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中文論文名稱 領導期望特質:從追隨者對家長式領導、儒家思想影響及性別角色特質的認知中探討
英文論文名稱 Desired Leadership Attributes: Exploring Followers’ Perceptions of Paternalistic Leadership, Confucianism Influence, and Gender Role Traits
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 吳碧瑛
研究生英文姓名 Phaik Imm Goh
學號 800620196
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2019-05-28
論文頁數 160頁
口試委員 指導教授-李培齊
委員-趙義隆
委員-葉凱莉
委員-嚴奇峰
委員-林建煌
委員-張紘炬
委員-曹銳勤
中文關鍵字 領導期待特質  家長式領導  性別角色  儒家思想  華裔  追隨者  交叉研究 
英文關鍵字 Desired leadership attributes  Paternalistic Leadership  gender roles  Confucianism  Chinese  Followers  Intersection research 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在了解於華人社會和組織背景下,追隨者的性別角色特質及儒家思想對追隨者的影響程度,如何影響他們對領導者的家長式領導風格和領導期望特質的認知和評價。從班杜拉(1986)的社會認知理論(SCT)發想,追隨者在中國文化背景下所認知的儒家思想,對他們及其領導者的影響程度,以及他們自身潛意識的性別角色特質,會影響追隨者如何看待領導者及期待領導者會具有哪些特質,這些特質包括領導者本身的管理能力、追隨者對其產生的好感及領導者的管理代理和協同幫助特質。
本研究提出儒家思想對追隨者和領導者的影響,是追隨者的隱性性別角色特質及其領導者家長式領導風格的前因,這兩個因素會影響追隨者對領導者的管理能力、好感以及領導者的管理代理和協同幫助特質的看法。此外,本研究亦把領導者與追隨者分為多個不同的對比族群,包括同性與異性、相同與不同種族、華裔男性與華裔女性領導者、華裔男性與華裔女性追隨者等,以探討它們之間的同異之處。
研究結果顯示儒家思想與年齡、性別角色特質與家長式領導風格、家長式領導風格與領導期待特質之間存在顯著的相關性,此一結果為學術研究做出了兩項貢獻: 一、結合追隨者對領導者的管理能力、好感以及領導者的管理代理和協同幫助特質等構面,提出「領導期待特質」的概念;二、提出對領導、文化和性別等三大領域進行交叉研究的可能途徑和方法。
簡而言之,本研究進行了領導,文化和性別三個主要研究領域的交叉探討,並檢驗了它們之間所存在的相關性。
英文摘要 This study strived to understand how followers’ gender roles and their level of Confucianism influence may affect their perception and evaluation of their leaders’ paternalistic leadership style and desired leadership attributes within the Chinese societal and organizational context. Drawing inspiration from Bandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and looking within a Chinese cultural context, the level of influence followers think Confucianism has on them and their leaders, and the societal gender roles they held implicitly would affect how these followers perceive their leaders in term of desired leadership attributes which comprised of leaders’ managerial competency, likeability, and agentic-communal traits.
The proposed framework suggested that Confucianism influence, on both followers and leaders are the antecedents to followers’ implicit gender roles and their leaders’ PL style, and both factors affect their perception of their leaders’ managerial competency, likeability, and agentic-communal traits. Further, in this study, we grouped leader-follower into various different dyads (same vs opposite gender, same vs different ethnicity, Chinese male vs Chinese female leaders, and Chinese male vs Chinese female followers) to examine their similarities and differences.
Our results showed that significant correlations exist between age and level of Confucianism influence, gender roles and paternalistic leadership styles, and paternalistic leadership styles and desired leadership traits. Thus, this study contributed to the scholarship in two ways: (a) the creation of a new construct, desired leadership attributes, to collect followers’ perception and assessment of what they think makes a “good” leader; (b) showed a possible way forward for conducting research into the intersection of leadership, culture, and gender.
In short, this study explored the intersection of three major research areas, namely leadership, culture, and gender, and successfully showed that there exist correlation relationships between and among them.
