淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-1807200612323800
中文論文名稱 以在台法商執行長之觀點探討中國投資文化下之「關係」概念
英文論文名稱 An Investigation of the Chinese Concept of Guanxi with Regard to the French Chief Executive Officers in Taiwan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 鄭慶玲
研究生英文姓名 Angeline Douant
學號 694560987
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-26
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃國隆
委員-陸洛
委員-李培齊
中文關鍵字 關係(Guanxi)  法國籍執行長  關係(Relationship)  台灣  和諧概念  文化價值觀  適應性 
英文關鍵字 Guanxi  French CEOs  Relationship  Taiwan  concept of Harmony  Cultural value  adaptation 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 當面對所謂重視人際關係的社會現象時,在台灣之法商公司執行長所進行之商業行為。
本論文的研究動機是希望能夠幫助法國投資者能夠在國際市場上,特別是在亞洲的台灣市場,能更加了解人際關係對於商業行為的重要性,並對該如何有效的建立關係網絡提出建議。本論文之焦點置於「關係」於市場上的運用,不論在台灣或中國,「關係」皆是很重要的文化及社會要素。所謂的「關係」深植於華人文化中的每個層面,但法國公司仍展現了在華人社會中建立關係的能力。本論文之研究架構是由關係理論實際應用發展而來。根據35位台灣臺北之法國籍公司執行長之訪談內容,可以明確發現「關係」對於商業及管理行為有所影響。
根據本質性研究結果可歸納出以下幾項結論:

a) 「關係」的概念也存在於法國的商業行為運作上,儘管是以所謂的“Réseau” 或 networking的名義呈現。
b) 以關係為社會核心的文化,呈現出凡事以關係為優先的文化本質。
c) 深入了解中華文化與價值觀,例如「和諧」之概念,將是建立有效關係網絡之重要課題。

本研究對法國籍執行長之跨文化差異,及該如何於台灣市場中運用「關係」提供一概念性之參考。
英文摘要 The present study investigates the French Chief Executive Officers’ managerial behavior in Taiwan when faced with the social phenomenon of guanxi in Taiwan. The primary objective is to help the French practitioners in the international market to better understand the importance of the practice of guanxi and to advise them how to build an effective guanxi network in Asia and particularly in Taiwan.
This thesis focuses on the utilization of guanxi, which is an important cultural and social element in Taiwan and China. Although guanxi is embedded in every aspect of Chinese social life, French companies demonstrate capacity for guanxi building.
A research framework was developed to theorize guanxi uses. The findings, based on 35 interviews with French CEOs in Taipei, Taiwan, provide strong support for the impact of guanxi in business and on French managerial behavior. In this qualitative research, the results show that:
a) The concept of guanxi also exists in the French business practices, though under the different name of “Réseau” or networking.
b) The nature of guanxi transcends cultures; but its manifestations can be highly culturally specific.
c) In-depth understanding of the Chinese culture and values, such as the “Harmony concept”, is an essential issue in order to build an effective guanxi network.

The research provides a practical reference to the French CEOs for cross-cultural effective adaptation to the uses of guanxi in the Taiwanese market.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I
中文提要 III
ENGLISH ABSTRACT IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF DIAGRAMS VIII

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1. 1 OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVE 2
1. 2 BACKGROUND 3
1. 3 KEYWORD DEFINITION 6
1. 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 8
1. 5 LEVEL AND SCOPE 8
1. 6 CONTRIBUTION TO THE LITERATURE 9
1. 7 RESEARCH OUTLINE 10

