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系統識別號 U0002-1802200811394800
中文論文名稱 印尼激進穆斯林組織Jemaah Islamiyah 之研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Indonesian Radical Muslim Group; Jemaah Islamiyah
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 林靖諺
研究生英文姓名 Ching-Yen Lin
學號 693230012
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-01-15
論文頁數 136頁
口試委員 指導教授-林長寬
委員-陳鴻瑜
委員-李登科
中文關鍵字 伊斯蘭團  激進穆斯林  聖戰士  經學院  伊斯蘭國家  伊斯蘭法  伊斯蘭復興運動  瓦哈比運動 
英文關鍵字 Jemaah Islamiyah  Radical Muslim  Mujahidin  Pesantren  Islamic State  Shariah  Islamism  Wahabbi 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 2002年10月12日發生於印尼巴厘島恐怖攻擊事件,是自2001年美國911事件後,發生於東南亞地區,造成大規模死傷的恐怖攻擊,這使得以美國為首的西方世界意識到發生在美國境內的911攻擊事件,也有可能印證在世界各地;這也讓西方世界認為全球性激進穆斯林組織(Radical Muslim or Militant Muslim)正與「蓋達組織」結合,藉由冷戰時期的蘇聯入侵阿富汗時期所建立的「聖戰校友」(Jihadist Alumni)網絡,透過交互金錢援助、軍事訓練以及人員流通,也讓立基於印尼當地的激進穆斯林組織-「伊斯蘭團」(Jemaah Islamiyah)就此曝光。本文就當前印尼激進穆斯林組織「伊斯蘭團」,其組織脈絡及歷史背景作深入研究,並探討「伊斯蘭復興主義」及當前印尼伊斯蘭經學院網絡。
「伊斯蘭團」源自於1950年代的印尼西爪哇的「伊斯蘭國家運動」(Darul Islam),該運動於1965年遭印尼國家軍鎮壓後終止,殘餘成員政治活動轉為地下化;歷經蘇哈托主政的「新秩序時期」數十年打壓伊斯蘭團體的政治環境,「伊斯蘭國家運動」成員Abu Bakar Baasyir與Abdullah Sungkar兩人在1971年成立了被視為「伊斯蘭團」前身的經學院Pesantren al-Mukmin(Pondok Ngruki),兩人於1980年代停留於阿富汗「蓋達組織」組織武裝訓練營,並與首領-Osama bin Laden熟稔。兩人並於1998年蘇哈托下台後,回到印尼發展政治伊斯蘭組織,藉構建「伊斯蘭團」及宣揚「伊斯蘭復興主義」(Islamic Revivalism)來使印尼達到以「伊斯蘭法」(Shariah)為國家基本法的「伊斯蘭國家」(Islam State)。
「伊斯蘭復興主義」及「原教旨主義」(Salafiyyah),均標榜伊斯蘭傳統教義為亂世解藥,穆斯林應返回先知穆罕默德麥加時期的純樸虔誠,「原教旨主義」起源於十八世紀由瓦哈比(Abu Abd al-Wahhab)所引領的『瓦哈比運動』(Wahabbiyyah),歷經創立「穆斯林兄弟會」的埃及宗教學者Hassan al Banna、Muhammad Abduh、Rashid Rida、Sayyid Qutb、Abul Ala Mawdudi等宗教學者的思想傳承,尤以Sayyid Qutb其影響最鉅,其著作在1982年伊朗輸出革命成功後大量被翻譯為印尼文。
架構於宗教學習及伊斯蘭教義教授的傳統經學院(Pesantren)及宗教學院 (Madrass)成為印尼激進穆斯林分子的流通平台,激進穆斯林主義者透過經學院彼此交流及宗教學習,建立以宗教教育為培養新世代激進穆斯林主義者之首要目標,待宗教思想確立及宗教涵養深厚之後,在輔以軍事訓練及組織管理教育,成為信仰虔誠之「聖戰士」(Mujahiddin),並派遣「聖戰士」執行攻擊行動或參與政治活動。
英文摘要 Widespread outrage at the Madrid bombing in March 2004 that killed 191 and wounded countless others produced mass demonstrations across Spain. Indonesia, on the other hand, continuing to view terrorism as a relatively minor problem, despite being the victims of four major bombings and there have been no major demonstration against terrorism in Indonesia.
