||An Investigation on Teacher Assistant Efficacy - A Case Study of Tamkang University
||Department of English
||教師效能的研究者指出，高效能的老師不但可以改變學生的學習成效與動機，更能影響自身的教學策略、教室經營及學生參與。因此，一位高效能的老師往往被認為是一位有效的老師。然而在台灣，助教效能的實證研究仍相當缺乏，本研究旨在探討助教與學生對於一位有效的助教的效能程度是否有差異。進而探討助教本身的理想我與真實我。本研究共有26位助教與144位學生參與。研究方法為調查法與面訪法，使用三份改編自Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy (2001)的問卷與一份自編訪談題目。問卷的量性分析方法包括描述性統計、推論性統計和t考驗，而訪談的質量分析方法則是選用類別內容分析法。研究結果顯示助教與學生都認為一位有效的助教的效能，以重要排序，分別為教學策略、教室經營，最後則為學生參與。由t考驗證實，前兩項有達到顯著性差異，最後一者則無。而結論更證實，比起理想我之效能，助教們的現實效能低落許多。而助教們更表示學生人數是最主要影響他們效能的主要因素之一。
||Researchers of teacher efficacy have often suggested that teachers with high self efficacy can influence not only student outcomes and motivation, but also their own instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement. Therefore, a high efficacious teacher is usually referred to as an effective teacher. However, research which has empirically documented the efficacy of an effective assistant teacher (TA) in Taiwan is scant. Hence, present study revealed the TAs’ and the students’ perspectives on the extent of efficacy an effective TA should have, and then compared the perspectives of the TAs and the students. Further, this study also investigated the TAs’ real self and ideal self. A total of 26 TAs and 144 students participated in the study. This research involved a survey, comprised of three modified versions of Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale with three dimensions, instructional strategies, classroom engagement and student engagement (Tschannen-Moran &Woolfolk Hoy, 2001), and an in-depth interview with interview protocols. The quantitative analysis of the questionnaires was conducted through descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and t-Test. The qualitative data was analyzed with categorical – content analysis. Results of this study showed that both the TA’s and the students’ perspectives on an effective TA should be most efficacious in instructional strategies, then classroom management, and followed by student engagement. Moreover, the TAs’ and the students’ perspectives on the first two dimensions were significantly different, while there was no significant difference in student engagement between the two groups. The results also proved that the TAs have low real self comparing with their ideal self and revealed that the class size is one of the crucial factors affecting their efficacy.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Definitions of Teacher Efficacy 9
Theories of Teacher Efficacy 10
Locus Control Theory 10
Self-Efficacy vs. Self Concept 15
Development of Teacher Efficacy 20
Teacher Efficacy 20
Measurements of Teacher Efficacy 22
Rand Measures 22
Teacher Efficacy Scale 23
Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale 24
Studies on Teacher Efficacy in Teaching Field 25
Efficacy for Instructional Strategies 26
Efficacy for Classroom Management 31
Efficacy for Student Engagement 38
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 43
Research Design 43
Teacher Assistants 45
Questionnaires for TAs and Students 47
Expert Validity 49
The First Revision 50
The Second Revision 51
The Third Revision 52
Interview Protocol 53
Data Collection and Analysis 55
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 59
TAs’ Perspectives 59
Students’ Perspectives 63
Comparison of TAs’ and Students’ Perspectives 69
Comparison of TAs’ Perspectives and TAs’ Self Efficacy 75
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 95
Pedagogical Implications 97
Limitations of the Study and Recommendations for Future Research 99
Appendix A Evaluation for TAs 113
Appendix B Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs 114
Appendix C TA Efficacy Scale 117
Appendix D Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for Students 120
Appendix E The First Revision 123
Appendix F The Second Revision 124
Appendix G The Third Revision 125
Appendix H Interview Protocol 126
List of Tables
Table 1 Name of the Three Questionnaires and the Items in Questionnaires 48
Table 2 Explanation of the Coding System 58
Table 3 Mean Scores for the TAs’ Perspectives in Various Dimensions on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs 60
Table 4 Mean Scores for TAs in Each Item on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs 61
Table 5 Mean Scores for the Students’ Perspectives in Various Dimensions on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for Students 64
Table 6 Mean Scores for Students in Each Item on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for Students 66
Table 7 The Suggestions for Effective TA Efficacy on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for Students 67
Table 8 The t-Test of An Effective TA between All TAs and Students 70
Table 9 The t-Test of An Effective TA for Instructional Strategies between All TAs and Students 71
Table 10 The t-Test of An Effective TA for Class Management between All TAs and Students 71
Table 11 The t-Test of An Effective TA for Student Engagement between All TAs and Students 71
Table 12 Comparison of Mean Scores and SD for TAs and Students in Each Item on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs and Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for Students 72
Table 13 Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs vs. TA Efficacy Scale 76
Table 14 Instructional Strategies-Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs vs. TA Efficacy Scale 77
Table 15 Classroom Management- Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs vs. Self Efficacy Scale 77
Table 16 Student Engagement- Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs vs. TA Efficacy Scale 77
Table 17 Comparison of Mean Scores and SD for TAs in Each Item on Effective TA Efficacy Questionnaire for TAs vs. TA Efficacy Scale 81
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