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系統識別號 U0002-1806201014060800
中文論文名稱 無線感測網路中以傳輸功率控制為基礎的省電休眠排程
英文論文名稱 A Power Saving Sleep Scheduling based on Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 吳雅蘭
研究生英文姓名 Ya-Lan Wu
學號 797410106
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-05-25
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-陳振炎
委員-逄愛君
委員-梅興
委員-王英宏
中文關鍵字 無線感測網路  生命週期  傳輸功率控制  休眠排程 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Sensor Networks  Lifetime  Transmission Power Control  Sleep Scheduling 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks)已經被視為一項未來的偵測技術,將大量的感測器節點隨機分佈後可以提供許多廣泛的應用,例如:追蹤某種目標物之狀態、環境之監測、週遭安全性之提升等。在無線感測網路中,因為感測器節點只能使用有限的能源的關係,例如電池,所以當感測器節點的能源耗盡時,會導致整個無線感測網路的功能受到影響,甚至造成整個網路無法運作。因此管理感測器的能源成為一個重要的議題,藉由有效的管理感測器的能源才能延長無線感測網路的生命週期(Lifetime)。
要節省能源最好的方式就是將感測器節點的電源直接關閉,但是被關閉的感應器節點就不再屬於網路的一部份,無法執行資料的傳輸與接收,可能會造成資料的遺失,因此何時該關閉電源何時該打開電源的權衡便顯得十分重要,一方面要延長無線感測網路的生命週期(Lifetime),而另ㄧ方面又不能造成太高的資料遺失率,在“應用於無線感測器網路中以休眠排成為基礎之電源管控機制"中所提出的休眠排程演算法(Sleep Scheduling),因為其無法保證感測器節點是否有鄰近的感測器節點(neighbor node)可以代傳資料,明顯地容易造成資料的遺失。因此本篇論文將針對這個問題進行改善,提出以傳輸功率控制為基礎的改善休眠排程來解決資料遺失的問題。
依據論文中所提出的改善演算法與原有的演算法進行模擬實驗分析,發現原有的演算法可以完成43個Rounds,而且會有些許的資料遺失率,而改善的演算法可以完成40個Rounds優於沒有使用休眠排程演算法的35個Rounds,但沒有資料遺失的狀況。所以本論文所提出的改善演算法可以有效的解決資料遺失的問題。
英文摘要 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become a sensing technology of future. A large number of sensor nodes can be randomly sprayed in an area and support many applications such as tracking the status for a target, monitoring environment and improving public security. The sensor nodes of WSNs can only use limited energy like battery. When the energy has been exhausted, WSNs cannot work anymore. In order to extend the lifetime of WSNs, the management of the sensor's energy is an important issue.
The best way to save energy is to shutdown the power of sensor node directly. The sensor node which the power is shutdown is not belonging to the WSN and cannot do the data transmission and receive anymore. To shutdown the power of sensor node may cause the data loss. So when to turn off the power and when to turn on the power is become vary important. Shutdown the sensor nodes may extend the lifetime of WSNs, but also may cause the high packets loss rate. The Sleep Schedule addressed on “A Power Control Mechanism based on Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks” cannot guarantee that neighbor node has ability to do transmission, because the node may be in sleep. And it may result in data loss. This thesis would use the transmission power control technology to improve this issue and reduce the packets loss rate.
In this thesis, use the improved algorithm and the original algorithm to do simulation. The original algorithm can complete 43 rounds and has some data loss. The network without sleep scheduling algorithm can complete 35 rounds and has no data loss. The improved algorithm which is better than the network without sleep scheduling algorithm can complete 40 rounds and has no data loss. As a result, the improved algorithm proposed in this thesis can effectively resolve the data loss problem of the original algorithm.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 簡介 1
1-1 無線感測網路簡介 1
1-2 無線感測網路的應用 4
1-3 研究動機 5
第二章 相關研究 8
2-1 耗電因素之介紹 8
2-2傳輸功率控制機制之介紹 11
2-3 休眠排程協定之介紹 13
2-3-1 固定休眠排程協定 13
2-3-2 動態休眠排程協定 16
2-3-3 跨階層休眠排程協定 20
2-3-4以休眠排程為基礎之電源管控機制 22
第三章 傳輸功率控制基礎下的睡眠排程 25
3-1 傳輸功率控制機制 25
3-2 傳輸功率控制基礎下的休眠排程演算法 27
3-2-1 建立表格 28
3-2-2 休眠排程演算法 34
第四章 結果分析與實驗 47
4-1 分析 47
4-2 實驗結果 49
4-2-1 Packet Reception Rate under Sleep Rate 49
4-2-2 Consumption 51
4-2-3 Packet Reception Rate under Rounds 53
第五章 結論 55
5-1 結論 55
5-2 未來研究方向 57
參考文獻 58
附錄—英文論文 60