Jemaah Islamiyah, a radical Muslim group derives from the Darul Islam rebellion , a political struggle for an Islamic State of Indonesia in West Java and Southern Sulawesi in the 1950s. Under the leadership of two Indonesian clerics Abdullah Sungkar and Abu Bakar Baasyir, Jemaah Islamiyah is a militant Muslim group whose stated goals are to run Indonesia into an Islamic State and advocates the implementation of Shariah.
Furthermore, in order to study the origins of radical Muslim groups, “Islamism” is the most helpful and accurate term to define. Islamism means different from the sort of “fundamentalism”, Islamism is a response to modernity that has transformed the religion of Islam into a political ideology. Almost all Islamists, both modernist and traditionalist, are bound by the belief that Indonesia should be governed by Islamic law and this led to certain tactical alliances among them during debates over the inclusion of the Jakarta Chapter in Article 29 of the 1945 Constitution.Radical Islam is able to tap into the growing resistance among segments of the Indonesian populace to globalization and the spread of Western culture. Islamic revival is not the same thing as religious fanaticism and Islamist political parties are also able to capitalize on fears of social globalization that are seen as threats to cultural morals and region.
論文目次 目 次
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與研究目的…………………………1
第二節 研究方法與論文結構…………………………7
第三節 研究範圍與限制 ……………………………13
第四節 文獻回顧 ……………………………………14
第貳章 伊斯蘭傳入馬來世界之背景及發展
第一節 十三世紀前的伊斯蘭傳播 …………………21
第二節 十三世紀至殖民時代伊斯蘭傳播 …………24
第三節 蘇非主義的影響 ……………………………32
第四節 結語 …………………………………………34
第參章 當代伊斯蘭激進主義
第一節 理解伊斯蘭主義………………………………36
第二節 現代伊斯蘭激進主義之濫觴…………………43
第三節 印尼伊斯蘭激進主義團體……………………48
第四節 結語……………………………………………50
第肆章 Jemaah Islamiyah之起源及組織發展
第一節 Jemaah Islamiyah之起源……………………52
第二節 Jemaah Islamiyah的政治主張………………54
第三節 Jemaah Islamiyah組織結構與現況 ………56
第四節 Jemaah Islamiyah與Darul Islam之關聯…58
第五節 結語 ………………………………………65
第伍章 Jemaah Islamiyah 活動之解析
第一節 當代聖戰伊斯蘭主義之本質 ………………68
第二節 伊斯蘭團活動之宗教意涵 …………………73
第三節 印尼社會輿論與政府態度 …………………76
第四節 結語 …………………………………………79
第陸章 2002年巴里島爆炸案
第一節 爆炸案科學調查模式 ………………………83
第二節 伊斯蘭經學院角色 …………………………88
第三節 爆炸案主嫌剖析 ……………………………91
第四節 法庭證據蒐集與罪刑法定原則 ……………95
第五節 結語…………………………………………100
第柒章 結 論
參考書目……………………………………………………108
附錄
2002-2005年印尼境內的重大爆炸案………………………………123
本文人名對照及簡介………………………………………124
專有名詞簡稱………………………………………………131
附圖一:伊斯蘭團結構圖…………………………………135
附圖二:全球聖戰組織聯繫圖……………………………136
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二、中文期刊
林長寬,<馬來世界伊斯蘭探源:爪哇地區的伊斯蘭化>發表於「印尼語馬來西亞的宗教認同:伊斯蘭、佛教與華人信仰習俗」學術研討會(中研院亞太區域研究專題中心,2006年9月15日)
林長寬,<伊斯蘭現代改革本質初探>,世界宗教學刊 1(2003)1:1-27







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Tabataba’i, M.H., 1987, The Qur’an in Islam, London: Zahra Publications
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White, Jenny, 2002, Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics, Seattle: University of Washington Press

三、英文期刊
Abuza, Zachary, “ Out of the Woodwork: Islamist Militants in Aceh,” Terrorism Monito, 3:2(2005, pp.1-3.