論文目次 Table of Contents
List of Tables …………………………….………………..…….……………….……..… VI
List of Figures …………………………………….………..…..……...…...…………... VIII
Chapter 1. Introduction …………………...……………..….……….…..…………….… 1
1.1 Background of Problem …………………….………..…………………..……………… 5
1.2 Statement and Purpose of the Research .......………………..…….…………………. 7
1.3 Research Questions ………………………..……..…...………..……………………… 9
1.4 Contribution of the Study ………………….……..……...……..…………………….… 9
1.5 Dissertation Structure ………………….………………………..…..…...…………..... 12
Chapter 2. Literature Review …………………………….…………….………………. 13
2.1 Sex and Gender ……...…………………………………………………….…………... 13
2.1.1 Gender Roles and Gender-typing ……………….….……….……………..… 14
2.1.2 Gender Roles – Masculine vs Feminine Traits ……….…..…..…...…..…... 15
2.1.3 BEM Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) ………….…………………………………. 16
2.2 Culture ……………….………………………..………………….……………………... 18
2.2.1 Confucianism and Gender ……….……………...…....………………....…… 20
2.2.2 Confucianism and Leadership …………….………….…..…...….………….. 22
2.3 Leadership ………………………………………….…………….…..……...….……… 24
2.3.1 Paternalistic Leadership ………………….……...………...…………………. 25
2.3.2 Women Leadership …………………………………………..………………... 29
2.4 Stereotyping – Intersection of Culture, Gender and Leadership .…………………. 30
2.4.1 Cultural Stereotyping of Gender ……………….……………..…...…………. 33
2.4.2 Gender Stereotyping of Leadership ……………....…….……..…….………. 34
2.5 Perception of Followers ……………………………..….……..……………….....…… 35
2.5.1 Gender Stereotyping by Followers …………….……………….………...….. 37
2.5.2 Influence of Gender Stereotyping …….…………………….….…………….. 38
2.5.3 Perception of Managerial Competency and Likeability ………...………….. 39
2.6 Summary ……………………………………………………. …………….....….…….. 41
Chapter 3. Research Framework and Methodology ……...........................……… 44
3.1 Theoretical Framework ………………………..……..………………..…………..….. 44
3.1.1 Culture (Confucianism) ….……….……...……….…………….……..………. 46
3.1.2 Gender Roles (GR) ………..….…..………………..………………………….. 48
3.1.3 Paternalistic Leadership (PL) …………….....……………...………………… 50
3.1.4 Gender Stereotyping in Women Leadership and Followership …....……… 53
3.1.5 Gender Preference for Leaders ………..….…………….………...…………. 59
3.2 Research Design ……………….………………………………..…………….………. 60
3.3 Instrumentation …………….…………………………...…………...…………...……. 61
3.4 Sampling …………………………….………………………………………………….. 65
3.5 Summary …………………………………...….………………………….….………… 66
Chapter 4. Data Analysis and Results …………..………….…..…….……………… 68
4.1 Data Analysis ……………………………………………..………………………..…… 71
4.2 Results and Findings ………………..……………………..…………………..………. 77
Chapter 5. Conclusions, Implications and Future Research …………………… 99
5.1 Research Conclusions ………………………...………………………..………….... 100
5.1.1 Confucianism Influence …………….………………………..……………… 100
5.1.2 Gender Roles – Masculinity and Femininity …………………...……..….... 101
5.1.3 Paternalistic Leadership Styles …………………..……………………....… 102
5.1.4 Desired Leadership Attributes – Managerial Competency……..…………. 104
5.1.5 Desired Leadership Attributes – Likeability ………...….………………..…. 106
5.1.6 Desired Leadership Attributes – Agentic-Communal Traits .……..………. 107
5.1.7 Gender Preference for New Manager ………..………………….…..….….. 109
5.2 Implications for Theory and Practice …………………….…….…...….………..….. 110
5.2.1 Theoretical Implications ………………………………………….….………. 110
5.2.2 Practical Implications ………………….……………………….…..…….….. 112
5.3 Limitations ………………………….………………………………..….…...……...… 116
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research ……….…...…………………………….……..... 117
5.5 Final Words …………………….……………………………………………….…….. 120
References ……………………………………………….…………………..…………. 121
Appendix 1. Research Questionnaire in English ………………………………… 145
Appendix 2. Research Questionnaire in Traditional Chinese ……...….………. 151
Appendix 3. Item Details and Coding …………………...……………….......……. 157
Appendix 4. Screenshot of Call for Survey Participants on PTT Bulletin Board …………………………………….…………………….….…..…. 160

List of Tables ……………………………………………………………… VI
Table 2.1 List of clusters and countries from the GLOBE study ………...…..…………. 19
Table 3.1 Measure of Study Variables ………………………..………..….………...……. 67
Table 4.1 Demographic Profiles of Followers and Their Leaders ………...……………. 69
Table 4.2 Means and Standard Deviation ……………...….……………….………...….. 70
Table 4.3 Followers’ Gender x Leaders’ Gender ………..………..…………….……….. 70
Table 4.4 Followers’ Ethnicity x Leaders’ Ethnicity ..……………….…….……..……….. 71
Table 4.5 Leaders’ Gender x Leaders’ Ethnicity …..………….….……….…….…..…… 71
Table 4.6 Followers’ Gender x Followers’ Ethnicity ..……….…….……….…...…..……. 71
Table 4.7 Values of Cronbach’s Alpha for multi-item constructs ..…......….......………. 72
Table 4.8 Harman’s Single Factor Testing (I) ...………………………….………….……. 73
Table 4.9 Harman’s Single Factor Testing (II)…………………………….……...…….…. 73
