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系統識別號 U0002-1806200819185600
中文論文名稱 美國校園暴力成因及防治之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Factors and Preventions of American Campus Violence
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 石仲玲
研究生英文姓名 Jhong-Ling Shih
學號 695250182
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-11
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-宋佩芬
委員-謝國斌
中文關鍵字 校園暴力  暴力文化  槍枝管理  種族問題 
英文關鍵字 campus violence  violent culture  firearm regulation  ethnic problems 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 校園風氣相當開放的美國,有許多來自不同地區、不同國籍的學生,因此美國的學術界顯得相當多元,另外再加上美國本身的高度自由性,讓學生幾乎有能力做任何事情。回顧過去,美國曾傳出多起校園槍擊事件,這似乎也意味著美國校園安全這一塊有很大的缺失。本研究打算對於美國校園暴力的成因、預防手段、法律制度…等面向做進一步討論,試圖找出提升美國校園安全性的可能方式。

多年來,美國發生過很多起大小不一的槍擊事件,而校園霸凌的情況,在美國也隨處可見,從這裡也能看出,美國的校園治安有很大的漏洞。究竟是什麼原因造成美國校園暴力事件頻傳呢?其可能原因主要有兩方面,其一、美國本身所具有的複雜民族性;其二、則是槍枝私有情形氾濫,基於這兩點,讓美國的校園非常不安寧,因為任何學生都有可能因為逞凶鬥狠的情緒高漲,而回家拿了把槍來做個了斷。另外,其實許多校園暴力事件的發生,多半有種族色彩,許多亞洲地區國家的學童,都會成為校園暴力事件中的一份子,而且大部分都是被欺負的角色,也是後來可能促成校園槍擊事件的兇手,因此,校園內的管理,與師生之間的互動,也成為相當重要的一環。

許多非純種的美國人,多半都會有一些和美國主流社會比較不同的地方,不管是外貌、能力、口音甚至是個性…等等,這些部分都會成為他們被欺負、嘲笑、不平等對待的主要原因,校園暴力也就因此發生;另一方面,許多純種的美國小孩,大多是在充斥暴力、色情的環境下長大,於是容易出現對於弱小的欺侮行為,所以,美國那種過於開放、複雜的社會,是養成孩童有暴力傾向的主要原因。而一旦有校園暴力事件產生,輕則只是拳打腳踢一番,但嚴重的就有可能出現刀槍等具有殺傷力的武器,而這種情況也必須歸咎於美國法律對於危險性武器(槍械)的管理制度過於鬆散,甚至在許多地區,這種具有殺傷力的槍枝幾乎是隨手可得。再者,這些長期受到校園暴力威脅的弱小孩童,或是一些心理上有陰影、障礙的學童,可能是因為對於生活週遭的事物感到強烈的不滿,甚至是厭惡,於是拿起手邊的槍械,隨時準備大開殺戒!許多無法挽回的校園悲劇,就是這樣發生的。

如何能預防這些校園暴力事件發生的可能?甚至有效降低校園暴力發生的機率?本研究中提出以下幾點,以學校的角度來說,可以加強老師對於問題學生的應變處理能力,校園內也對學生隨身攜帶的物品進行管制,再者則是提倡平等多元的求學環境,讓學生能在不受威脅的情況下求學,同時要求學校必須制定一套有效的校園暴力預防機制,另外也要加強學生日常生活中的情緒管理能力,並讓不同文化背景的學生,懂得互相尊重,讓校園和平氣氛提升。法律社會層面而言,應提高槍枝管制門檻,並嚴格實行,更要加強校園內可能出現槍枝的可能,以法律的力量來保障學生在校園內的安全,而社會對於不良的暴力、色情事物,應該要有效的管制、減少,給孩童一個乾淨單純而且健康的成長環境,這樣一來也能有效降低校園暴力事件發生的可能。至於家庭層面,也可以說是政府方面需要大力倡導的,就是強調家庭內的親子關係,家長需要隨時注意自己孩子的身心發展情況,並且給予適時的關心,以降低孩童在學校可能出現偏差行為的機率。

實際上就美國目前的情況來說,以上種種的預防方式都有實行上的困難,再加上地理環境的因素,許多的現行槍枝管理法規都無法嚴格落實,因此若想要完全杜絕校園暴力事件,可能還有許多必須加強的部份。
英文摘要 With many students from different regions and countries, the campus atmosphere in America is pretty open. Consequently, the academic field in America is quite diverse. In addition, America always stands for the high liberty. These all allow students to get the chance to do anything you can image. Review the past, it is clear that many firearm incidences occurred in America, which implied the serious breach of security on American campus. Therefore, this research tends to proceed the extended discussion on the causes, preventions, legislation of violence on American campus and tries to seek the possible methods to improve the security on American campus.

