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系統識別號 U0002-1806201311265100
中文論文名稱 比較高壓與常壓好氧顆粒污泥程序
英文論文名稱 Comparison of high pressure and ambient pressure aerobic granulation processes.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 梁洋銘
研究生英文姓名 yang-min liang
學號 895480050
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-03
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-李奇旺
委員-李篤中
委員-陳孝行
委員-康世芳
委員-李柏青
中文關鍵字 高壓  顆粒污泥  有機負荷  硝化 
英文關鍵字 High pressure  granulation  organic loading  nitrification 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於顆粒大小的原因,限制基質與氧氣進入顆粒中心,使顆粒中心因基質與氧氣不足而發生厭氧分解,導致顆粒崩解。系統之穩定性問題,是好氧顆粒污泥實際應用的主要障礙。在高溶氧狀態下,氧氣穿透顆粒的深度也愈深,根據亨利定律,水中溶氧會隨壓力增加而上升;因此,操作在高壓環境下之顆粒污泥的形成與穩定性應會優於操作在常壓環境下。
實驗結果顯示,操作在高壓環境下可促進顆粒污泥的形成。常壓顆粒污泥的尺寸與MLSS濃度皆大於高壓顆粒污泥,但是常壓系統之出流水的SS高於高壓系統,這是由於常壓系統仍含有大量的污泥膠羽所造成的。高壓系統有較長的污泥停留時間及較低的污泥增值率,即污泥量會比較少,可降低後續的污泥處理費用。
高壓系統可操作在較高的NLR,完全硝化用作在高壓系統較早達到,顯示HP環境可促進NOB菌群的生長。高壓顆粒污泥之(SOUR)h、(SOUR)NH4及(SOUR)NO2皆優於常壓顆粒污泥,但由於顆粒較小,對FA及FNA濃度的變化更為敏感。
英文摘要 Due to granule size, substrate and oxygen become limited in the core of granules leading to cell lysis at the core. Loss of granule stability is still a major barrier for practical application of AG. The higher the DO, the deeper the oxygen penetration inside AG. According to Henry's Law, DO increases with increasing oxygen pressure in gas phase. Compared to ambient pressure condition (AP), operation of AG under high pressure (HP) might a favorable condition for formation and stability of granules.
Experimental results show that granulation was facilitated under HP condition. MLSS and size of granules under AP system are higher than those under HP system. However, SS of effluent in AP is higher than those in HP and is consisted mainly with flocculent sludge. Longer SRT and lower biomass yield are obtained in HP system, indicating that less sludge will be produced in HP system.
HP system can operate at high nitrogen loading. Complete nitrification was observed earlier in HP, indicating that the growth of NOB was facilitated under high dissolved oxygen. The (SOUR)h,(SOUR)NH4 and (SOUR)NO2 of HP sludge are better than of AP sludge. However, HP sludge is more sensitive to changes of FA and FNA concentrations due to smaller granule size.
