||Applying Social Cognitive Theory to EFL College Contexts:
The Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instruction
||Department of English
language learning strategies
Social Cognitive Theory
||本研究旨在調查EFL大學生的語言學習策略、英語自我效能以及明確的策略教學之關係。許多研究結果顯示使用較多的語言學習策略以及較高的自我效能和學習者的學業表現有高度的相關。 本研究以社會認知理論的觀點來建立出三個重要的研究變數:語言學習策略、英語自我效能和明確的策略教學。這三個研究變數會透過一個兩階段式的準實驗來做探討。在實驗的第一階段中，所有的參與者(78位主修英語的大學生)完成中級程度的全民英檢閱讀測驗、語言學習策略量表(Strategy Inventory for Language Learning)以及英語自我效能量表(English self-efficacy scale)。 在實驗的第二階段中，實驗組進行六個星期的策略教學活動。一個月之後實驗組和對照組都再次填寫語言學習策略及英語自我效能量表。 藉此來探討實驗組與對照組的語言學習策略使用和英語自我效能是否有顯著性的改變。除了有參與者背景資料的描述性分析以及研究者現場觀察、事後面談的質性分析外，一連串的量性分析(獨立t檢定、變異數分析、共變數分析和皮爾森相關係數)也運用於本研究中。本研究顯示出三個重要的結果。首先，學習者的英語能力和他們的語言學習策略運用以及英語自我效能之間是正相關。第二，語言學習策略和英語自我效能之間也是正相關。最後，在學習策略教學介入之後，學習者運用更多的語言學習策略，尤其是記憶策略。因此，本研究的結果將可以為外語學習的策略運用和自我效能的提升提供一個新的契機。 外語教學的教師及外語學習者都將可以藉此使得語言教學和學習更有效率。
||The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners’ language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction. More language learning strategy application and a higher level of self-efficacy, as proved and claimed by numerous researchers, are highly associated with learners’ academic achievement. However, there is little research on applying explicit strategy instruction in EFL contexts based on the model of Social Cognitive Theory. Therefore, in this study, from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory, three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were investigated through a two-phase quasi-experiment. In this experiment, all the participants (78 English majors) in the first phase were asked to complete an intermediate-level General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) reading test, Strategy Inventory for Language Learning designed by Oxford, and English Self-Efficacy Scale adapted from Huang et al. In the second phase, after the intervention of explicit strategy instruction, learners’ strategy application and their self-efficacy were measured again in order to investigate whether or not there would be any significant difference before and after the instruction and between the two groups of learners (the experimental and the control groups). The six-week strategy instruction was conducted according to the following steps: awareness raising, strategy instruction, hands-on activities, evaluation, and diagnosis. Besides the descriptive analysis of the learners’ background information and qualitative analysis of on-site observation and post-interview, a series of t-tests, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson Correlation coefficient were conducted to demonstrate findings from the quantitative data. Given the results, the study reveals three significant findings. First, learners’ English proficiency is correlated with their language learning strategy use and levels of English self-efficacy. Second, there is a positive correlation between language learning strategies and English self-efficacy. Third, after the strategy instruction, the learners applied more language learning strategies, especially memory strategies. Therefore, the findings of the study could possibly shed light on EFL learning and could be of help to those who are interested in strategy building and self-efficacy enhancement. Both EFL instructors and learners could be benefited in terms of effective teaching and learning.
||Table of Contents
Table of Contents iii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 7
Importance of the Study 10
Definitions of Terms 11
Organization of the Dissertation 14
Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 16
Social Cognitive Theory 16
Self-efficacy and academic performance. 22
Self-efficacy and contexts. 24
Self-efficacy and gender. 25
Self-efficacy and strategy. 26
Learning Strategies 27
Direct Strategies. 30
Indirect Strategies. 33
Learning strategies and language performance. 38
Learning strategies and academic majors. 39
Learning strategies and gender. 40
Language learning strategies and nationality. 42
The Importance of Language Learning Strategies.. 42
Learning Strategy Instruction 44
Summary of Chapter 2 52
Research Hypotheses 53
Chapter 3 Method 55
The Settings 58
The Pilot Study 58
Research Design 62
Grouping Procedure 64
The background information questionnaire. 66
The GEPT reading test.. 66
The English learning self-efficacy scale. 68
Strategy inventory for language learning. 68
The learners’ perception questionnaire on the explicit strategy instruction. 69
Research Procedures 71
Design of the Explicit Strategy Instruction 72
Data Collection 78
Data Analysis 79
Chapter 4 Results 82
Overall Descriptive Results 82
Quantitative Analysis of Phase I 84
Reported use of language learning strategies in the SILL. 85
The relationship among the six categories of language learning strategies. 93
The relationship between English proficiency and language learning strategies. 94
Reported Level of English Self-efficacy. . 94
The relationship among the four categories of English self-efficacy. 101
The relationship between English self-efficacy and English proficiency. 102
The relationship between language learning strategies and English self-efficacy. 102
Phase I Summary 104
Quantitative Analysis of Phase II 106
Reported use of the language learning strategies in the SILL by the two groups of participants after the explicit strategy instruction. 107
The results of ANCOVAs in the application of all language learning strategies. 107
The results of ANCOVAs in the application of All English self-efficacy.