In recent years, many firearm incidences at large or small scale occurred in America. And the assault and battery also can be widely seen on American campus. From this condition, one can sense that there is serious breach of security on American campus. However, what factor, on earth, causes the frequent occurrence of American campus violence? There are two possible factors, one is the complex nationalities; the other is the overflow of gun privatization. These two factors severely destroy the campus peace in America because any student may rise the passive emotion from the fighting and reach the gun from the house to create the big trouble. Besides, the occurrences of campus violence, in fact, mostly are related to racism. Therefore, many Asian students became the member in the violent incidences and most changed from the roles of the bullied to the criminals causing campus firearm incidences. For this reason, the management on campus and the interaction between teachers and students also become the very important factor.

Many Americans without pureblood differ from American main stream in appearance, ability, accent and even personality and so on. These differences all caused them to be bullied, insulted and mistreated and led to the campus violence. On the other hand, a great many of pure-blooded American children grew under the violence and sex, which made them tend to perform violent behaviors toward the weak. Therefore, we can assume the over open and complex society matured the major causes of children’s violent orientation. And once the campus violence happens, the condition will either be just blows exchange or, seriously, the appearance of some lethal weapons like knife and gun. However, this also must be ascribed the blame to the over loose of lethal weapons (firearm) in the American legislations. In many regions, the lethal firearm can even be reached easily. Furthermore, the weak children suffering the long-term campus violence or mental barrier may be caused by the extreme resentment around their living surroundings; the resentment can even trigger those children to rise their guns and tend to make a slaughter on the go! And numerous campus tragedies thus occurred.

How to prevent the campus violence and even effectively reduce the probability of campus violence? This research proposes the following viewpoints. From the eye of school, teachers can be required to strengthen the ability to deal with the students’ problems instantly. Schools also can regulate the stuff that the students carry with them and then advocate the learning environment with diverse purposes to ensure that students can study without any threat. In the meantime, schools also have to establish a set of preventive mechanism toward campus violence, reinforce the students’ abilities to manage their emotion in daily lives and teach the students with different cultural backgrounds how to respect with each other in order to improve the peaceful atmosphere on campus. On the side of legislation, the authorities must increase the threshold of firearm regulation and put into practice sternly. The authorities also need to use legislative power to ensure the students’ security on campus. Moreover, the society should effectively regulate and decrease the violence and sex to provide children with healthy and sound growing environment and to reduce the probability of campus violence with effect. As for the household, the aspect that the authorities need to advocate greatly is the relationship between parents and children. Parents should keep eyes on the condition of children’s physical and mental development and give the concern in time to lower the probability of children’s misbehaviors at school.

Actually, consider the present condition in America, all the above preventions are hard to deliver. In addition, owing to the geographical factor, many existing regulations toward firearm cannot also be practiced sternly. Therefore, trying to prevent the campus violence completely may still leave many parts to strengthen.

論文目次 目 次
第一章 緒論................................1
第一節 研究動機.............................1
第二節 研究目的.............................6
第三節 研究概念.............................7
第四節 研究方法.............................9

第二章 文獻回顧.............................10
第一節 美國校園暴力的現狀和形式.............10
第二節 美國校園暴力的趨勢...................15
第三節 美國校園暴力之防治...................16
第四節 國內校園暴力之研究匯總...............22

第三章 美國校園暴力之成因..................23
第一節 家庭層面.............................23
第二節 學校層面.............................25
第三節 心理層面.............................27
第四節 社會文化層面.........................32

第四章 美國校園暴力之防治..................51
第一節 預防系統.............................51
第二節 槍枝管理.............................56
第三節 法律防範.............................62
第四節 師資培育.............................67

第五章 結論與建議...........................70
第一節 研究結論.............................70
第二節 研究建議.............................73

參考文獻....................................75
中文部分....................................75
英文部分....................................77

圖 表 目 次
表1 美國近年來嚴重的校園槍擊事件...........1
表2 1992-1999年學校犯罪和安全調查的年度報告...11
表3 美國暴力事件犯案率.....................14
表4 國內校園暴力之研究.....................22


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