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系統識別號 U0002-1802201313154000
中文論文名稱 教學策略對學生學習成效與學習焦慮影響之研究
英文論文名稱 Effects of Teaching Strategies on Students’ Learning Outcome and Anxiety
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 曾秋玉
研究生英文姓名 Chiou-Yu Tseng
學號 894010064
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-01-11
論文頁數 110頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳惠美
指導教授-沈斯瑩
委員-余光雄
委員-彭清欽
委員-黃月貴
委員-王藹玲
中文關鍵字 教學策略  教學成效  外語學習焦慮  SQ3R  合作學習  電腦輔助教學  場地依賴與場地獨立、英文能力分班 
英文關鍵字 teaching strategy  learning outcome  learning anxiety  cooperative learning  SQ3R  computer-assisted learning  FD/FI  ability grouping 
學科別分類
中文摘要 教學策略與教學成效往往是英語教學中最常被討論的議題之一,而學生在英語學習過程中所產生的學習焦慮對學習成效所造成的影響也有其重要性。本研究主旨在探討英語教學策略、學習成效、與學習焦慮三者之間的相互關係。研究對象是台灣北部某科技大學餐旅科系250名大一新生,學生參與的課程為持續十八週的大一英語課程。學生根據統測英文成績共分初、中、高三級別,每級別各兩班共有六個班級。本研究所使用之三種教學策略分別為SQ3R、合作學習、及電腦輔助教學。每兩個班級施行一種教學方式。
學生在期初及期末各接受一次新多益閱讀部分的前測、後測,此閱讀測驗之前測與後測差距乃檢驗學習成效之標準。兩次施測後並填寫Horwitz博士的外語課焦慮問卷(FLCAS);研究期間開始,對合作學習的兩個班級進行群體鑲嵌圖形測驗(GEFT)以區分學生學習型態(learning style)。前者,外語課焦慮問卷(FLCAS)用來測量學生的學習焦慮程度並檢視其變化。而後者,群體鑲嵌圖形測驗(GEFT)則是區別學生場地依賴程度的測量工具。T檢定、單因子變異數分析與迴歸分析等統計工具則用以進行分析教學策略對學習成效、學習焦慮之影響,並探討學習成效與學習焦慮之關係。
本研究發現以下六個結論:(一) 教學策略的施行對學習焦慮與學習成效具顯著影響。(二) 不同的教學策略對學生的學習焦慮與學習成效產生不同程度之影響。(三) 學生的學習焦慮與學習成效呈現負相關。(四) SQ3R策略顯著地提升學生的學習成效並降低其學習焦慮。 (五) 學生的英文程度顯著影響教學策略與教學成效的關係。(六) 場地依賴(FD)與場地獨立(FI)之學習組合在合作學習中學習成效最佳。
本研究更進一步顯示:(一)學生的英文程度對於老師的教學策略有舉足輕重的影響。 (二) 英文能力分班的可行性是確定的。(三) 場地依賴與獨立的特質也可以應用在職場的分工合作。
英文摘要 The effect of teaching strategies on students’ learning performance is one of the crucial issues in EFL. Also the relationship between learning anxiety and learning performance is another focused topic. This study explored the relationship between English teaching strategies, language learning outcomes, and English learning anxiety. The participants of this study were 250 freshmen in a university of science and technology in northern Taiwan. The three teaching strategies used in this study were cooperative learning, SQ3R, and computer-assisted learning. The tool used to examine the reading performance was the reading portion of the New Test of English for International Communication (New TOEIC). The learners’ learning anxiety level was tested using Horwitz’s (1986) Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Moreover, to facilitate the learning process of the cooperative groups, the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was utilized to determine the learning pattern of the students—field dependence or field independence. The statistical tools used in this study were T-test, one-way ANOVA and regression analysis.

Six conclusions were drawn in this study. (1) Implementing a teaching strategy influences language learning anxiety as well as the performance of the learner. (2) Different teaching strategies affect both learning anxiety and learning performance in different ways. (3) There exists a negative relationship between learning anxiety and performance. (4) The implementation of the SQ3R method significantly influences the negative relationship between language learning anxiety and performance. (5) The proficiency level does not moderate the relationship between strategy and anxiety, while the relationship between strategy and performance is significantly moderated by the proficiency level. (6) The best combination of the FD/FI (field-dependent and field-independent) learning styles in the cooperative learning strategy results in a significant difference in performance.

