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系統識別號 U0002-1802200819140600
中文論文名稱 台灣大學生使用國語聲母「ㄖ、ㄌ」及英語 /r, l/ 之情形:社會語言學之分析與研究
英文論文名稱 A Comparative Sociolinguistic Study of the Use of /z, l/ (ㄖ/ㄌ) in Mandarin and /r, l/ in English in University Students in Taiwan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 傅于菁
研究生英文姓名 Yu-ching Fu
學號 693010158
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-01-17
論文頁數 118頁
口試委員 指導教授-林春仲
委員-范瑞玲
委員-林啟一
中文關鍵字 社會語言學  捲舌音  言談風格 
英文關鍵字 sociolinguistics  retroflex sounds  speech style 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文的研究重點主要針對在台灣多語社會環境中,母語是否造成大學生對英文捲舌音的發音困難及何種社會因素影響捲舌音的習得。本研究採用拉波夫(William Labov)的社會語言面談法(Labovian Paradigm),收集62位大學生的語音資料及問卷,並使用統計軟體「SPSS 11.5」進行量化分析。研究結果顯示,受訪者的國語捲舌音在不同的性別、父親族群及母親教育程度等社會因素下表現出顯著差異性,而其英語捲舌音則由於不同居住地區有顯著的差異。雖然不同族群受訪者在國語及英語捲舌音上的表現無顯著差異,但單就國語及英語捲舌音的表現而論,兩個語言之間的表現呈現顯著的正相關性。藉由本研究結果,無論是教育者或學習者,在發音習得時應多注意母語環境的影響,而教師及課程設計者也能針對不同社會背景的學習者因材施教,以達到更佳的學習效果。
英文摘要 This study is aimed at finding out if the difficulty in English retroflex acquisition is affected by source language and what social factors can influence retroflexion learning in the multi-lingual environments in Taiwan. By adopting Labovian Paradigm, 62 students from a university in northern Taiwan participated in our study. We adopted SPSS 11.5 in quantitative analysis with Independent Sample t-test, Pearson Product Correlation, and One-way ANOVA. The results indicate that there were significant differences in Mandarin retroflexion among different groups categorized by sex, fathers’ ethnic groups, mothers’ educational levels, and in English retroflex sounds according to different residency areas. We found that there were no significant differences in both Mandarin and English retroflex sounds between the groups of native and non-native speakers of Mandarin. Nevertheless, their linguistic performance in both languages still showed positive correlations significantly. From our study, special attention to social background of learners should be paid by educators, curriculum designers, and also learners themselves in pronunciation acquisition for having better performance.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS


Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures viii


Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 EFL Learners in Multi-lingual Environments in Taiwan 1
1.1.1 Historical Sketch of Language Background 2
1.1.2 Ecology of Language in Taiwan 4
1.1.3 Motivation of This Study 6
1.2 Problems of Using Mandarin 7
1.3 Difficulty in Pronouncing /r, l/ in English 8
1.4 Purpose of the Study 9
1.5 Research Questions 10
1.6 What to Look for in This Thesis 10

Chapter Two REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11
2.1 Sociolinguistic Perspective on Language Variation 11
2.2 Language Transfer and Interference 14
2.3 Related Studies on Difficulties in Pronouncing Retroflex Sounds 15
2.4 Summary 19

Chapter Three METHODOLOGY 20
3.1 Participants 20
3.2 Instruments 21
3.2.1 Questionnaire (see Appendices A-B) 21
3.2.2 Speech Material (see Appendices C-I) 22
3.3 Data Collection 23
3.4 Data Analysis 24
3.4.1 Linguistic Dimension 25
3.4.2 Sociolinguistic Dimension 25

Chapter Four RESULTS 27
4.1 Linguistic Dimension 28
4.1.1 Linguistic Performance by Ethnic Groups 28
4.1.1.1 Overall Performance by Ethnic Groups 29
4.1.1.2 Minimal Pairs by Ethnic Groups 32
4.1.1.3 Phrase Reading by Ethnic Groups 33
4.1.1.4 Passage Reading by Ethnic Groups 35
4.1.1.5 Picture Description by Ethnic Groups 37
4.1.1.6 Summary 40
4.1.2 Linguistic Performance in Self-Comparison 41
4.1.2.1 Correlations Among /z/, /r/, /l/ in Overall Performance 41
4.1.2.2 Correlations Among /z/ of Overall Performance and /r/ of Four Tasks 42
4.1.2.3 Correlations Among /z/ of Overall Performance and /l/ of Three Tasks 45
4.1.2.4 Correlations Among /r/ of Overall Performance and /l/ of Four Tasks 46
4.1.2.5 Summary 49
4.2 Sociolinguistic Dimension 49
4.2.1 Language and Sex 50
4.2.2 Language and Ethnic Groups of Parents 52
4.2.3 Language and Parents’ Educational Backgrounds 57
4.2.4 Language and Monthly Income 63
4.2.5 Language and Residency Areas 66
4.2.6 Language and Years of English Learning 69
4.2.7 Summary 72

Chapter Five DISCUSSION 73
5.1 Linguistic Dimension 73
5.2 Sociolinguistic Dimension 80
5.2.1 Sex 81
5.2.2 Ethnicity 82
5.2.3 Education 84
5.2.4 Monthly Income 85
5.2.5 Residency Area 86
5.2.6 Years of English Learning 87
5.3 Summary 87