Qualitative analysis of Phase II 119
Learners’ perception results. 119
Post-interview results. 123
Learners’ description of English learning. 128
The instructor’s on-site journal. 129
Summary of Phase II 131
Chapter 5 Discussion, Implications and Conclusions 133
Overview of the Study 133
Hypothesis 1: Level of English proficiency makes a difference to the number of language learning strategies used. 136
Hypothesis 2: Level of English proficiency makes differences in the level of English self-efficacy. 139
Hypothesis 3: There is a correlation between language learning strategies and English self-efficacy. . 140
Hypothesis 4: There are differences between the experimental and control group in the number of language strategies used after the explicit strategy instruction. 142
Hypothesis 5: There are differences between the experimental and control group in the level of English self-efficacy after the explicit strategy instruction. . 144
Hypothesis 6: There is a correlation between language learning strategies and English self-efficacy after the strategy instruction. . 145
Pedagogical Implications 149
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 151
List of Tables
Table 2.1 29
Features of language learning strategies 29
Table 2.2 48
Steps in the model of strategy training (instruction) 48
Table 2.3 51
Typology of strategy instruction 51
Table 3.1 57
Description of the participants in the study 57
Table 3.3 61
Descriptive Results of the SILL in the Pilot Study 61
Table 3.4 61
Descriptive Results of the SILL in the Pilot Study after the Strategy Instruction 61
Table 3.5 61
Results of Paired-Samples t-tests of the SILL in the Pilot Study 61
Table 3.6 65
Grouping selection results 65
Table 3.7 71
Selected Materials for the Explicit Strategy Instruction 71
Table 3.8 75
Procedure of the strategy instruction in the present study 75
Table 3.9 76
Time Allocation and Examples for the Explicit Strategy Instruction 76
Table 3.10 . 80
Summary of the data analysis 80
Table 4.1 84
Participants’ Attitudes toward and Perceptions of English Learning 84
Table 4.2 85
Interpretation of Pearson correlation coefficient values 85
Table 4.3 86
Language Learning Strategy Application of All the Participants 86
Table 4.4 87
Scale for Interpretation of Scores for the SILL 87
Table 4.5 88
Frequency Distribution of Metacognitive Strategies 88
Table 4.6 88
Frequency Distribution of Memory Strategies 88
Table 4.7 89
Frequency Distribution of all strategies by two groups of participants 89
Table 4.8 91
Language Strategies by Different English-level Participants 91
Table 4.9 92
ANOVA results of language strategies by different-level participants 92
Table 4.10 93
Post hoc test results of language learning strategies by different English-level
Table 4.11 94
Pearson Correlation coefficient of Six Categories of Language Learning
Table 4.12 94
Pearson correlation coefficient of language learning strategies and English
Table 4.13 95
Level of English Self-Efficacy by All Participants 95
Table 4.14 96
Level of English self-efficacy (aspiration, persistence, and enjoyment) by all
Table 4.15 96
Level of English self-efficacy (writing affect) by all participants 96
Table 4.16 97
Level of English self-efficacy by different groups of participants 97
Table 4.17 98
An independent samples t-test of English self-efficacy by the two groups 98
Table 4.18 99
Level of English Self-Efficacy by Learners with Different Levels of English
Table 4.19 100
ANOVA of English self-efficacy by different English-level participants 100
Table 4.20 101
A post hoc analysis of English self-efficacy by different English-level
Table 4.21 102
Pearson Correlation coefficient of Four Categories of English Self-Efficacy 102
Table 4.22 102
Pearson correlation coefficient of English self-efficacy and English proficiency 102
Table 4.23 103
Pearson Correlation coefficient of overall language learning strategies and
English self-efficacy 103
Table 4.24 104
Pearson Correlation coefficient of Individual Category of language learning
strategies and English self-efficacy 104
Table 4.25 108
ANCOVA results of the six parts of language learning strategies 108
Table 4.26 109
ANCOVA results of Part A strategie 109
Table 4.27 Results of paired Comparison regarding Part A strategies 109
Table 4.28 110
ANCOVA results of Part B strategies 110
Table 4.29 110
ANCOVA results of Part C strategies 110
Table 4.30 111
ANCOVA results of Part D strategies 111
Table 4.31 112
ANCOVA results of Part E strategies 112
Table 4.32 112
ANCOVA results of Part F strategies 112
Table 4.33 113
ANCOVA results of all parts of English self-efficacy 113
Table 4.34 114
ANCOVA results of Part 1 English self-efficacy 114
Table 4.35 114
ANCOVA results of Part 2 English self-efficacy 114
Table 4.36 115
ANCOVA results of Part 3 English self-efficacy 115
Table 4.37 116
ANCOVA results of Part 4 English self-efficacy 116
Table 4.38 117
Pearson Correlation coefficient of overall language learning strategies and
English self-efficacy after the strategy instruction 117
Table 4.39 118
Pearson Correlation coefficient of Individual Category of language learning
strategies and English self-efficacy after the strategy instruction 118
Table 4.40 120
First part of the learners’ perception 120
Table 4.41 122
Second Part of the Learners’ Perception 122
Table 4.42 125
Findings of the Post-Interview 125
Table 4.43 129
Summary of Learners’ Description about English Learnin 129
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 17
The self-reflective process 17
Figure 2.2 20
Sources of Efficacy Expectations 20
Figure 2.3 30
Diagram of the strategy system: overview 30
Figure 2.4 31
Diagram of the direct strategies: Overview 31
Figure 2.5 35
Diagram of the direct strategies: Overview 35
Figure 2.6 53
Three Constructs in the Present Study 53
Figure 3.1 63
Framework of the research design 63
Figure 3.2 72
Flowchart of the research procedure 72
Figure 3.3 73
Cycle of Strategy Instruction 73
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