Table 4.10. Cumulative variances for six multi-items constructs ……………...…………. 74
Table 4.11. Total variance for followers’ masculinity score (7 items) …….……..…..…… 74
Table 4.12 Chi-square results for Confucianism influence and age, gender and ethnicity …………………………………………………………………………... 75
Table 4.13 Paired t-Test Results ………………………….…...…………….………….….. 76
Table 4.14 Independent-sample t-Test results for Leaders’ age ……..….…………...…. 76
Table 4.15a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 1a (General) ……………….……………..... 78
Table 4.15b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 1a …………………………....………........ 78
Table 4.16a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 1b (General) ………………….…...……..… 79
Table 4.16b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 1b ………………... …………………...…. 80
Table 4.17 Correlation Table for Hypothesis 2 (General) …………………..………...…… 81
Table 4.18a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 3a (General) ………………….………...….. 82
Table 4.18b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 3a ………………………..….…………...…83
Table 4.19a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 3b (General) ………………….…………..... 84
Table 4.19b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 3b …………………...……….………...…. 85
Table 4.20a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 3c (General) …………………..………….... 86
Table 4.20b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 3c ………………………….….………...… 87
Table 4.21a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 4a (General) …..……….………………….... 88
Table 4.21b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 4a …………….….....………….………..... 89
Table 4.22a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 4b (General) ……………..….….………...… 91
Table 4.22b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 4b ………………….………….………...… 92
Table 4.23a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 4c (General) …………...………………….... 94
Table 4.23b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 4c ………………….…………………...… 95
Table 4.24a Correlation Table for Hypothesis 5 (General) ……….………….…………...… 97
Table 4.24b Correlation Results for Hypothesis 5 ……………….….………….………...…. 98
Table 5.1 Simple Correlation Table for Confucianism Influence …….…………………. 101
Table 5.2 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Authoritarian Leadership Style ………………...……………………………………………… 102
Table 5.3 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Benevolent and Moral Leadership Styles …………….…………………………………………. 103
Table 5.4 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Managerial Competency …………………….……………………………………………..... 105
Table 5.5 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Likeability .. 106
Table 5.6 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Agentic-Communal Traits ………...…………………..…………………….…………… 107
Table 5.7 Simple Correlation Table for Followers’ Gender Preference for New Manager

List of Figures …………………………………….………..…..………………... VIII
Figure 1.1 Applying Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory ……………….………………… 11
Figure 2.1 Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions for China, HK, Singapore, and Taiwan ……….……………………………………………………………………. 23
Figure 2.2 Chinese and Western influences on modern Chinese leadership …....….... 25
Figure 2.3 Farh and Cheng’s model of Paternalistic Leadership ……………....….….... 26
Figure 3.1 Research Framework …………...………..……………………...………..……. 45
Figure 3.2a Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Confucianism Influence …...……….….. 48
Figure 3.2b Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Confucianism Influence …..........................................................................................…….. 48
Figure 3.3 Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Masculinity/Femininity Scores …........... 49
Figure 3.4a Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Authoritarian Leadership Style ……………...……...……………………………….…...……. 52
Figure 3.4b Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Benevolent Leadership Style …….……………………….…………………….…...…...….. 52
Figure 3.4c Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Moral Leadership Style …………………..…...…………………..…………………………...…….. 52
Figure 3.5a Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Managerial Competency ………………...……….………………………………….….....…. 57
Figure 3.5b Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Likeability …….. 57
Figure 3.5c Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Perception of Leaders’ Agentic-Communal Traits ………………..………………………………………………….…...…….. 58
Figure 3.6 Research Hypothesis – Followers’ Gender Preference for A New Manager ………………………………...………………………………………... 59
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