||The Public Performance of Margery Kempe’s Private Faith
||Department of English
||本篇論文旨在討論神秘主義與瑪喬芮的信仰特質，援用皮耶．布赫迪厄(Pierre Bourdieu)的觀點和茱蒂絲．芭特勒(Judith Butler)的觀點意在揭露《瑪喬芮坎普之書》中，瑪喬芮．坎普(Margery Kempe)如何替自身爭取一片發聲空間，以及如何在這有限的空間中展演模擬(Imatio)的傳統，最後與抄寫員合作，把自己的神秘經驗書寫成書。
第一章先簡略的概述神秘主義在西方發展的歷史，再借由Pierre Bourdieu的habitu和實際實行(actual practice)來剖析基督教神秘主義和瑪喬芮．坎普的信仰特質與其所處的社群和社會間的互動。借由habitus和實際實行之間的關係，來揭露瑪喬芮．坎普的habitus雖屬有感染力的信仰特質，實際實行的展演，卻被她的中產階級背景所影響，而帶有物質性(materiality)。宗教和經濟和社會之間不可抹滅的互動和其間模糊的界線，瑪喬芮．坎普的女性信仰特質也從模糊的界線中藉由中產階級擅長的協調(negotiation)與交換(exchange)，爭取到一絲發聲空間。第二章由茱蒂絲．芭特勒(Judith Butler)對性別和身份認同的批評和其展演(performantivity)理論來討論瑪喬芮．坎普的模擬(Imitatio)中的身份認同。模擬基督(The imitation of Christ)是把瑪喬芮．坎普的身體和基督並列，藉由最終變成基督，賦予意義於瑪喬芮．坎普的無法控制的哭泣(uncontrollable wails)和面臨的審判。而世俗的性別認同，經由與基督重覆交換的多重身份，把父權社會加諸於瑪喬芮身上的限制鬆綁，借由模擬顯露出父權社會下，瑪喬芮．坎普難以覓得適當性別認同和身份認同的窘境。而從模擬基督(The Imitation of Christ)中，認同聖母瑪莉亞的角色進而發展，藉由模擬瑪莉亞(The imitation of the Virgin Mary)把母性經驗從家庭的範疇重置於全世界的範疇。第三章延續前兩章的論點，探討瑪喬芮．坎普與抄寫員之間的互動。瑪喬芮．坎普口述其神秘經驗由抄寫員抄寫成《瑪喬芮．坎普之書》。論此書的作者究竟是是瑪喬芮．坎普還是抄寫員們。
||This thesis attempts to unravel the ways which Margery Kempe uses to negotiate a limited space for voicing her experience in the secular world. In the first chapter, I employ Pierre Bourdieu’s notion of habitus and the relationship of habitus and actual practices. I intend to explore the habitus of Margery Kempe’s piety in conjunction with the tactics of negotiation and exchange which Margery Kempe internalizes from the upbringing of mercantile community. I hope to reveal how Kempe’s actual practices of affective piety are altered by her mercantile mentality. I argue that this alteration on the convention of affective piety practiced by Margery Kempe actually provides Margery Kempe with tactics of negotiation and exchanges to create a limited space for voicing her experience in the patriarchal society. Then, in the second chapter, I apply Judith Butler’s critique of the fixed identity and the notion of performantivity to discuss the issue of performing female’s body, female experiences and gender roles in the construction of Kempe’s identity in The Book in relation to Margery Kempe’s practices of the imitation of Christ, imitation of the Virgin Mary and of the female saints. The last part of thesis aims to discuss the issue of the author, the scribes and authority in The Book in relation to the notion of author and authorship in the Middle Ages. I intend to explore the relation between the scribes and Margery Kempe in relation to the tradition of the collaborative writing between female mystics and their scribes in the mystical texts. I hope by analyzing the roles of the scribes, voice, and language in the narrative we can find out whose voice is favored and thus possess the authority in The Book. Besides the issue of author and authority, I will explore the possibility of creating a dialogue between the binary opposition between the oral discourse and written discourse and between female piety and male-dominant religious world represented respectively by Margery Kempe and the priest-scribe.
||Table of Contents
Chapter One:Negotiating a Space for Margery Kempe’s Piety......16
Christian Mysticism and Female Piety in the Middle Ages
Pierre Bourdieu's Notion of Habitus and the Female Piety
Kempe's Piety and the Community of King's Lynn
Kempe's Negotiation with the Secular and Religious Authorities
Chapter Two:The Performance of Imitations and the Construction of the Self......39
Judith Butler's Theory of Performantivity and the Motif of Imitatio
The Imitation of Christ in The Book
The Female Image of Christ and Imitation of the Virgin Mary
Universal Motherhood and the Construction of the Self
Chapter Three: Margery Kempe and the Scribes in The Book......60
Author and Authorship in the Middle Ages
The Collaborative Writing of the Scribes and Kempe
Voice and Language
Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe: A New Translation, Contexts, Criticism. Trans. and Ed. Lynn Staley. New York: Norton, 2001.
Aers, David. Community, Gender, and Individual Identity: English Writing 1360-1430. London: Routledge, 1988.
Ashley, Kathleen. “Historicizing Margery: The Book of Margery Kempe as Social Text.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 28 (1998): 371-88.