In addition, three research implications were found in this study. They are: (1) the importance of language proficiency level in finding the right teaching strategy, (2) the practice of ability-grouping in English classes, and (3) the implication of FD/FI tendency on cooperation in the workplace.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………….………………………………………i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………….………..……..……………………iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………….……….…………v
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………..……………………vii
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………..………viii


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………1
1.1 Research Background…………………….………….………………………...…1
1.2 Statements of the Problem…………………………………………………..……2
1.3 Purpose of the Study………………………………………….………………..…3
1.4 Statement of the Research Questions………………………….…..……………...3
1.5 Significance of the Study……………………………….….….……..……………4
1.6 Definition of Key Terms……………………………………………….…..………5

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE……..……………10
2.1 Strategies………………………………………………….……….……………10
2.2 Cooperative Language Learning………………………..……………..…………15
2.2.1 Types of cooperative learning groups……………………….……...….……15
2.2.2 Elements of cooperative learning………………………..…………….……16
2.2.3 Cooperative learning methods…………………………………………....…18
2.2.4 Research on cooperative learning…………………………………..…….…21
2.3 Self-Regulated Learning…………………………………………………….……25
2.4 The SQ3R Method…………………………………………………..…….….…..27
2.5 Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) …………………….…….……30
2.6 Field Independent/Dependent Learning Styles…………………………..………35
2.7 Foreign Language Anxiety……………………………………………….………39
2.8 Summary……………………………………………………..…………..………42

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY………………………………..……….……43
3.1 Conceptual Framework………………………………………………..…………43
3.2 Research Questions………………………………………………………..……44
3.3 Experiment Design……………………………………………………………..47
3.3.1 Participants…………………………………………………..…………….48
3.3.2 Teaching strategies……………………………………………………..….48
3.3.3 The profile of data……………………………………………………….51
3.3.4 Statistical tools…………………………………………………….……...52
3.3.5 Materials…………………………………………………….…………...54
3.3.6 Measurement………………………………………………………………55
3.3.7 Procedures……………………………………………………………….61


CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………64
4.1 Experiment Results and Discussions……………………………..……………64
4.2 Summary of Experiment Results………………………………………………77


CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION…………………………….………….78
5.1 Overview of the Study………………………………………………..…………..78
5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………...79
5.3 Research Implications……………………………………………………………83
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research………………………………………………86


REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………87



APPENDICES…………………………………………….…………………..102
APPENDIX A An Approval Letter from Dr. Horwitz..........................................102
APPENDIX B Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale.................................103
APPENDIX C Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale(Chinese Edition)......107
APPENDIX D Teaching Staff in This Study.........................................................110

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1 An Overview of Major Strategies of Improving Reading Comprehension among College Students……………………………….……………13
Table 2-2 Modern Methods of Cooperative Learning……………………………20
Table 2-3 The Principal Characteristics of the Two Cognitive Styles and Their Implications for L2 Learning…………………………………..………37
Table 3-1 The Profile of Class, Proficiency Level, Strategy and Number of Students…………………………………………………………..…….52
Table 4-1 The Descriptive Statistics of Proficiency Level, Strategy, Anxiety, and Performance…………………………………………………..………64
Table 4-2 The Effect of Learning Strategies on Learning Anxiety and Language Performance……………………………………………………..…….65
Table 4-3 The Effects of Different Strategies on Learning Anxiety and Performance66
Table 4-4 The Correlation Coefficient between Learning Anxiety and Performance67
Table 4-5 The Correlation Coefficient between Learning Anxiety and Performance in Different Strategies……………………………………………………69
Table 4-6 The Moderating Results of Learning Strategies on Performance…………71
Table4-7 The ANOVA Result of Cooperative Learning Strategy Combinations on Performance…………………………….………………………………..73
Table 4-8 The Descriptive Statistics of Performance of Different Combination(s) in the Cooperative Learning Strategy………………..………………..……73
Table 4-9 The Post-Hoc Result within Different Combinations in Cooperative Learning Strategies on Performance…………………………………….74
Table 4-10 The Descriptive Statistics of Different Combination(s) in Cooperative Learning Strategy on Anxiety………………………………………….75
Table 4-11 The ANOVA Result of Cooperative Learning Strategy Combinations on Anxiety …………………………………………………………….75
Table 4-12 Summary of Experiment Results………………………………….77








LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3-1 The Conceptual Framework……………………………..…………..43

Figure 3-2 A sample of the Embedded-Figure Test Item……………..…………..61





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