論文目次 目錄 V
List of Figure VIII
List of Table XIII
第一章 研究緣起 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 好氧顆粒 3
2.2 影響顆粒污泥形成的因素 5
2.2.1 飢餓期 5
2.2.2 植種污泥來源 5
2.2.3 基質組成 6
2.2.4 有機負荷率(OLR) 7
2.2.5 鈣鎂離子之影響 8
2.2.6 pH之影響 9
2.2.7 溫度之影響 9
2.2.8 選擇壓力(selection pressure) 10
2.2.9 剪力 11
2.2.10 溶氧 12
2.3 顆粒污泥之EPS及細胞活性分佈 14
2.4 AGMBR之應用 16
2.5 生物去氮除磷技術 17
2.5.1 硝化作用 17
2.5.2 脫硝作用 18
2.5.3 除磷作用 18
2.5.4 好氧顆粒應用於硝化程序 19
2.5.5 好氧顆粒應用於硝化脫硝程序 20
2.5.6 好氧顆粒應用於脫氮除磷程序 21
2.6 好氧顆粒於高壓環境下培養 23
2.6.1 高壓環境下的溶氧濃度 23
2.6.2 不同OLR在高壓(HP)與常壓(AP)下顆粒污泥的形成 24
第三章 實驗方法 29
3.1 反應槽設計與操作流程 29
3.2 EPS分析 32
3.2.1 蛋白檢測分析 32
3.2.2 醣類檢測分析 33
3.3 掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析 34
3.4 總有機碳(TOC) 34
3.5 顆粒之EPS種類分佈分析 35
3.5.1 染色步驟 35
3.6 HP及AP顆粒污泥之比攝氧率分析(Specific oxygen utilization rate, SOUR) 36
3.7 HP及AP系統之攝氧率分析(Oxygen utilization rate, OUR) 36
3.8 水中MLSS及SS檢測方法 37
3.9 水中NO2--N及NO3--N檢測方法 37
3.10 水中NH4+-N檢測方法 38
3.11 污泥停留時間與污泥增值係數計算 39
第四章 結果與討論 41
4.1 比較顆粒污泥操作在高壓與常壓下的特性 41
4.1.1 系統處理效率 42
4.1.2 顆粒污泥之特性 45
4.1.3 顆粒污泥之大小分布 48
4.1.4 顆粒污泥之EPS特性與組成 50
4.1.5 螢光顯微鏡(CLSM)與電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析 52
4.2 比較高壓與常壓顆粒污泥的硝化效率 56
4.2.1 系統處理效率 56
4.2.2 NH4+-N降解曲線 60
4.2.3 硝化顆粒污泥之特性 68
4.2.4 硝化顆粒污泥之粒徑分布 70
4.2.5 硝化顆粒污泥之EPS特性與組成 71
4.2.6 電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析及顆粒照片 73
4.3 顆粒污泥之比攝氧率 75
4.3.1 HP及AP系統之DO濃度變化 75
4.3.2 HP及AP系統之攝氧率及污泥之比攝氧率變化 76
4.3.3 比較HP及AP系統之(SOUR)h、(SOUR)NH4及(SOUR)NO2 78
4.3.4 pH及NH3-N濃度對HP及AP污泥之(SOUR)NH4的影響 80
4.3.5 pH及HNO2-N濃度對HP及AP污泥之(SOUR)NO2的影響 84
第五章結論 86
參考文獻 88
List of Figure
Figure 1. Proposed mechanism of aerobic granulation by Beun et al. [22]. 4
Figure 2. Light microscopy images of granules at organic loading rates of (a) 1, (bB) 2, (c) 4, and (d) 8 kgCOD/m3 day form Tay et al. [49]. 8
Figure 3. Light microscopy images of granules after operating times of: (e) 50 days; and (f) 75 days, form Wang et al. [50]. 8
Figure 4. DO concentration in the reactor with different aeration cycles [17]. 24
Figure 5. MLSS and SVI30, MLSS, COD removal efficiency, and SS as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems operated at various OLR [126]. 27
Figure 6. Ratio of granular sludge and strength of granule [126]. 28
Figure 7. PS/PN for HP and AP systems operated at various OLR [126]. 28
Figure 8. (A) high pressure system and (B) ambient pressure system. 30
Figure 9. Operation sequence for a two-hour cycle. 31
Figure 10. The calibration curve of PN concentration measured by Bradford method. 33
Figure 11. The calibration curve of PS concentration measured by phenol-sulfuric acid method. 34
Figure 12. The calibration curve of NO2--N concentration measured by FIA. 38
Figure 13. The calibration curve of NO3--N concentration measured by FIA. 38
Figure 14. The calibration curve of NH4+-N concentration measured by FIA. 39
Figure 15. TOC as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 43
Figure 16. Profile of TOC concentration in mixed liquor at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d for HP and AP systems. 43
Figure 17. Effluent SS as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 44
Figure 18. MLSS and SVI30 as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 46
Figure 19. SVI30/SVI5 as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 47
Figure 20. Particle size distribution of granules less than 600 μm for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. Samples were taken at day 55. 49
Figure 21. PS/PN for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 50
Figure 22. EPS for HP and AP systems operated at TOC loading of 3.3~3.6 kg /m3-d. 51
Figure 23. CLSM images of HP granule. Bar=200 μm. (A) proteins (FITC), (B) α-polysaccharides (Con A), (C) β-polysaccharides (Calcofluor white), (D) total cells (SYTO63), (E) dead cells (Sytox Blue), (F) phase contrast photograph (G) combined image of individual images in A-F. Samples were taken at day 89. 53
