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系統識別號 U0002-1807201110535100
中文論文名稱 《大乘起信論》之心靈生態學研究
英文論文名稱 The Ecology of Mind in The Awakening of Faith
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 鄭鳳珠
研究生英文姓名 Feng-Chu Cheng
學號 892010124
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-23
論文頁數 213頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊銘塗
委員-黃如瑩
委員-賴賢宗
委員-杜德倫
委員-蔡振興
中文關鍵字 生態  大乘佛教  生態批評  意識轉變  《大乘起信論》  眾生心  如來藏  五波羅蜜  地方感  四法界  風險社會  社會生態學  入世佛教 
英文關鍵字 ecology  Mahayana Buddhism  ecocritism  consciousness transformation  The Awakening of Faith  the Mind of the sentient beings  Tathagata-garbha  five Paramitas  sense of place  four Dharmadhatus  risk society  social ecology  engaged Buddhism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究主要是從跨學科的角度融合大乘佛學與生態批評,此二者的結合對生態研究有豐富的啟示。簡單來說,生態批評為文學批評之一支,著重於從生態角度研究人類文化。如果把佛典當成文學作品來看,則可以發現佛典有相當的潛力,對人類文化的發展做出深刻的省思。環境問題背後的主因為精神危機。作為一重視精神成長的宗教,大乘佛教對這一點有深刻的體認。在本篇論文中,筆者將《大乘起信論》視為一實用之精神指南,引導個人走向(生態上的)涅槃,這種個人解脫乃是全體解脫之先決條件。筆者將分五章探討這些議題。
第一章探討的是心、生態與宗教之間的關係。為了呈現三者的關係,筆者將分析從宗教分析西方意識的源頭、此宗教與科技主義的關係,以及現代人在「自我」想像上所遭遇的困境。接著筆者繼續分析現代人在精神層面的追求,以及這種追求與佛教的關聯。在精神與宗教的關聯之下,「人心」將被視為一種值得深入探討的「內在自然」。
第二章將著重於人心之本體的研究,以及其與意識轉變的關係。筆者將討論生態批評對人心本質的觀察,特別是生態心理學與深層生態學。之後筆者將分析《大乘起信論》中「眾生心」之哲學。此眾生心乃為一涵納宇宙之心。在現象界中,此眾生心以如來藏的形式存在。因此,《起信論》談到的意識轉變指的是本體上的變貌,而非只是知識上的消長。
接下來這一章探討的是染心如何透過熏的作用,由染返淨。在此心靈上的本體轉變中,培養信心與實行五項波羅蜜是最大重點。此自我轉變對於喚起生態意識有很豐富的啟示,因為它鼓勵人結合思考與行為,才能達到自我改變。
第四章討論的是生態環境學說中的世界觀,也就是我們對自然此一空間的概念,以及佛學能有何貢獻。筆者將分析美國自然書寫中「地方感」與華嚴經四法界所呈現的「無地方性」概念,將兩者作一比較對話,試圖結合生態學說與佛學中的世界觀。
第五章將分析個人的精神能量如何互相結合,匯成一股重要的社會力量,藉此研究個人意識轉變在社會層面的影響力。透過分析烏爾里希.貝克(Ulrich Beck)的風險社會理論,以及莫瑞.布克欽(Murray Bookchin)的辯證自然主義,社會意識轉變的機制可得闡明。之後筆者將討論當代入世佛教在生態上的貢獻。入世佛教對傳統佛學思想做出現代解釋,已成功將個人的精神成長變成社會的意識轉變及生態救贖之道。
英文摘要 This study is fundamentally a philosophical endeavor which seeds to explore the relationship between human mind and ecological problems from the perspectives of Mahayana Buddhism and ecocriticism. Generally speaking, ecocriticism is a literary discipline which analyzes human culture from an ecological standpoint. Buddhist texts, when seen as literary works, have the potential to provide meaningful and profound ideas about human culture. As a religion focusing on spiritual cultivation, Buddhism seems to accurately point out the real issue behind our environmental problems, that is, the spiritual crisis. This spiritual orientation is well expressed in The Awakening of Faith, a central text of Mahayana Buddhism. In this dissertation, The Awakening of Faith is treated as a practical guidebook that teaches individuals the right way to reach (ecological) Nirvana, which is the prerequisite for collective salvation. To explore these points, my dissertation will be organized into five chapters.
In the first chapter I will discuss the relationship between mind, ecology, and religion. To show this connection, I will analyze the religious roots of the Western mindset, its relationship with scientific-technological emphasis, and the dilemma regarding the idea of “self” in modern times. Then I will go on to give a preliminary analysis of the modern quest for spiritual peace and its connection with Buddhism as a religion. In terms of this connection, the mind is treated as a kind of “inner nature” which needs to be deeply explored.
The second chapter focuses on the ontology of mind and its relationship with consciousness transformation. For the purpose of my argument here, I will discuss the observations of ecocriticism concerning the human mind, especially in ecopsychology and deep ecology. Then I will analyze the philosophy of mind in The Awakening of Faith with a concept called the Mind of the sentient beings (zhong sheng hsin) with its aspect of the Absolute and that of phenomena. In the phenomenal order, this Mind exists as Tathagata-garbha, which acts as potentiality towards enlightenment. Therefore, the consciousness transformation here is ontological rather than epistemological.
The following chapter is basically an investigation of how the defiled mind returns to its pure state (yu ran fan jing) through the act of permeation (xun). Cultivating faith and practicing the five Paramitas are the main cornerstones in this process of ontological transformation. This experiential aspect of self transformation offers rich implications for raising ecological awareness because it encourages a transformation through deeds, not only through contemplation.
The main task of the fourth chapter is an exploration of the worldview in eco-environmentalist discourses, i.e., our perception of nature as space, and the contribution Buddhism can make to this worldview. This issue will be explicated by means of a comparison and dialogue between “sense of place” philosophy in American nature writing and “sense of placelessness” in Buddhism as presented in the idea of “Four Dharmadhatus” in the Avatamsaka Sutra.
The last chapter attempts to solve the issue of how individual spiritual energies connect to each other and shape into a meaningful social force through reading the social dimension of consciousness transformation in both ecology and modern Buddhism. Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and Murray Bookchin’s dialectical naturalism are useful in explicating this social transformation. Then I will investigate the contribution of engaged Buddhism. Through embodying the modern interpretation of traditional Buddhist doctrines, engaged Buddhism has successfully incorporated personal spiritual cultivation into social transformation and ecological salvation.
論文目次 Table of Contents



Introduction 1

Chapter One: Mind, Ecology, Buddhism 9
Chapter Two: The Ontology of Mind in The Awakening of Faith 41

Chapter Three: Experiencing the Ecological Awakening 72

Chapter Four: Sense of Place and Placeless Compassion 100

Chapter Five: Evolving to an Ecological Society 143

Conclusion: The Affinity of Literature and the Earth 181

Appendix A: A List of Chinese Terms and Names 191

Appendix B: A Glossary of Sanskrit Terms 192

Works Cited 197


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