Chapter Six CONCLUSIONS 89
6.1 Findings for Research Questions 89
6.1.1 Findings for Research Question 1 89
6.1.2 Findings for Research Question 2 90
6.1.3 Findings for Research Question 3 91
6.2 Pedagogical Implications 93
6.3 Limitations and Suggestions 95

REFERENCES 96

APPENDICES 103
Appendix A: A Questionnaire of Sociolinguistic Research (Chinese) 104
Appendix B: A Questionnaire of Sociolinguistic Research (English) 109
Appendix C: Chinese Minimal Pairs 112
Appendix D: Chinese Phrases 113
Appendix E: Chinese Passage 114
Appendix F: English Words 115
Appendix G: English Phrases 116
Appendix H: English Passage 117
Appendix I: Describing a Picture in Chinese and English 118

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 4.1 NUMBER OF SOUNDS IN EACH TASK OF SPEECH MATERIAL 28
TABLE 4.2 MEAN SCORES OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN OVERALL PERFORMANCE 29
TABLE 4.3 T-TEST OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN OVERALL PERFORMANCE 30
TABLE 4.4 CORRELATIONS AMONG /z/, /r/, AND /l/ WITHIN 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN OVERALL PERFORMANCE... 31
TABLE 4.5 MEAN SCORES OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN MINIMAL PAIRS ...................................... 32
TABLE 4.6 T-TEST OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN MINIMAL PAIRS .... 33
TABLE 4.7 MEAN SCORES OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PHRASE READING................................... 34
TABLE 4.8 T-TEST OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PHRASE READING ... 35
TABLE 4.9 MEAN SCORES OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PASSAGE READING ................................. 36
TABLE 4.10 T-TEST OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PASSAGE READING............................................ 37
TABLE 4.11 MEAN SCORES OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PICTURE DESCRIPTION ......................... 39
TABLE 4.12 T-TEST OF 2 ETHNIC GROUPS IN PICTURE DESCRIPTION...................................... 40
TABLE 4.13 CORRELATIONS AMONG /z/, /r/, /l/ IN OVERALL PERFORMANCE ......................... 42
TABLE 4.14 CORRELATIONS AMONG /z/ OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE AND /r/ OF FOUR TASKS.... 44
TABLE 4.15 CORRELATIONS AMONG /z/ OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE AND /l/ OF THREE TASKS. 46
TABLE 4.16 CORRELATIONS AMONG /r/ OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE AND /z/ OF FOUR TASKS.. 48
TABLE 4.17 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY SEX ... 50
TABLE 4.18 MEAN SCORES OF /z/ IN PASSAGE READING BY SEX . 51
TABLE 4.19 ONE-WAY ANOVA TEST OF /z/ IN PASSAGE READING BY SEX............................. 51
TABLE 4.20 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY FATHERS’ ETHNIC GROUPS ...... 53
TABLE 4.21 ONE-WAY ANOVA TEST OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY FATHERS' ETHNIC GROUPS... 54
TABLE 4.22 ONE-WAY ANOVA TEST OF /z/ IN PASSAGE READING AND /r/ IN PICTURE
DESCRIPTION BY FATHERS' ETHNIC GROUPS.... 55
TABLE 4.23 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY MOTHERS’ ETHNIC GROUPS .... 56
TABLE 4.24 CORRELATIONS AMONG OVERALL PERFORMANCE AND PARENTS' ETHNIC GROUPS... 57
TABLE 4.25 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY FATHERS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS.......... 59
TABLE 4.26 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY MOTHERS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS........ 60
TABLE 4.27 ONE-WAY ANOVA TEST BY MOTHERS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS.............. 61
TABLE 4.28 SCHEFFÉ POST HOC TEST BY MOTHERS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS ........... 62
TABLE 4.29 CORRELATIONS AMONG OVERALL PERFORMANCE AND PARENTS' EDUCATIONAL
LEVELS.... 63
TABLE 4.30 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY MONTHLY INCOME.................. 65
TABLE 4.31 CORRELATIONS OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY MONTHLY INCOME ................ 65
TABLE 4.32 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY RESIDENCY AREAS.................. 67
TABLE 4.33 ONE-WAY ANOVA TEST BY RESIDENCY AREAS... 68
TABLE 4.34 SCHEFFÉ POST HOC TEST BY RESIDENCY AREAS.. 69
TABLE 4.35 NUMBER OF YEARS OF ENGLISH LEARNING.. 69
TABLE 4.36 MEAN SCORES OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY YEARS OF ENGLISH LEARNING70
TABLE 4.37 CORRELATIONS OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY YEARS OF ENGLISH LEARNING.....72

LIST of FIGURES

FIGURE 1.1 SOCIAL AND REGIONAL DIALECT VARIATION ..... 13
FIGURE 5.1 SCORE DISTRIBUTION OF /z/ IN FORMAL AND INFORMAL SPEECHES BY SUBJECTS' FIRST LANGUAGE......... 78
FIGURE 5.2 SCORE DISTRIBUTION OF /z/, /r/, AND /l/ IN FOUR TASKS....................................... 79
FIGURE 5.3 SCORE DISTRIBUTION OF OVERALL PERFORMANCE BY ETHNIC GROUPS OF PARENTS ............ 83
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