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系統識別號 U0002-1802201402491900
中文論文名稱 文化遺產觀光:以英國四個個案城市為例
英文論文名稱 Heritage Tourism: Take Four Cities in Britain as Case Studies
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 陳永忻
研究生英文姓名 Yung-Hsing Chen
學號 600290281
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-01-13
論文頁數 172頁
口試委員 指導教授-卓忠宏
委員-劉以德
委員-黃琛瑜
委員-卓忠宏
中文關鍵字 文化觀光  遺產觀光  英國文化遺產 
英文關鍵字 Cultural tourism  Heritage tourism  Britain  Cultrual Heritage 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 文化觀光,是全球化觀光的一種潮流,也是一個城市發展觀光的契機,文化觀光最早在1985年被世界觀光組織定義,然而隨著年代的增加,更多學者投注心力研究,讓文化觀光這門學科的理論更臻成熟,其中的遺產觀光更是目前世界各國發展觀光時不能忽略的一塊。遺隨著資訊傳播快速、科技發達的影響下,透過網路、電視等傳播媒體將更多文化藝術跨國傳遞資訊,也讓遺產觀光漸趨興盛,將文化遺產包裝後藉由行銷手法廣為宣傳,成為一國宣揚文化同時促進經濟消費的利器。
英國因其在政治經濟方面的發展為歐洲大國,在文化上的影響力更是不容小覷。身為歷史悠久的海島國家,透過海外冒險和殖民地開發,帶回許多人類珍貴的文化資產,也豐富英國本身文化的多元性和創造力。英國文化部同樣也致力於文化遺產的保護和推廣,加上其他非官方組織的合作與協調下,在實際操作上也能更有效率且快速地達成目標。此外,透過四個英國城市的遺產觀光發展作為個案研究,來檢視英國遺產觀光在中央和地方政府的政策及支援下,
是否帶來正面且積極的效果。
本研究分為四部份:第一章將說明研究動機與目的、研究方法、架構和限制;第二章說明文化觀光的定義及其種類和遺產觀光的興起;第三章從遺產觀光的理論和幾項主題討論英國遺產觀光的強項;第四張論述英國在文化政策上的規範,以及如何透過觀光政策的推廣,吸引更多文化觀光客;第五章則藉由個案研究,探討英國如何在實務上規劃與管理文化遺產作為發展文化觀光的利基及其產生的正面影響和負面衝擊。
英文摘要 Cultural tourism is a tourism trend which becomes more and more popular in recent year; with other researchers and scholars who participated in studying this subject and brought it to a higher level than travel. One of the most important classifications in Cultural tourism is Heritage tourism, almost all the countries have their own cultural heritages, and those precious monuments or artifacts could become the catalyst of one city’s economy development.Despite the controversial discussion about the modification of cultural heritage, heritage tourism is still a common way of developing one place’s tourism.
Britain, a great country with its long royal history and the glorious past of colonization, had left so many historical buildings and architects which turned out to be the wonderful resources to develop heritage tourism. Heritage tourism is a main trend of tourism in Britain, with the promotion and protection from the government and other non-official organisations, Britain shows its past by making the history in a more interested and inspired way. This study chooses four cities in Britain and examines how they find the proper method to reboost the economy and revoke the public conscious of conserving the heritage.
This study found out that Britain is already acquired a full-functional system of searching the heritages and protecting them from human or natural disasters, and those cities are capable to decide which policy or way they want to present their history to the tourists, but with the competition from other countries is getting more and more intense, those once really famous tourist city such as Bath and York, begin to loose their attraction to the local or international tourists, how to regain their prosper and capture the attention, it’ll need to take a careful deliberation by both central and local government.
