||The Office of the U.S. Director of National Intelligence: Under Obama Administration (2009-2012)
||Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
||Bheki Mthiza Patrick Dlamini
ODNI under Obama Administration
Post 9/11 Amalgamation of U.S. Intelligence Community
Intelligence Restructuring, Integration
||This thesis represents an analytical study of the United States Office of Director of National Intelligence with specific reference to continual reforms on intelligence in the first term of the Obama Administration. It starts with examining how the 9/11 attacks triggered the Intelligence Community Reforms that led to creation of the ODNI. It further explores the Intelligence Community in the U.S., particularly the ramifications of reorganizations of the ODNI powers and functions, under the Obama Administration, (2008-2012). In-depth discussions concerning the structure of the U.S. Intelligence Community are presented as well as a focus on the defined steps of the intelligence process: planning and directions, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination. This study explored two questions: (i) does the Office of the Director of National Intelligence meet its objectives?; (ii) does bureaucratic reforms within the U.S. Intelligence Community empower the ODNI on national security policy matters? Three prepositions are employed in attempt to answer the two questions: (i) under the Obama Administration, the continual organizational transformation of the Intelligence Community has not met any significant resistance from stake holders; (ii) under the Obama Administration, the Director of National Intelligence has more leverage over covert operations than the director of CIA; (iii) under the Obama Administration, the ODNI's success in drone programs and covert operations is attributed to the changing culture of "need-to-know" and "need-to-share" of intelligence. Implications on issues relating to the restructuring of the U.S. intelligence community in light of the creation of the ODNI as also examined.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
I. Research Questions 2
II. Research Prepositions 5
III. Theoretical Framework 7
IV. Literature Review 11
V. Research Limitations 14
VI. Organization 14
Chapter 2 16
The History of the U.S. Office of Director of National Intelligence 16
I. From DCI to DNI 19
II. The Legal Background of the ODNI 28
III. Directors Tenures: 2005-2012 33
IV. The Concept of Intelligence 37
Chapter 3 48
Leverage, Powers of ODNI and Oversight Control 48
I. Leverage and Powers of ODNI 48
II. The Powers of the ODNI 52
III. Oversight 59
IV. Legislative Branch 66
Chapter 4 74
Performance, Successes and Failures of the ODNI 74
I. Performances (2009-2012) 74
a) Successes of the ODNI under the First term of Obama Administration 76
b) ODNI Operational Successes in Comparison to Missions 78
II. ODNI Failures 83
a) ODNI’s failures on Arresting Al-Qaida’s Number two 83
b) ODNI Failures on Benghazi 84
c) ODNI Failures on Detroit Aircraft Terrorists Attempt 86
d) ODNI Failures on Leaks 86
e) ODNI Failures on Arab Spring Estimates 87
III. Scholarly Proposals on the ODNI to Enhance Successes and Mitigate Failures 89
a. Increased Integration to Enhance ODNI Successes 91
b. Recommendations on Roles of the ODNI in Maximizing Successes 98
c. Recommendations on Global partnerships to Avert Failures 100
d. Recommendations on Oversight Control Mechanisms Over the ODNI 103
Chapter 5 108
Major Research Findings. 110
Discussion of Findings on Research Questions 112
Discussion of Findings with Reference to Prepositions and Performances of the ODNI 114
Discussion of Findings with Reference to the Concept of Oversight 117
Reflections on Future Research 117
Appendix A 139
Intelligence Community Time Line 139
Appendix B 141
Post 9/11 structure of Intelligence Community 141
Table of Figures
Figure 1: A Typical Intelligence Cycle 41
Figure 2: The Intelligence Cycle Model and Patterns of Interactions mostly in the U.S. Context. 44
List of Tables
Table 1: Summary of major prir-9/11 Initiatives Leading to Creation of ONDI 25
Table 2: Intelligence Community reforms Highlights 32
Table 3: Table of major oversight reforms 69
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Additional Visited Websites
Bush, George W. “Fact Sheet: President Bush Remarks on the War on Terror.” 6 October 2005. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/10/20051006-2.html.
CATO Institute. http://www.cato.org/defense-studies/intelligence.html.
Center for the Study of Intelligence. http://www.odci.gov/csi/index.html.
Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.cia.gov/.
Defense Intelligence Agency. http://www.dia.mil/.
Department of State - Bureau of Intelligence and Research. http://www.state.gov/s/inr/.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (formerly NIMA). http://www.nga.mil/portal/site /nga01/.
National Intelligence Council (NIC). http://www.odci.gov/nic/NIC_home.html.
National Reconnaissance Office. http://www.nro.gov/.
National Security Agency (NSA). http://www.nsa.gov/.
National Security Experts Blog. http://security.nationaljournal.com/.
Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive. http://www.ncix.gov/index.html.
Presidential Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. http://www.whitehouse.gov/pfiab/.
U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command. http://www.inscom.army.mil/.