||The effectiveness of video-watching on listening comprehension: A study of students’ perceptions and their listening comprehension
||Department of English
||Listening comprehension has long been marginalized in Taiwanese English education (Chen & Tsai, 2012; Chou, 2013, 2015). Such learning environment is undergoing a change due to the inclusion of Test of English Listening Comprehension (TELC) for college admission (Chou, 2015; Liao & Yeldham, 2015). In addition to the transformation, technical advances also bring vitality into methods of teaching listening, which is evidenced by the frequent use of videos through online resources. However, some pedagogical concerns occur: how to maintain students’ interest during watching, how to select a proper video and present it with instructional activities and how to ascertain effects of video-watching on listening comprehension. With respect to the concerns, the present study attempts to investigate the effects of video-watching on listening comprehension and students’ perceptions.
Participants from two classes of English Drills (N = 127), conducted by the researcher, were randomly arranged as an experimental group receiving video-watching instruction (VWI) and a control group receiving video-watching only. The experiment was implemented by the use of the American sitcom, Friends, followed by GEPT mock listening tests (pre- and post-tests), video-watching tasks, pre- and post-Listening Perception Questionnaire (LPQ) and interviews. The quantitative results showed that VWI assists the participants in improving listening comprehension and helps foster the cognitive development of listening learning, but not the linguistic and affective development. There was a consistency of research findings between the results of the quantitative and qualitative methods used in this study, and the interviewees also provided complementary insight into VWI. First, students need supplementary listening materials to practice test-preparation skills. Second, students’ general English learning experience determines whether they are willing to invest efforts in learning English listening. Third, although videos are theoretically beneficial for reducing listening anxiety, there are still other factors (i.e. attention spans and captions) that might affect the interviewees’ anxiety. These findings suggest VWI is a viable listening method and students’ perceptions should be considered appropriately.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT II
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.1.1 Overview of EFL listening in Taiwanese learning contexts 1
1.1.2 Overview of the use of video in Taiwanese language classrooms 3
1.2 Focus of the study 4
1.3 Purpose of the study 4
1.4 Significance of the study 4
1.5 Research questions 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Components of listening skills 7
2.2 Listening instruction 9
2.2.1 Importance and misconceptions of listening on proficiency 9
2.2.2 Active involvements in listening 10
2.2.3 Empirical studies of listening instruction 11
2.2.4 The current situation of listening instruction in Taiwan 14
2.3 The use of videos in listening instruction 15
2.3.1 Advantages of video-watching 15
2.3.2 Related research on video-watching and listening 18
2.4 Students’ perceptions towards video-watching 22
CHAPTER THREE MTHODOLOGY 26
3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Participants 27
3.3 Data collection 28
3.3.1 Materials 28
3.3.2 Video-watching instruction (VWI) 29
3.3.3 Treatment 30
3.3.4 Instruments 31
3.3.5 Procedures 37
3.4 Data analysis 39
3.5 Summary 39
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41
4.1 Introduction 41
4.2 Effects of VWI 41
4.2.1 Results of the pre- and post-GEPT mock listening tests 42
4.2.2 Results of the six VW tasks 44
4.3 The participants’ perceptions towards VWI measured by LPQ 46
4.3.1 Results of LPQ – the Linguistic domain 46
4.3.2 Results of LPQ – the Cognitive domain 49
4.3.3 Results of LPQ – the Affective domain 52
4.4 The participants’ perceptions towards VWI measured by interviews 57
4.4.1 General English learning and listening learning experience 57
4.4.2 Experience of video-watching 65
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 71
5.1 Conclusions of the major findings 71
5.1.1 Effects of VWI 71
5.1.2 Students’ perceptions of VWI measured by LPQ and interviews 72
5.2 Limitation of the present study 74
5.3 Suggestions for future research 76
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Overall information of the participants 28
Table 3.2 Steps of video-watching class sessions 31
Table 3.3 Listening Perception Questionnaire 35
Table 3.4 Information about the interviewees 36
Table 3.5 Procedures for the experimental group 37
Table 3.6 Procedures for the control group 38
Table 4.1 GEPT listening pre- and post-tests BETWEEN the two groups 42
Table 4.2 GEPT listening pre- and post-tests WITHIN the two groups 44
Table 4.3 VW Tasks BETWEEN the two groups 44
Table 4.4 VW Tasks WITHIN the two groups 45
Table 4.5 The results of LPQ – the Linguistic Domain 47
Table 4.6 Descriptive analysis of the post-LPQ – Linguistic Domain 48
Table 4.7 The results of LPQ – the Cognitive Domain 50
Table 4.8 Descriptive analysis of the post-LPQ – Cognitive Domain 52
Table 4.9 The results of LPQ – the Affective Domain 53
Table 4.10 Descriptive analysis of the post-LPQ – Affective Domain 56
Table 4.11 Information of the interviewees 57
Table 4.12 Information of the interviewees’ listening experience 64
Table 4.13 The interviewees’ adoption of linguistic and cognitive skills 70
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