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 12
2. 1 RELATIONSHIP MARKETING 13
2. 1. 1 TRANSACTION COSTS ANALYSIS 14
2. 1. 2 SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY 14
2. 1. 3 INTERACTION THEORY 16
2. 2 GUANXI BASES 17
2. 3 GUANXI ART 18
2. 3. 1 FEATURES OF GUANXI 18
2. 3. 2 ACTIVITIES IN GUANXI BUILDING 21
2. 3. 3 NORMS OF GUANXI 22
2. 4 THE BENEFITS OF GUANXI 24
2. 5 DEFENSE THEORY 26
2. 5. 1 THE DEFENSE 26
2. 5. 2 MISTRUST AND NETWORKS 26
2. 5. 3 AVOIDANCE OF CONFRONTATION 27
2. 5. 4 TRUST AND RISK MANAGEMENT 27
2. 6 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND THE CHINESE CULTURAL VALUE 28
2. 6. 1 SPECIFIC VERSUS DIFFUSE RELATIONSHIP 28
2. 6. 2 INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COMMUNITARIANISM 29
2. 6. 3 UNIVERSALISM VERSUS PARTICULALISM RELATIONSHIP 30
2. 6. 4 ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS ASCRIPTION 30
2. 7 CONTRAST BETWEEN THE WESTERN AND THE CHINESE VIEWS ON MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 32
2. 8 THE CONCEPT OF HARMONY 34
2. 9 HYPOTHESES 37
2. 10 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 38


CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 39
3. 1 RESEARCH SUBJECTS 40
3. 2 SAMPLING DESIGN 40
3. 3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 42
3. 3. 1 SURVEY AND QUESTIONNAIRE 42
3. 3. 2 SETTING THE BOUNDARY OF THE NETWORK 42
3. 3. 3 IMPLEMENTING THE GUANXI MODEL 43
3. 3. 4 ENHANCING THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE INSTRUMENTS 44
3. 4 DATA COLLECTION 45
3. 4. 1 PROCEDURE 45
3. 4. 2 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 46
3. 4. 3 DATA ANALYSIS 46

CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 47
4. 1 GENERAL CONCEPT OF GUANXI 48
4. 1. 1 THE IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF GUANXI 49
4. 1. 2 GUANXI BASE 53
4. 2 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 58
4. 2. 1 FEATURES OF GUANXI 58
4. 2. 2 ACTIVITIES IN GUANXI BUILDING 59
4. 2. 3 NORMS OF GUANXI RELATIONSHIP 63
4. 2. 3 PARTICULARISM 66
4. 2. 4 LONG-TERM ACTION 68
4. 3 SUMMARY 70
4. 4 FRENCH CEOS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TAIWANESE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 71

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMANDATIONS 74
5. 1 CONCLUSION 75
5. 2 LIMITATIONS 78
5. 2. 1 THE LOCATION CHOSEN 78
5. 2. 2 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUANXI CONSTRUCT 78
5. 2. 3 STUDY SAMPLE 78
5. 3 RECOMMENDATIONS 79
5. 3. 1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS BASED ON CULTURAL VALUE DIFFERENCES 79
5. 3. 2 STRATEGIES TO BUILD AN EFFECTIVE GUANXI NETWORK 82
5. 3. 3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH 85

REFERENCES 86
APPENDIX I, English Version 91
APPENDIX II, French Version 100
APPENDIX III, Understanding the "Grandes Ecoles," the Réseau 110



LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 French Exchange with Taiwan in billion Euro 4
Table 2.1 Comparison of Cultural Values in French and Taiwan 28
Table 2.2 Contrast between Western and Chinese Views on Management Practices 32
Table 2.3 Confucianism: A System of Social Ideology and Order 34
Table 2.4 Confucian based Values and Some Implications for Managerial and Organizational Behavior 36
Table 2.5 The Research Framework 38
Table 3.1 French Companies Included in the Research Sample 41
Table 4.1 The Demographic Data of The Respondents 48
Table 4.2 The Reasons to Create Guanxi 49
Table 4.4 The Advantages and/ or Benefits of Guanxi 52
Table 4.5 Categorical Responses from Help from Taiwanese and French Counterparts 53
Table 4.6 Category of Guanxi Bases 54
Table 4.7 Categorical Responses on Which Occasion 55
Table 4.8 Category of Guanxi Art 58
Table 4.9 Category of Activity Pursued out the Business Hours 60
Table 4.11 Main Category of Activities for Strengthening and Maintaining Relationships 61
Table 4.12 Categorical Norm of Guanxi 64
Table 4.13 What Reasons To Help Guanxi Contacts? 65
Table 4.15 Categorical Long-Term Action Response 68
Table 4.16 Summary of Hypothesis Tests 70
Table 4.17 Mental Scheme of French versus Taiwanese 72