論文目次 目錄
目錄....................................iv
圖目錄...................................v
表目錄...................................vi
第一章 緒論...............................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.......................1
第二節 研究方法............................4
第三節 文獻回顧............................6
第四節 研究範圍與限制......................14
第五節 章節安排...........................16
第二章 文化觀光與遺產......................19
第一節 文化觀光...........................19
第二節 觀光及遺產需求......................24
第三節 後現代觀光的體驗經濟.................29
第三章 遺產觀光...........................32
第一節 文化遺產...........................32
第二節 遺產觀光主題........................35
第三節 遺產觀光主題........................43
第四章 機構與政策..........................57
第一節 英國文化政策與機構...................57
第二節 英國對文化遺產之規範與保護.............64
第三節 英國觀光政策與機構...................67
第五章 文化遺產個案研究.....................74
第一節 個案研究...........................74
第二節 分析與比較.........................144
第六章 結論..............................153
參考文獻................................162

圖目錄
圖 1-1:研究架構圖……………………………………………………………….18
圖 2-1:領域的結合與體驗的目的……………………………………………….30
圖 3-1:觀光產品三層次………………………………………………………….50
圖 4-1:藍點計畫………………………………………………………………….62
圖 4-2:國際觀光客及國內觀光客的旅遊動機………………………………….64
圖 4-3:2007年到2009年外國觀光客前往英國消費平均及類型……………..71
圖 4-4:英國及其他50個國家相比的吸引力排名……………………………...72
圖 5-1:倫敦為晉身全球之都持續進步………………………………………….76
圖 5-2:大中庭和「啟蒙時代」展廳…………………………………………….77
圖 5-3:Hands-On展示…………………………………………………………....78
圖 5-4:夜間活動………………………………………………………………….79
圖 5-5:聖保羅大教堂語音導覽………………………………………………….80
圖 5-6:泰德現代美術館………………………………………………………….82
圖 5-7:連接往聖保羅大教堂的千禧橋………………………………………….83
圖 5-8:兒童導覽和觸碰式導覽………………………………………………….83
圖 5-9:殘障奧運選手表演運動項目及社會議題論壇………………………….84
圖 5-10:大英博物館資金來源比例……………………………………………...88
圖 5-11:大英博物館2008-2011年參觀人數……………………………………89
圖 5-12:大英博物館2008-2011年收入項目比例………………………………90
圖 5-13:泰德現代美術館2008-2012年平均收入來源比例……………………92
圖 5-14:泰德現代美術館2008-2012年平均支出項目比例……………………92
圖 5-15:泰德現代美術館2008-2012年參觀人數………………………………93
圖 5-16:聖保羅大教堂2008-2012年參觀人數…………………………………95
圖 5-17:聖保羅大教堂2008-2012年平均收入比例……………………………96
圖 5-18:聖保羅大教堂2008-2012年平均支出比例……………………………96
圖 5-19:愛丁堡城堡…………………………………………………………… .100
圖 5-20:荷里路德宮內部………………………………………………………..101
圖 5-21:蘇格蘭國家畫廊………………………………………………………..101
圖 5-22:國家戰爭博物館及監獄………………………………………………..102
圖 5-23:Hands-On Play與修道院導覽………………………………………….103
圖 5-24:蘇格蘭國家畫廊的展示與教育………………………………………..104
圖 5-25:善用文化資產並優化硬體設備………………………………………..104
圖 5-26:蘇格蘭國家畫廊的花園入口…………………………………………...105
圖 5-27:Tesco Bank Art Competition for School獲獎的學生與活動照片……..106
圖 5-28:八月愛丁堡軍樂節的準備和實況……………………………………..107
圖 5-29:愛丁堡城堡2008-2012年參觀人數…………………………………...107
圖 5-30:觀光人潮造成的困擾…………………………………………………...108
圖 5-31:愛丁堡城堡平均收入比例……………………………………………...108
圖 5-32:荷里路德宮2008-2012年參觀人數……………………………………109
圖 5-33:荷里路德宮2008-2012年收入…………………………………………110
圖 5-34:蘇格蘭國家畫廊2008-2012年參觀人數………………………………111
圖 5-35:約克大教堂及其內部…………………………………………………...115
圖 5-36:約克城堡博物館………………………………………………………...115
圖 5-37:國家鐵道博物館大廳…………………………………………………...116
圖 5-38:多媒體藝廊和其他展示………………………………………………...117
圖 5-39:地下室博物館…………………………………………………………...117
圖 5-40:Kirkgate街道…………………………………………………………....118
圖 5-41:兒童玩具館及現代館…………………………………………………...118
圖 5-42:約克城堡監獄展覽……………………………………………………...119
圖 5-43:月台大廳的展示………………………………………………………...120
