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系統識別號 U0002-1801200710280900
中文論文名稱 建構SCORM相容多媒體課程於紙本書籍中之學習
英文論文名稱 Constructing SCORM Compliant Multimedia Courses on Hard-Copy Books
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 王德華
研究生英文姓名 Te-Hua Wang
學號 892190025
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-12-30
論文頁數 97頁
口試委員 指導教授-施國琛
委員-林立傑
委員-高台茜
委員-趙榮耀
委員-王英宏
委員-施國琛
中文關鍵字 遠距教學  數位學習  SCORM  課程編輯系統  人機互動  普及式學習 
英文關鍵字 Distance Learning  E-Learning  SCORM  Authoring Tool  Human-Computer Interaction  Pervasive Learning 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 共享內容物件參考模型(Sharable Content Object Reference Model, SCORM)定義了在遠距教學中所使用的教材內容規範,並且記錄學習者之學習活動歷程。近年來,SCORM被廣泛地應用於數位學習與遠距教學領域中不同類型系統的開發與建置,如課程編輯系統、線上學習管理系統以及教材內容管理系統中,以提供使用者及系統開發者更具標準化的參考依據。

就現有的數位學習環境而言,可供學習者進行學習活動的系統大部分皆基於多媒體或網路相關技術所建構而成,並以個人電腦或行動裝置等數位化學習載具,負責將相關課程呈現於學習者端。然因考量傳統的學習模式大多仍為基於紙本書籍之學習活動,因此,在本論文中,我們提出了一新型態之學習環境,讓學習者能於紙本書籍上結合多樣性之數位學習裝置進行符合SCORM標準之課程閱讀與學習行為,我們稱之為「Hard SCORM」學習環境。在我們提出的Hard SCORM學習環境中,使用了具備文字辨識功能的筆式裝置作為連結紙本書籍與數位資源之間的橋樑,稱之為「Hyper Pen」。因此,學習者可透過傳統紙本教科書進行學習活動,並獲取相關的數位學習資源。而關於學習內容製作部分,我們開發了一套課程編輯系統,提供教學者能快速的製作符合SCORM標準之課程,而這些教材內容不但可於一般數位化的學習平台呈現外,亦可以紙本書籍的方式予以呈現。

為了讓Hyper Pen及後端的學習管理系統能達到訊息溝通的目的,在本論文中,我們定義了不同性質的Hard SCORM標籤,用以呈現相關之數位學習資源及課程內容互動性於紙本書籍中。這些Hard SCORM標籤可透過前述之課程編輯系統印製於紙本書籍的字裡行間中,讓學習者透過Hyper Pen進行辨識,並結合多樣化之電子式學習載具呈現相關數位學習資源,進而達到將實體文件中的資訊與數位世界的資訊相互連結。而為有效管理學習者於紙本書籍中之學習行為,我們提出了一個基於有限狀態機概念之學習規範機制,稱為Hard SCORM Machine (HSM)以進行紙本書籍中之學習行為規範,其包含了學習行為規則的定義以及相對應的系統回應動作。因此,學習者可在不失去閱讀紙本上的舒適性與參考資料的豐富性上取得一個平衡點,而這些學習行為也將滿足SCORM所定義出的學習模式。
英文摘要 The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) includes a representation of distance learning contents and a behavior definition of how users should interact with the contents. The reference model is widely used in the development of authoring tools, learning management systems, and content repositories for the e-Learning community.

Up to now, most e-Learning systems have been based on multimedia and Web technologies on electronic learning platforms, such as personal computers and handheld devices. We take a further step to advance the field by implementing a pervasive learning environment which enables learners to read SCORM-compliant hard-copy textbooks using multimodal multimedia devices. The pervasive learning environment with SCORM-compliant hard-copy textbooks is called “Hard SCORM” learning environment, which employs a pen-like OCR device (called Hyper Pen) as an input mechanism to affiliate the physical world of printed pages and the virtual world of computers. With respect to the learning contents for supporting such learning environment, an efficient authoring tool was developed for serving the generation and consistency of learning contents while being applied to the multimodal learning devices with different layouts.