LIST OF DIAGRAMS
Diagram 4.3 Guanxi as a Key Success Factor 51
Diagram 4.10 Time Spend Per Week Outside Business 60
Diagram 4.14 Categorical Particularism Responses 66

參考文獻 Ang S. H. (2000). The Power of Money: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Business-Related Beliefs. Journal of World Business, Vol. 35(1).

Ambler T., Styles C., Xiucun W. (1999). The effect of channel relationships and guanxi on the performance of inter-province export ventures in the People’s Republic of China. International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol.16, 75-87.

Ambler T. (1994). Marketing’s third paradigm: guanxi. Business Strategy Review, 69-80.

Belliveau, Maura A., O’Reilly C. A., Wade J. B. (1996). Social capital at the top : Effect of social similarity and status on CEO compensation. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, 6, 1568-1593.

Burt R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.42, 2, 339-365.

Cheng B-S., Farh J. L., Chang H-F., Hsu W-L. (2002). Guanxi, Zhongcheng, Competence, and Managerial Behavior in the Chinese Context. Chinese Journal of Psychology, Vol. 44, No 2, 151-166.

Davies H., Leung T. K. P., Luk S. T. K., Wong Y-H. (1995). The benefits of « Guanxi » : The value of relationships in developing the Chinese market. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.24, 207-214.

Fan Y. (2000). A classification of Chinese culture values. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3-10.

Fan Y. (2001). Questioning guanxi: definition, classification and implications. International Business Review, Vol. 11, 543-561.

Fan Y. (2002). Guanxi’s consequences: personal gains at social cost. Journal of Business Ethics, 371-380.

Jacobs, J. B. (1979). A preliminary model of particularistic ties in Chinese political alliances: Kan-ch’ing and kuan-shi in a rural Taiwanese township. China Quarterly, 78(June), 237-273.

Gabrenya W. K and Kwang K. H.. (1996). The Handbook of Chinese Psychology. Bond M.H, Hong Kong, Oxford University Press, 309-322.

Guiheux G. (2002). Les grands entrepreneurs privés à Taiwan. CRNS édition.

Hotgetts/ Luthans/ Doh. (2006). International Management. McGraw-Hill International edition, 6th edition.

Hui C. & Graen G. (1997). Guanxi and professional leadership in contemporary Sino-American joint ventures in Mainland China. Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 8, 4, 451- 465.

Huang Y-H. (2000). The personal influence model and Gao Guanxi in Taiwan Chinese Public Relations. Public Relations Review, Vol. 26, No 2, 219-236.

Hwang K-L. (1987). Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game. The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, No 4 (Jan., 1987), 944-974.

Li Chang W. & Lii P. (2005). The impact of guanxi on Chinese managers’ transactional decisions : a study of Taiwanese SMEs. Human Systems Management, Vol 4, No 18, 1-8.

Lee, K. H. and Lo, W. C. (1988). American Business people’s Perceptions of Marketing and Negotiating in the People’s Republic of China. International Marketing Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, 41-51.

Kao J. (1993). The worldwide web of Chinese business. Harward Business Review, 24-36.

Leung T. K., Wong Y. H., & Wong, S. (1996). A study of Hong Kong businessmen’s perceptions of the role “Guanxi” in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of business Ethics, 15(7), 749-758.


Lovett S., Simmons L. C., Kali, R. (1999). Guanxi versus the market: ethics and efficiency. Journal of International Business Studies, 231-248.

