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系統識別號 U0002-1807201615252900
中文論文名稱 1990 時代聯合國在薩爾瓦多之和平重建策略
英文論文名稱 Rebuilding Peace : The UN strategies in El Salvador during the 1990’s.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 魏韻
研究生英文姓名 Morgane Mounie-Moser
學號 603330266
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-06-16
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-王秀琦
委員-盧業中
中文關鍵字 聯合國薩爾瓦多觀察團  薩爾瓦多  聯合國的成功  平安建設 
英文關鍵字 ONUSAL  Peace building  El Salvador  United Nations Success 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 1980年,薩爾瓦多內戰爆發時,該國正經歷一段不公平且壓迫的時期。衝突期間,執政黨-國家共和聯盟(ARENA)和散佈共產黨意識形態的反對黨-馬蒂民族解放陣線(FMLN)相互對峙。如同其他第三世界的國家,薩爾瓦多是美蘇雙方間接較勁的地方;當時,美國支持前者,蘇聯則是後者。薩爾瓦多內戰就算過了十年,仍然沒有可行的和平解決辦法,局勢持續惡化中。正因如此,聯合國於1990年以違反人權,呼籲交戰雙方尋求和平解決。1991年,聯合國派遣觀察團(ONUSAL)至該國;1992年1月16日,雙方簽署查普特佩克和平協議(Chapultepec Peace Accords)。
聯合國薩爾瓦多觀察團(ONUSAL)是聯合國成功的任務。本文將討論達成此成就的不同因素。
這篇論文有三個研究問題。第一,聯合國的角色和其干預薩爾瓦多內戰的原因。其次是,在和平推進過程中,聯合國如何執行其政策和戰略發展。最後則是為了解該國重建所採取的措施。根據以上研究脈絡,有助於我們了解聯合國在薩爾瓦多調停成功的原因。然而,該國仍然有不間斷的問題,我們試圖去清楚地解釋此議題及其對於薩爾瓦多社會的影響。
本文重點為,聯合國在經歷12年內戰蹂躪的中美國家裡,其所扮演的的重建角色。
由於理論認為,解決衝突的必要性在對於戰爭原因有相當理解,還有第三方調停談判雙方的能力。民主制度的建立和教育、健康福祉的代價,還有調停,都是持續地維持和平的重要因素。
此文提醒我們,在和平建立、和平維持,以及國家建設中,需要考慮的不同因素。在研究最終,以索馬利亞內戰為案例的比較,則是試圖強調這些重要因素。成功和失敗案例的比較,可以顯示出一個任務成功的重要因素;如此一來,就可以避免未來的失敗。事實上,記取不了教訓,問題依舊經常發生。這篇論文的撰寫,以客觀的角度來提醒如政治、經濟、社會等所有因素都應該考慮到。
英文摘要 When the civil war broke out in El Salvador in 1980, the country was undergoing a period of injustice and repression. During the conflict, two main groups were confronting each other; the ARENA; political party at the head of the government, and the FMLN; a non-official political group, influenced by communist ideology. El Salvador, as many other third world’s countries, was a given space for indirect confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. This last one was supporting the FMLN and its allies furnishing armaments, while the United States were supporting the government. The situation in El Salvador was worsening, and after ten years of con-flict, no peaceful resolution was conceivable yet. This is why in 1990, the UN answered to the violation of the human rights and to the call of both the ARENA and the FMLN for external help, to find a peaceful solution. In 1991, the UN launched its ONUSAL mission in El Salvador. One year later, the 16th January 1992, the Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed.

The ONUSAL is an excellent example of UN missions’ success, and this thesis will discuss the different elements which permitted such an achievement.
Three main questions guided our researches. The first one concerns the role of the UN and the reasons of its intervention in El Salvador. The second one asked how the UN implemented its policies during the Peacemaking process and what strategies it developed. The last question was raised in order to understand which measures taken permitted the reconstruction of the country. Such guiding lines should help us to understand the reasons for UN success in El Salvador. Howev-er, the still ongoing question of the gangs was not forgotten and we attempted to explain clearly the issue and the consequences it has for the Salvadoran society.

This thesis focuses on the UN’s role in the reconstruction of the central american state after the civil war. As theories argue, the necessity to resolve a conflict resides in the good understanding of the causes of war and in the capacity of an external party to achieve negotiations among the bar-gaining parties. The establishment of democratic institutions and the big consideration for the well-being of the society which allowed actions and aids for education, health and reconciliation are vital elements for a durable peace.

This paper reminds us the different elements which should be taken into consideration in order to succeed in peace building, peacekeeping, and nation-building. At the end of this research, a comparison with the case of Somalia is attempted in order to underline these vital elements. The comparison between a success and a failure can underline the important elements for the good achievement of a mission, and in that way, prevent future failure. Indeed, lessons are not always learnt and mistakes still occur too often. This paper was written in the objective to remind that all factors, might them be political, economic and social, should be taken into account.
論文目次 Localization of El Salvador, Central America............2
Acronyms................................................2
El Salvador's timeline and UN role during negotiations..3
I.Introduction..........................................6
A.Research motives....................................6
B. Research objectives................................9
C. Structure of the thesis...........................16
D. Expected contributions............................18
II. Introduction to El Salvador Civil War..............19
A. El Salvador's pre-civil war situation.............19
B. The Civil War (1980-1992).........................22
C. The signature of the Peace Treaty.................25
II.Theories on mediation and their application to the case of El Salvador....................................30
A. The choice of a neutral mediator: the UN..........31
B. UN mediation in El Salvador: the domestic and international environment constraints..................43
C. The UN mediation in El Savador: strategies employed...............................................53
IV. Preparing the post-war: UN strategies for the reconstruction of El Salvador..........................62
A. Constitutional reforms............................63
B. Judicial reforms..................................66
C. Economic reforms..................................74
D. Social reforms....................................79
E. Personal statement................................85
V. Case study for comparison...........................88
A. The UN failure in Somalia.........................89
B. Comparison of the two cases.......................93
VI.Conclusion..........................................99
VII.Bibliography......................................107
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