157-171. London and New York: Routledge.
Hickey, Dennis Van Vranken. 2007. Foreign policy making in Taiwan : From principle to pragmatism . London: Routledge.
Hsieh, Chiao Chiao. 1985. Strategy for Survival: the Foreign Policy and External relationss of The Republic of China on Taiwan, 1949-79. London: The Sherwood Press.
Hsieh, Sung-ching. 2003. Agricultural Technology Transfer to developing Countries. Pintung: Chang-Hung Chou, National Pintung University of Science and Technology.
Joei, Bernard T. K., 1994. "Pragmatic diplomacy in The Republic of China: History and prospects." In Quiet revolutions on Taiwan, Republic of China, by Jason C. HU, 297-360. Taipei: KWang Hwa Publishing Company.
Lin, Bih-Jaw. 1990. "The Republic of China and Africa: A case of positive adaptation." In Foreign policy of The Republic of China on Taiwan, An unorthodox approach, by Yu San Wang, 145-154. New York: Praeger.
Oleynik, Dr Igor S. 2003. Taiwan foreign policy and government guide ISBN 0-7397-9493-0. International Business publications, USA.
Rawnsley, Gary D. 2000. Taiwan's informal diplomacy and propoganda . BasingStoke: Macmillan.
Sahashi, Ryo. 2014. "Japan-Taiwan relations since 2008. An evolving, practical, non-strategic partnership." In Political Changes in Taiwan under Ma Ying-Jeou, by Routledge Reasearch on Taiwan Dafydd Fell, 232-246. London and New York: Routledge.
Wang, Yu San. 1990. "Foreign policy of The Republic of China on Taiwan, An unorthodox approach." In foreign policy of The Republic of China on Taiwan, An unorthodox approach, by Yu San Wang, 1-12. New York: Praeger.
Winkler, Sigrid. 2014. "Taiwan in international organizations : New road ahead or dead-end?" In Political changes in Taiwan under Ma Ying-Jeou, by Routledge Reasearch on Taiwan edited by Dafydd Fell, 247-264. London and New York: Routledge.
Yang, Winston L.Y., and Deborah Ann. Brown. 1997. "Lee Teng-Hui's US visit and presidential diplomacy." In The Republic of China on Taiwan in the 1990s, by Winston L.Yang., and Deborah Ann. Brown, 135-172. Jamaica, NY: Center of Asian Studies, St. John's University.

Online Journal Articles:

ChinaDaily.com.cn, http://m.chinadaily.com.cn/en/2016-03/17/content_23926410.htm
Hsu, W.Jenny, Shih hsiu-chuan, Mo Yan-chih and Jimmy Chuang. 2008. Taipei Times. May 03. Accessed March 06, 2016. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2008/05/03/2003410908.
L’economiste du Faso, No 79. http://www.leconomistedufaso.bf.
Le faso.net No 65967 of July 22, 2015, http://www.lefaso.net.
Li, Xiaokun,. Gambia resumes ties with China, March 17, 2016
Oluleye, Abiodun. Taiwan trade mission: Nigeria, Taiwan can mutually benefit from each other, June 2015, http:// www.nannewsnigeria.com.
Ouedraogo, Eric. 2014. LeFaso.Net. January 31. Accessed March 07, 2016. http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article57714.
Taiwan today, ‘Ma touts strong ROC’s ties with Africa allies’, 2014. http://taiwantoday.tw/ct.asp?xItem=217872&ctNode=2175/




Journal articles:

Froman, Michael. 2014. “The strategic logic of trade: New rules of the road for the global mar ket,” Foreign Affairs, 93 (November-December): 111-118.
Froman, Michael. 2015. “The geopolitical stakes of America’s trade policy: Why trade matters more than ever for U.S. security,” Foreign Policy, February 17.
Gouvernment of Burkina Faso/ Kien Kilimite Theodore. February 3,1994. "Reprise des relationss diplomatiques avec la republique de chine (taiwan): declaration du gouvernement du Burkina Faso." SIDWAYA N02448.
Khan, Mohammad Guive. 2014. "The Chinese presence in Burkina Faso: A sino-african cooperation from Below." Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 43,1,71-101.
Larus, Elizabeth Freund. 2006. “Taiwan’s quest for international recognition,” Issues & Studies, 42(2) (June): 23-52.
Lee, Wei-Chin, (C, 1993), Taiwan foreign aid policy, Asian Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 1, 43-62.
Liu, Hsiao-pong Philip. 2009. "Planting rice on the roof of the un building: analyzing Taiwan's "chinese" techniques in Africa, 1961-Present." The China Quaterly 381-400.
Secretariat Permanent des Engagements Nationaux. 2004. "Bilan decennal des engagements na tionaux." SIDWAYA 23-25-35.
Secretariat Permanent des Engagements Nationaux. June 3, 2014. "Engagements nationaux, le bilan de vingt dresse au president du Faso." SIDWAYA 03-02-14.