Luo Y. (1997). Guanxi: Principles, philosophies, and implications. Human Systems Management, Vol.16, Iss 1, 43-52.

Marion, B. (2006). Success with Asian People, Business and good manners. Edition d’Organisation.

Merrilees B. & Miller D. (1999). Direct Selling in the West and East: The Relative Roles of Product and Relationship (Guanxi) Drivers. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 45, 267-273.

Morgan, R. M. & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, 20-38.

Park S. H. & Luo Y. (2001). Guanxi and Organizational Dynamics: Organizational Networking in Chinese Firms. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22. 455-477.

Pearce II, J. A., Robinson, R. B. (2000). Cultivating guanxi as a foreign investor Strategy. Business Horizons, 31-39.

Raghu Nath, (1988). Comparative Management: A regional View. Cambridge, M.A: Ballinger, 126.

Redding, S. G. (1990). The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sacy, A. (2006). Taiwan, l’Art de la Paix. Vuibert édition.

Simmons, L. C. & Munch, J. M. (1996). Is relationship marketing culturally bound: a look at guanxi in China. Advanced in Consumer Research, 92-96.

Shesadri S. & Mishra R. (2004). Relationship marketing and contract theory. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 33, 513-526.

Smart, A. (1993). Gift, bribes, and guanxi: A reconsideration of Bourdieu’s social capital. Cultural Anthropology, Vol 8(3), 388-408.

Standifird, S. S. & Marshall, R. S. (2000). The transactional cost advantage of guanxi-based business practice. Journal of World Business, 21-42.

Stanley Snell R. & Tseng C-S. (2001). Ethical Dilemmas of Relationship Building in China. Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 43(2) March-April 2001. 171-200.

Tsang Eric W. K. (1998). Can guanxi be a source of sustained competitive advantage for doing business in China? The Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 12, 2, 64-72.

Yang, M. M. (1989). The gift economy and state power in China. Comparative studies in Society and History, 31(1), 25-54.

Yau, O. H. M., Lee, J. S. Y.; Chow, R. P. M., Sin, L. Y. M, Tse, A. L. B. (2000). Relationship marketing in the Chinese way. Business Horizons, 16-25.

Yeung, I. Y. M., & Tung, R. L. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies: the importance of guanxi. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 25 (2), 54-65.

Yi, L. M. & Ellis, P. (2000). Insider- outsider perspectives of guanxi . Business Horizon, Vol. 43(1), 25-30.

Wang X. & Ralston D.A. (2000). Strategies for Small and Medium-Sized U.S. Businesses Investing in China: Lessons from Taiwanese Companies. Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 42(6) 677-701.

Wee, C. H. (1994). Research on Chinese Management: Some Issues and Challenges, in Yau, O. (ed.), Proceedings of Symposium: Theorizing about Chinese Business and Management, Hong Kong: City Polytechnic of Hong Kong.

Westwood, R. R. (1992). “Culture, cultural difference, and organizational behavior”(ch.2), In R. I. Westwood (Ed.) Organizational Behavior: A Southeast Asian Perspectives (pp. 27-61). Hong Kong: Longman.

Wong, Y. H. (1998). Key Account Management and Relationship Marketing. International Marketing Review, Vol 15(3), 215-231.
Wong, Y. H. & Yee-Kwong Chan R. (1999). Relationship marketing in China: Guanxi, favouritism and adaptation. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 22,107-118.

Wong, Y. H., & Leung K.P. (2001). Guanxi: Relationship Marketing in a Chinese Context. International Business Press.

Xin K. R., Pearce J. L. (1996). Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 39, No 6, 1641-1658.


Internet Resources

Board of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China, 2005. http://www.moeaboft.gov.tw/

The French Institute in Taipei, Taiwan, Economic Department.
http://www.missioneco.org/Taiwan/
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2007-07-20公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2007-07-20起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信