Atkinson, Clarissa W. Mystic and Pilgrim. Ithaca: Cornell UP., 1983.
Beckwith, Sarah. Christ’s Body: Identity, Culture and Society in Late Medieval Writings. London: Routledge, 1996.
---. “Problems of Authority in Late Medieval English Mysticism: Language, Agency, and Authority in The Book of Margery Kempe.” Exemplaria 4 (1992): 171-200.
---. “A Very Material Mysticism: The Medieval Mysticism of Margery Kempe.” Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology, History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin’s, 1986. 34-57.
Benedict, Kimberley M. Empowering Collaborations: Writing Partnerships between Religious Women and Scribes in the Middle Ages. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Bennett, Judith M. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women’s Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600. USA: Oxford UP, 1996.
Blamires, Alcuin. Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1992.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.
Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. New York: Routledge, 1993.
---. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Bynum, Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Zone, 1991.
---. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. London: U of California P, 1987.
Christie, Sheila. “’Thei Stodyn Upon Stoyls For To Beheldyn Hir’”: Margery Kempe and The Power of Performance.” Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 38 (2002): 93-103.
Cooper, Kate. “’Only Virgin Can Give Birth to Christ’”: The Virgin Mary and the Problem of Female Authority in Late Antiquity.” Virgin Revisited: Configuration of the Unpossessed Body. Eds. Bonnie MacLachlan and Judith Fletcher. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2007. 100-115.
Delany, Sheila. “Sexual Economics, Chaucer’s Wife of Bath and The Book of Margery Kempe.” Eds. Ruth Evans and Lesley Johnson. Feminist Readings in Middle English Literature: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. London: Routledge, 1994. 72-87.
Dinshaw, Carolyn. Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre-and Postmodern. Durham: Duke UP, 1999.
Ellis, Deborah S. “Margery Kempe and King’s Lynn.” Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays. Ed. Sandra J. McEntire. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992. 139-159.
Fritze, Ronald H, ed. Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England, 1272-1485. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 2002.
Gastagna, Valentina. “Margery Kempe and her Becoming ‘Authoress’.” Textus 19 (2006): 323-38
Gastle, Brain W. “Mercantile Authority, Margaret Paston, and Margery Kempe.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 36 (2003): 123-47.
Gibson, Gail McMurray. The Theater of Devotion: East Anglian Drama and Society in the Late Middle Ages. Chicago: The U. of Chicago P., 1989.
Giorgi, Rosa. Saints: A Year in Faith and Art. New York: Abrams, 2005.
Fanning, Steven. Mystics of the Christian Tradition. London: Routledge, 2001.
Gilmore, Leigh. “Genders, Bodies, Identities: Representing Gender in Medieval Mysticism.” Autobiographics: A Feminist Theory of Women’s Self-Representation. London: Cornell UP, 1994
Harding, Wendy. “Body into Text: The Book of Margery Kempe.” Feminist Approaches to the Body in Medieval Literature. Eds. Linda Lomperis and Sarah Stanbury. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1993. 168-87.
Harmon, William, and C. Hugh Holman eds. A Handbook to Literature. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.
Holloway, Julian Bolton. Jerusalem: Essays on Pilgrimage and Literature. New York: AMS P, 1998.
Johnson, Lynn Staley. “Margery Kempe: Social Critic.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22 (1992): 159-84.
---. “The Trope of the Scribe and the Question of Literary Authority in the Works of Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe.” Speculum 66 (1991): 820-38.
Lawton, David. “Voice, Authority, and Blasphemy in The Book of Margery Kempe.” Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays. Ed. Sandra J. McEntire. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992. 93-115.
Lochrie, Karma. “The Book of Margery Kempe: the Marginal Woman’s Quest for Literary Authority.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 16 (1986): 33-55.
---. Margery Kempe and Translations of the Flesh. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1991.
McAvoy, Liz Herbert. Authority and the Female Body in the Writings of Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2004.
McNay, Lois. Gender and Agency: Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist and Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity P, 2000.
Mitchell, Marea. The Book of Margery Kempe: Scholarship, Community, and Criticism. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.
Mongon, Olga Burakov. “Slanders and Saints: The Function of Slander in The Book of Margery Kempe.” Philol Q (2005): 27-47.
Mooney, Catherine M. “Voice, Gender, and the Portrayal of Sanctity.” Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters. Ed. Catherine M. Mooney. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1999. 1-15.
Renevey, Denis. “Margery’s Performing Body: The Translation of Late Medieval Discursive Religious Practices.” Eds. Denis Renevey and Christiania Whitehead. Writing Religious Women: Female Spiritual and Textual Practices in Late Medieval England. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 2000. 197-216.
Salih, Sarah. Versions of Virginity in Late Medieval England. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2001.
Summit, Jennifer. “Women and Authorship.” The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women’s Writing. Eds. Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. 91-108.
Uhlman, Diana R. “The Comfort of Voice, the Solace of Script: Orality and Literary in The Book of Margery Kempe.” Studies in Philology 91 (1994): 50-69.
Voaden, Rosalynn. God’s Words, Women’s Voices: The Discernment of Spirits in the Writings of Late-Medieval Women Visionaries. Suffolk: York Medieval P, 1999.