Other scholarship Papers and Thesis:

Auzias Dominique and Jean-Paul Labourdette, 2013, Burkina-Faso 2014-2015 Petit Fute.
Barston .R.P. 1997 ‘Modern Diplomacy’, Longman, London and New York.
Dan Large Chien and Shiuh-Shen. 18-20 April 2008. "Fifth conference of the European Association of Taiwan Studies." Prague: Charles University.
Dabire Kader Stéphane. 2014. L’aide publique au développement de la République de Taiwan au Burkina Faso. Master thesis, Montreal, Quebec: Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en développement international et société.
Kane Mouhamadou. May 2015. Burkina Faso-Taiwan Relations Post-Blaise Compaore.
Maia Francisco. 2015. The ROC and its relationss with Sub-Saharan African Countries: what are the Possible Factors promting Sub-Saharan African States to withdraw or refrain recognition of the ROC ? Master Thesis, Taipei: National Chengchi University.
Ouedraogo Robert P.C. 2007. L'apport de la Republique de Chine (Taiwan) a la realisation des engagements nationaux. Ouagadougou: Ministere des Affaires etrangeres et de la cooperation regionale.

Government Publications:

Embassy of Burkina Faso in Taiwan. October 30, 2008. "Taiwan Aids to Burkina Faso."
Mainland Affairs Council. 2005. Across the Taiwan Strait. Taipei: The Mainland affairs council, Executive Yuan.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC. 2003/10/08. The Issuance of Stamps Commemorating the Agricultural Cooperation between The Republic of China and Burkina Faso will be held. Press Releases, Taipei: Public Diplomacy Coordination.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC. 2003/10/08. The Issuance of Stamps Commemorating the Agricultural Cooperation between The Republic of China and Burkina Faso will be held. Press Releases, Taipei: Public Diplomacy Coordination.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. May 8, 2009. White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy. Taipei: Minister of Foreign Affairs.
ROC Office of the President. 2010. Taiwan's Renaissance President Ma Ying-jeou's Selected addresses and Messages, 2008-2009. Taipei: Government Information Office.
Secretariat Permanent des Engagements Nationaux. June 3, 2014. "Engagements Nationaux, Le Bilan de vingt dresse au President du Faso." SIDWAYA.
Taiwan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. December 29, 2011. "Wai-Jing Mao San 10033009510, Article 4."
United Nation General Assembly. 25 October 1971. United Nation General Assembly Rosolution 2758. United Nation.

Interview:

Chen Xavier M.C, interview by Safiatou Traore. 2016. Section Chief West and Central African Affairs Section Department of West Asian and African Affairs (03 15).

Internet Websites:

AFRICALLIA: http://www.africallia.com.
ATEF. 2003. Africa Taiwan Economic Forum. October 28. http://www.africa.org.tw/index.asp.
ATEF. 2003. Africa Taiwan Economic Forum. October 28. http://www.africa.org.tw/index.asp.
Atlas Media. 2013. OEC. Accessed february 26, 2016. http://atlas.media.mit.edu/fr/profile/country/bfa/.
Atlas Media. 2013. OEC. Accessed february 26, 2016. http://atlas.media.mit.edu/fr/profile/country/bfa/.
China Youth Corps. n.d. Formosa China Youth Corps. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://formosa.cyc.org.tw/.
Embassy of Burkina Faso in Taiwan. October 30, 2008. "Taiwan Aids to Burkina Faso." http://ambaburkina-tw.org/
Embassy of Taiwan in Burkina Faso. 2015. Services de Cooperation Taiwanaise. January 30. http://www.taiwanembassy.org/BF/mp.asp?mp=417.
Embassy of Taiwan in Burkina Faso. 2015. Services de Cooperation Taiwanaise. January 30. http://www.taiwanembassy.org/BF/mp.asp?mp=417.
http://intpolicydigest.org/2015/05/26/burkina-faso-taiwan-relationss-post-blaise-Compaore/
http://nigeriatradehub.gov.ng. January 2014.
http://www.globaledge.msu.edu/countries/burkina-faso.
http://www.investirauburkina.net/index.php/syntheses-economiques/imp-exp/item/668
http://www.oecd.org/fr/pays/burkinafaso/1822918.pdf.
MALIKI Antony, Nigeria, Taiwan trade volume hits $3.3bn in 3yrs. February 2015, http:// www.dailytrust.com.ng/.
Nigeria Trade hub, 2013.
Taiwan Bureau of Trade, statistics: http://cus93.trade.gov.tw/ENGLISH/FSCE/.
Taiwan ICDF. 2014. International Cooperation and Development Fund. January 7. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://www.icdf.org.tw/ct.asp?xItem=7918&ctNode=30019&mp=2.
Taiwan ICDF. 2014. International Cooperation and Development Fund. January 7. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://www.icdf.org.tw/ct.asp?xItem=7918&ctNode=30019&mp=2.
Taiwan Today. 2015. Taiwan Today. May 1. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://www.taiwantoday.tw/fp.asp?xItem=229281&CtNode=2174.
Taiwan Today. 2015. Taiwan Today. May 1. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://www.taiwantoday.tw/fp.asp?xItem=229281&CtNode=2174.
Taiwantrade and iDealEZ. 2016. TAITRA. February 24. Accessed february 26, 2016. http://www.taiwantrade.com.tw/news/2016-taiwan-trade-mission-to-africa-feb-20th-mar-5th-1049976.html.
Taiwantrade and iDealEZ. 2016. TAITRA. February 24. Accessed february 26, 2016. http://www.taiwantrade.com.tw/news/2016-taiwan-trade-mission-to-africa-feb-20th-mar-5th-1049976.html.
United Nations. n.d. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.un.org/en/sections/what-we-do/protect-human-rights/index.html.
Wikipedia, South Africa-Taiwan relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa%E2%80%93Taiwan_relationss/.

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