圖 5-44:倉庫展區和信號表演…………………………………………………...121
圖 5-45:「飛越蘇格蘭人號」特展……………………………………………….121
圖 5-46:塔頂之旅………………………………………………………………...122
圖 5-47:連結小火車……………………………………………………………...123
圖 5-48:約克大教堂2007-2011年參觀人數…………………………………....125
圖 5-49:約克大教堂平均支出項目比例………………………………………...125
圖 5-50:約克城堡博物館2008-2012年參觀人數……………………………...127
圖 5-51:國家鐵道博物館2008-2012年參觀人數……………………………...129
圖 5-52:巴斯羅馬浴場的展示和投影技術的利用……………………………...132
圖 5-53:館方人員藉由角色扮演介紹遺跡……………………………………...133
圖 5-54:動畫說明和溫泉水試飲…………………………………………….......133
圖 5-55:時尚博物館外觀及內部………………………………………………...134
圖 5-56:換衣體驗活動…………………………………………………………...135
圖 5-57:服裝設計展示牆………………………………………………………...135
圖 5-58:語音導覽與Tower Tour………………………………………………...136
圖 5-59:《奧德賽》展出情形…………………………………………………….137
圖 5-60:《好客》展出情形……………………………………………………….138
圖 5-61:舉辦各種活動豐富既有形象…………………………………………...139
圖 5-62:巴斯羅馬浴場2007-2011年參觀人數………………………………....140
圖 5-63:巴斯時尚博物館2007-2011年參觀人數……………………………...140
圖 5-64:巴斯羅馬浴場與時尚博物館2008-2012年觀光效益………………...141
圖 5-65:巴斯修道院外觀及天花板……………………………………………..142
圖 5-66:巴斯修道院2007-2011年參觀人數…………………………………...143

表目錄
表 2-1:體驗的領域………………………………………………………………..30
表 3-1:英國大教堂分類表………………………………………………………..40
表 3-2:詮釋的六項準則…………………………………………………………..47
表 3-3:體驗與產品的五項要素…………………………………………………..49
表 3-4:文化觀光客類型…………………………………………………………..53
表 4-1:全球國際觀光客平均造訪人數及排名…………………………………..71
表 5-1:倫敦與愛丁堡比較……………………………………………………….149
表 5-2:約克與巴斯比較………………………………………………………….152
參考文獻 一、中文資料
(一) 專書
Bob Mckercher & Hilary du Cros著,劉以德 譯(2010),《文化觀光;觀光與文化遺產管理》,台北:桂魯股份有限公司
Greg Richards & Robert Palmer著,劉以德 譯(2012),《文化節慶管理》,台北:桂魯股份有限公司
John Urry 著,葉浩 譯(2013),《觀光客的凝視》,台北:國立編譯館與書林出版股份有限公司合作翻譯發行
Timothy Ambrose, 桂雅文 譯(2001),《新博物館管理;創辦和管理博物館的新視野》,台北:五觀藝術管理股份有限公司
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林連聰、宋秉明、陳思倫 (2011),《觀光學概論》,台北:五南圖書股份有限公司
夏學理、凌公山、陳媛 (2011),《文化行政》,台北:五南圖書股份有限公司
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(二) 期刊
林玟伶 (2012),「地方博物館與社群參與─英國區域文藝復興計畫之實踐探討」,《博物館學季刊》第26卷第四期
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(二) 期刊
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Heritage Lottery Fund, Invest in Success : Heritage and the UK Tourism Economy, 2011
Heritage Service Annual Review 2007-2008
Heritage Service Annual Review 2008-2009
Heritage Service Annual Review 2009-2010
Heritage Service Annual Review 2010-2011
Heritage Service Annual Review 2011-2012
Historic Scotland, Historic Scotland Framework Document 2013
London Tourism Action Plan 2009-2013, London Development Agency, 2009
National Scottish Galleries Annual Account 2007-2008
National Scottish Galleries Annual Account 2008-2009
National Scottish Galleries Annual Report 2009-2010
National Scottish Galleries Annual Report 2010-2011
National Scottish Galleries Annual Report 2011-2012
Saint Paul’s Cathedral Annual Report 2008
Saint Paul’s Cathedral Annual Report 2009
Saint Paul’s Cathedral Annual Report 2010
Saint Paul’s Cathedral Annual Report 2011
Saint Paul’s Cathedral, Our Year Book 2012
Scotland Visitor Survey 2011 : Edinburgh City
Tate Report 2007-2008
Tate Report 2008-2009
Tate Report 2009-1010
Tate Report 2010-2011
Tate Report 2011-2012
Tate Report 2012-2013
The Communication Group plc, Looking in on a city : Edinburgh in the 21st Century Place Race, 2009