Some specific tags were defined to specify the corresponding information or interactions that can not be performed in the hard-copy books. These tags can be printed in SCORM-compliant textbooks and recognized by Hyper Pen for the navigation control. A computer, a PDA, or a cellular phone can be used for supervising the user learning behavior using the Hard SCORM Machine (HSM). The HSM is based on the concept of Finite State Machine and contains a formal definition of the functionalities and system response actions. Therefore, learners can read hard-copy textbooks in a traditional manner while the process of reading conforms to the SCORM specification.
論文目次 CONTENTS

CONTENTS I
LIST OF FIGURES III
LIST OF TABLES IV

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 RELATED WORKS 9
2.1 Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) Specification 9
2.2 SCORM-based Authoring Tools 21
2.3 The Back-End Learning Management System for Supporting
Hard SCORM learning environment 26
2.4 Related Researches under the Concept of Human-Computer
Interaction (HCI) 30
CHAPTER 3 HARD SCORM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 36
3.1 System Architecture of Hard SCORM Learning Environment 36
3.2 Hard SCORM Tags Definition 40
3.3 Hard SCORM Machine 45
3.3.1 Definition of Hard SCORM Machine (HSM) 46
3.3.2 Transaction in Hard SCORM Machine 50
3.3.3 Transition Tables of Hard SCORM Machine 52
3.4 Persistence of Learning Records 55
CHAPTER 4 IMPLEMENTATION 58
4.1 Introduction of Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 59
4.1.1 The Design of Graphic User Interface 59
4.1.2 SCORM-compliant Courseware Authoring Process 62
4.2 Main Components in Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 64
4.2.1 Operations on Content Aggregation 65
4.2.2 Metadata Editor with Automatic Filling Mechanism 66
4.2.3 Sequencing Editor and Sequencing Testing Mode 68
4.2.4 Hard SCORM Course Editor 70
4.2.5 Metadata Searching Engine 73
4.2.6 Integrating With Other Advanced Tools 75
4.3 SCORM-Compliant Hard Copy Books Layout 78
CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 81
5.1 Experimental Assumptions and Experiment Setup 81
5.2 Experimental Result and Analysis on Hard SCORM
Learning Environment 84
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 90
BIBLIOGRAPHY 93


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Demonstration of Using the Hard SCORM Learning Environment 6
Figure 2.1: The Cross Domain SCORM-Compliant LMS 29
Figure 2.2: SCORM LMS on PDA and Smart Phone 30
Figure 2.3: The Augmented Reading Environment of Listen Reader System 32
Figure 2.4: The Appearance and Configuration of EHANCEDESK System 33
Figure 3.1: The Hard SCORM Machine (HSM) 47
Figure 3.2: The Quiz Submachine 49
Figure 4.1: The GUI of the Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 60
Figure 4.2: The Metadata Wizard in Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 67
Figure 4.3: An Xml-Based Sequencing Node Representation 69
Figure 4.4: The Sequencing Editor in Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 69
Figure 4.5: Sequencing Testing Mode in the Hard SCORM Authoring Tool 70
Figure 4.6: Hard SCORM Course Editor User Interface 71
Figure 4.7: The Printing Wizard for Creating the SCORM-compliant Books 73
Figure 4.8: Metadata Searching Engine in the Hard SCORM Authoring Tool. 74
Figure 4.9 (a): Allocation of Remote Server 75
Figure 4.9 (b): Web Services Selection Dialog Box 75
Figure 4.10: The Video Presentation Toolkits and the Video Presentation Course 76
Figure 4.11: The Video SCORM Authoring Tool 77
Figure 4.12: Example of a Hard SCORM Student ID and Control Panel 79
Figure 4.13: Example of a Hard SCORM-Compliant Textbook 80
Figure 5.1: Using Hard SCORM Learning Environment with Hyper Pen 84


LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: The Evolution of SCORM 20
Table 2.2: Features of Some Well-Known SCORM-Compliant Authoring Tools 25
Table 2.3: Summary of the Aforementioned HCI Systems 35
Table 3.1: Transition Table of the Hard SCORM Machine 53
Table 3.2: Transition Table of the Quiz Submachine 54
Table 3.3: Summary of Audio Messages 55
Table 5.1: The Scoring of the Degree of Acceptance for Each Item 84
Table 5.2: Result of the Questionnaire 86
Table 5.3: The Evaluations on Hard SCORM Authoring Tool
and the Learning Materials 89
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