圖目錄
圖一、無線感測網路 2
圖二、無線感測器的硬體架構 3
圖三、Routing by CLUSTERPOW in a typical non-homogeneous network. 12
圖四、Periodic Listen and Sleep 14
圖五、Time relationship between a receiver and senders 15
圖六、Randomly Sleep Period 16
圖七、Power scheduling 17
圖八、每個資料流的狀態圖 20
圖九、休眠排程演算法 23
圖十、感測節點睡眠分布 24
圖十一、傳輸功率控制 26
圖十二、表格初始化流程 29
圖十三、Mica2傳輸層級、耗費能源及傳輸範圍 33
圖十四、Sleep Scheduling Algorithm base on TPC 37
圖十五、Case 1 need to adjust Ta and Ts 38
圖十六、Case 2 not need to adjust Ta and Ts 39
圖十七、Update NIT table 41
圖十八、Update NIT table of Node A 42
圖十九、Interrupt point Time usage example 44
圖二十、Transmit Packets and Adjust Power Level 46
圖二十一、Packet Reception Rate under Sleep Rate 50
圖二十二、Consumption 52
圖二十三、Packet Reception Rate under Rounds 54

表目錄
表一、Reservation between two nodes 19
表二、Owner Information Table (OIT) 31
表三、Neighbor Information Table (NIT) 32
表四、Mica2 Power Table (MPT) 32
表五、實驗環境及參數 48
參考文獻 [1] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, “Wireless sensor networks: a survey,” Computer Networks of Elsevier Journal, Mar. 2002, pp.393-422.

[2] A. Sinha, A. Chandrakasan, “Dynamic Power Management in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Design and Test of Computers, March-April 2001, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 62-74.

[3] Deborah Estrin, John Heidemann, and Wei Ye, “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE INFOCOM 2002, 2002, Vol. 3, pp.1567-1576.

[4] I. Demirkol, C. Ersoy, F. Alagoz, “MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks : a survey,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Apr. 2006, Vol. 44, Issue 4, pp.115–121.

[5] Ying-Hong Wang, Chin-Yung Yu, “A Power Control Mechanism based on Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Ph.D. Thesis Dissertation, University of Tamkang, January 2009.

[6] His-Feng Lu, Yao-Chung Chang, Hsing-Hsien Hu, Jiann-Liang Chen, “Power-Efficient Scheduling Method in Sensor Networks,” 2004 IEEE International Conference, 10-13 Oct. 2004, Vol. 5, pp.4705-4710.

[7] A. Boukerche, X. Cheng, and J. Linus, “Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing in Microsensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 6th ACM international workshop on Modeling analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems, 2003, pp.42-49.

[8] Barbara Hohlt, Lance Doherty, Eric Brewer, “Flexible Power Scheduling for Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the third international symposium of Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), 2004, Oral presentation session 3, pp.205-215.

[9] Mihail L. Sichitiu, “Cross-Layer Scheduling for Power Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE INFOCOM 2004, 7-11 March 2004, Vol. 3, pp.1740-1750.

[10] J. Chen, S.-H. Gary Chan, Q. Zhang, Wen-Wu Zhu, and J. Chen, “A distributed power adaptation algorithm for multimedia delivery over ad hoc networks,” Proceedings of 2003 International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, July 2003, Vol. 1, pp.I-293-I-296.

[11] V. Kawadia and P. R. Kumar, “Power Control and Clustering in Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE INFOCOM 2003, 30 Mar.-3 Apr. 2003, Vol. 1, pp.459-269.

[12] A. I. El-Osery, D. Baird and S. Bruder, “Transmission power management in ad hoc networks: issues and advantages,” Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Networking, Sensing and Control, Mar. 2005, pp.1043-1048.

[13] P. Floreen, P. Kaski, J. Kohonen, and P. Orponen, “Lifetime maximization for multicasting in energy-constrained wireless networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Jan. 2005, pp.117-126.

[14] V. Kawadia and P. R. Kumar, “Principles and protocols for power control in wireless ad hoc networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Jan. 2005, pp.76-88.
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