The Council for Museums Archives and Libraries, Renaissance in the Regions : A new vision for England's museums, 2001
The Dean and Chapter of York Annual Review and Accounts 2011, York Minster Website
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2007-2008
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2008-2009
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2009-2010
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2010-2011
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2011-2012
The Royal Collection Trust Annual Report 2012-2013
The World’s Largest Railway Museum Official Guide Book, 2004
Top Towns for Staying Visits by Inbound Visitors, 2012
UNWTO (2010), “UNWTO Annual Report - A year of Recovery” ,2010
Visit Britain & Visit England, Visit Britain & Visit England Annual Report and Account 2011
Visit Britain, Culture and Heritage Topic Profile, 2010
Visit Britain, Delivering a Golden Legacy : A growth strategy for inbound tourism to Britain from 2012 to 2020, 2012
Visit York Annual Report & Financial Statement 2011-2012
Visitor Attractions Trends in England 2011Annual report prepared for Visit England, bdrc-continental
York Big Attraction Group Visitor Monitor 2012
York Minster : Place of Worship or Tourist Attraction, 2010
York Museum Trust Forward Plan 2006-2013, York Museum Trust, 2006
三、網路資料與新聞
Angela Charlton, “France to return Egyptian art after Louvre row”, Washington Post, (October 9th 2009)
Bath Tourism Plus, company history,
British Museum Memberships,
Charter of Cultural Tourism,
City of Bath, UNESCO world heritage site,
Culture Minister : No threat to northern science museums, < www.bbc.co.uk/ news /uk-engl and-york-north-yorkshire-22948171> (18 June 2013)
Declaration on the Importance and Value of Universal Museums, < www.thebritis hmuseum.ac.uk/newsroom/current2003/universalmuseums.html >
Golden Award for Roman Bath,
Hannah Boulton, “Mitsubishi Corporation to sponsor the Japanese Galleries at the British Museum”,
International Council of Museum,
MBA智庫,文化消費,
Museum Association Official Website, (23, 12, 2013)
National Heritage Act 1983,
National Railway Museum Protest rally held, < www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england -york-north-yorkshire-22919352> (15 June 2013)
National Trust for Historic Preservation, "Heritage tourism",
Planning Act 1990,
Planning Policy Guidance 15, 1990
PSQG visitor survey 2012, Survey of visitors to UK Archives 2012 : The Results for London Metropolitan Archives,
Science Group Museum say cuts put museums at risk, < www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-engl and-york-north-yorkshire-22781573> (5 June 2013)
The Aim of Blue Plaques,
The British Museum, World Collection Programme ,
The City of London Festival,
Touch Tours at Tate Modern,
Vanessa Thorpe, Robert Mapplethorpe show head to remote Scottish town of Dunoon, The Guardian, , (25 March 2012)
York National Railway Museum closure threat “ a tragedy”, (6 June 2013)
文化媒體體育部官網,
約克城堡博物館官網,
英國觀光局,
泰德現代美術館官網,
黃文正,「全球最佳旅遊城市 倫敦蟬聯第一」(中國時報),2012年6月13日,版A8
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