Archer, R. L., “Muhammadan Mysticism in Sumatra,” Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 15, no.2(1982), pp.140-145.
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Chun, Wai Wong and Lourdes,Charles, “Terror Suspect Awarded Pipe Project” No.1, (2003), pp.50-55
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Lobinger, Charles Summer, ”The Origin of Moros,” Moslem World 9(1919), pp.58-64.
Rauws, J., “Islam and Christianity in Malaysia,” Moslem World 1(1911), pp.214-247.
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Winstedt, R.O., “Indian Influence in the Malay World,” Journal of the Royal Asianic Society (1944), pp.180-210.



參、報紙專論及網路資料
ㄧ、報紙專論
Asmarani, Devi, “Jakarta Groups Call for Audit of Military and Police Weapons,” Straits Times, 25 July 2002
Amstrong, Karen, “The Roots of Islamic Fundamentalsim,” Times, 24 December 2001
“Bali Case Against Cleric Dropped,” BBC Worldservice, 28 July 2003
Baru, Harapun, “Religious Tolerance Declining in Indonesia”, The Nation, 24 August 2003
Dillon, Bob, “Terrorist Hambali Tells All,” Sunday Times, 12 October 2003
Elegant, Simon, “Cash Flowing,” Time Asia, 24 March 2003
Farish, Noor, “Negotaiating Islamic Law,” FEER, 19 September 2002
---------------, “Trial and Errors,” The Sunday Time(Singapore), 7 September 2003
Harold, Crouch, “Qaeda in Indonesia? The Evidence Dosen’t Support Worries,” IHT, 23 October 2002
Harrison, Tom Bisaya, “Borneo-Philippine Impacts of Islam,” Sarawak Museum Journal, l 7 June 1982
Paul, D.Wolfowitz, “Indonesia ought to be a model of what Islam can be,” Straits Times,28 November 2001
Kavni, Chongkittavorn, “Al Qaeda in Thailand: Fact or Fiction?” The Nation , 13 January 2003
KL Joins FBI Probe on Al-Qaeda Website.Straits Times, 10 July 2002
Martin, van Bruinessen, “The violent fringes of Indonesia’s radical Islam,” ISIN Newsletter, 11 December 2002
Martin, Chulov, “Secrets of a Terror Turncoat,” The Australian, 17 July 2004
Murphy, Dan, “Al Qaida’s New Frontier: Indonesia,” Christian Science Monitor, 1 May 2002
Nakashima, Ellen, “Indonesian Militant Keep Regenerating,” Washington Post,
14 January 2005
Perlez, Jane, “Asia Letter: An Islamic Leader Rises in Indonesian Politics,” International Herald Tribune, 21 October 2004
Pipes, Daniel and Jonthan, Schanzer, “Militant Islam’s New Strongholds,” The New York Post, 22 October 2002
Pipes, Daniel , “What is jihad,” New York Post, 31 December 2002
Ratnesar, Romesh, “Confessions of an al-Qaeda Terrorist,” Time, 23 September 2002
Simon, Elegant, “I have to Face many Fundamental Issues-Executive Interview
with Inonesia’s New President,” Time Asia, 1 November 2005
Widodo, A. S. “Jemaah Islamiyah does not Formally Exist,” Tempo, 11 October 2005
Marian,Wilkinson, FBI Report Pointed to Bali Bombing, The Age, 23 January 2003


二、網路資源
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2339693.stm (2007年12月15日)
http;//www.atimes.com/se-asia/DB06Ae01.html (2007年12月15日)
http://www.tempo.co.id/harian/wawancara/waw-Baasyir01.html (2007年1月10日)
http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit74/behrend.html (2007年4月12日)
http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/history/philippine/chapter11.html (2007年12月15日)
http://www.aijac.org.au/review/2002/279/islam-indon.html (2007年4月10日)
http://www.indonesiamatters.com/74/al-mukmin-school-ngruki/b (2007年4月10日)
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