Figure 24. CLSM images of AP granule at day . Bar=200 μm. (A) proteins (FITC), (B) α-polysaccharides (Con A), (C) β-polysaccharides (Calcofluor white), (D) total cells (SYTO63), (E) dead cells (Sytox Blue), (F) phase contrast photograph (G) combined image of individual images in A-F. Samples were taken at day 89. 54
Figure 25. SEM images of HP and AP granule at day 115. (A) (B) HP, (C) (D) AP. 55
Figure 26. Effluent quality of HP system during phase II. 58
Figure 27. Effluent quality of AP system during phase II. 58
Figure 28. Profile of NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N concentration in mixed liquor for HP and AP systems operated at NLR of 0.9 kg /m3-d (influent NH4+-N=150 mg/L). Samples were taken at day 298. 61
Figure 29. Profile of NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N concentration in mixed liquor for HP and AP systems operated at NLR of 1.8 kg /m3-d (influent NH4+-N=300 mg/L). Samples were taken at day 202. 62
Figure 30. Profile of NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N concentration in mixed liquor for HP and AP systems operated at NLR of 2.7 kg /m3-d (influent NH4+-N=450 mg/L). Samples were taken at day 227. 62
Figure 31. Profile of NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N concentration in mixed liquor for HP and AP systems operated at NLR of 3.6 kg /m3-d (influent NH4+-N=600 mg/L). Samples were taken at day 257. 63
Figure 32. MLSS and SVI30 as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems during phase II. 69
Figure 33. SVI30/SVI5 as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems during phase II. 69
Figure 34. Particle size distribution of granules less than 600 μm for HP and AP systems. Samples were taken at day 150. 70
Figure 35. EPS as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems during phase II. 72
Figure 36. PS/PN as a function of operation time for HP and AP systems during phase II. 72
Figure 37. SEM images of HP and AP granule at day 225. (A) (B) HP, (C) (D)AP. 73
Figure 38. The photos of sludge under (A) AP and(B) HP systems took after 300 days of operation. 74
Figure 39. Measured cycle profiles of DO concentration during one cycle of HP and AP systems at S5. 75
Figure 40. Measured cycle profiles of OUR during one cycle of HP and AP systems at S5. 77
Figure 41. Measured cycle profiles of SOUR during one cycle of HP and AP granules at S5. 77
Figure 42. Heterotrophic and nitrifying activities in microbial granules under HP and AP systems. (SOUR)NH4 : specific oxygen utilization rate by ammonia oxidizer; (SOUR)NO2 : specific oxygen utilization rate by nitrite oxidizer; (SOUR)h: specific oxygen utilization rate by heterotrophs. Samples were taken at day 325. 79
Figure 43. The effect of pH for FA at 150 mg NH4+-N /L and FNA at 200 mg NO2--N/L. 81
Figure 44. The effect of pH for (SOUR)NH4 in microbial granules under HP and AP systems at 150 mg NH4+-N /L. 83
Figure 45. The effect of NH4+-N concentration for (SOUR)NH4 in microbial granules under HP and AP systems at pH 7.0. 83
Figure 46. The effect of pH for (SOUR)NO2 in microbial granules under HP and AP systems at 200 mg NO2--N /L. 85
Figure 47. The effect of NO2--N concentration for (SOUR)NO2 in microbial granules under HP and AP systems at pH 7.0. 85

List of Table
Table 1. Feed water quality in phase I. 31
Table 2. Feed water quality for different periods of test 31
Table 3. The stains used in the proposed staining scheme 36
Table 4. SRT and biomass yield from AG under HP and AP conditions 59
Table 5. NH4+-N degradation for system under HP and AP conditions 64
Table 6. NH4+-N degradation for sludge under HP and AP conditions 64
Table 7. DO diffusion depth in AP sludge. 67

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