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系統識別號 U0002-1708202009270800
中文論文名稱 應用於拍翼機之具斜齒輪轉翼機構
英文論文名稱 Wing Rotation Mechanisms Using Bevel Gears for Ornithopters
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 沙得力
研究生英文姓名 Saravana Kompala
學號 607375010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2020-07-01
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-胡毓忠
委員-羅元隆
中文關鍵字 拍翼轉翼  斜齒輪  伺服馬達  3D列印 
英文關鍵字 wing rotation  bevel gear  servo motor  3D printing 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 針對拍翼微型飛行器(FWMAV)的轉翼問題上,本研究提供一個新的
理念,係利用伺服馬達和斜齒輪的複合式拍翼機構証明優於過去純伺服馬達 的設計。首先在翼展為70公分的拍翼上,開發三種機構(A1,B和B1型), 同時在5 V驅動電壓和2.5 Hz的拍翼頻率下,通過風洞測試進行了實驗驗證。
A1 型設計是不帶轉翼的純伺服馬達機構。巡航條件為在 25°傾斜角, 風速 3 m/s 下,升力 63.2 gf。
B 型設計是一種結合伺服馬達與斜齒輪的機構,可實現連續轉翼。巡 航條件為在 35°傾斜角,風速 1.5 m/s 下,升力 51.1 gf。
B1 型設計是基於 B 型設計,但設有一個限位開關,僅可在行程逆轉時 轉翼。巡航條件為在 35°傾斜角,風速 3 m/s 下,(最佳)升力 84.0 gf,比缺乏轉翼的 A1型提高 32.9%。
其次,在沒有伺服馬達的公克級機構使用斜齒輪,實現 FWMAV 轉翼。
使用兩種翼展 25 公分的四連桿(FBL)機構進行探討,驅動電壓減小為 3.7 V, 重量減輕至 15.3 gf,拍翼頻率提高至 13.6 Hz ;一種為無轉翼功能機構,另一 種為利用斜齒輪增加轉翼功能的機構(C 型設計)。風洞測試結果表示帶有轉翼 的 FBL 機構其產生的升力優於無轉翼 33.2%。(巡航條件為在 20°傾斜角,風 速 3 m/s 下,最佳升力為 14.7 gf。)
總結 B1型和C型設計因轉翼增加的升力分別為 32.9%和 33.2%,非常接
近 1999年 Dickinson轉翼試驗的 35%。最後,針對翼展為 25公分的 FWMAV 進行了飛行測試。
英文摘要 This work is to demonstrate a new idea that the flapping mechanism of hybridizing the servo-motor and bevel gear is better than the all servo-motor design regarding the wing rotation issue of flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs). Three kinds (Types A1, B and B1) of mechanisms, with 5 V driving and 2.5 Hz flapping frequency, are firstly fabricated on a flapping wing of 70 cm-span and verified experimentally through wind tunnel testing.
Type-A1 design is a pure servo-motor mechanism without wing rotation. Its cruising condition is 3 m/s at 25° inclined angle and with lift of 63.2 gf.
Type-B design is a mechanism hybridized with servo-motor and bevel gear viable for continuous wing rotation. Its cruising condition is 1.5 m/s at 35° inclined angle and with lift of 51.1 gf.
Type-B1 design is based on Type-B design but with a stopper switch for wing rotation at stroke reversal only. Its cruising condition is 3 m/s at 35° inclined angle and with (the best) lift of 84.0 gf, 32.9 % better than Type-A1 without wing rotation.
Secondly, implementing the same concept of using bevel gears for achieving wing rotation of FWMAVs was done in the gram-scaled mechanism without servo motor to lower the driving voltage to 3.7 V, to reduce the weight to 15.3 gf, and to increase the flapping frequency to 13.6 Hz. Wind tunnel testing was carried out on the four-bar linkage (FBL) mechanisms connected to 25 cm-span flapping wing with and without wing rotation respectively. It was found that the FBL mechanism with wing rotation (Type-C mechanism) produces a weight-comparable lift which is 33.2% higher than the lift by FBL mechanism without wing rotation. (Its cruising condition is 3 m/s at 20° inclined angle and with best lift of 14.7 gf.)
The above two lift enhancement percentages of 32.9-33.2% are very near to 35% of Dickinson’s wing rotation experiment in 1999. Finally, forward cruising flight test was also done on the 25cm-span FWMAV accordingly.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figure vii
List of Table xi
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
Classification of MAVs 1
1.1.1 Fixed wing MAVs 1
1.1.2 Flapping wing MAVs 2
1.1.3 Fixed/flapping-wing MAVs 2
1.1.4 Rotary wing MAVs 3
1.2 Brief history of flapping flight: 3
1.3 Sequential generations of Tamkang groups FWMAVs: 4
1.4 Literature survey of wing rotation flapping 6
1.5 Motivation of the wing root rotation mechanism 12
CHAPTER 2: TYPE-A1: NORMAL SERVO MECHANISM 16
2.1 Mechanism design 16
2.2 Fabrication and assembly 16
2.3 Wing design 19
2.4 Avionics 20
2.5Wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic force measurements 22
CHAPTER 3: TYPE-B: SERVO BEVEL GEAR HYBRID WING ROTATION MECHANISM 33
3.1 Mechanism design 34
3.2 Fabrication and assembly 38
3.3 Wing design38
3.4 Wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic force measurements 39
CHAPTER 4: TYPE-B1: SERVO BEVEL GEAR HYBRID WING ROTATION MECHANISM WITH STOPPERS 47
4.1 Mechanism design 48
4.2 Fabrication and assembly 50
4.3 Wing design 52
4.4 Wind tunnel testing's and aerodynamic force measurements 52
CHAPTER 5: TYPE-C: FULL MECHANICAL MECHANISM 61
5.1 Mechanism design 61
5.2 Fabrication and assembly 63
5.3 Wing design 64
5.4 Wind tunnel testing’s and aerodynamic force measurements 66
5.5 Flight test 77
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 80
6.1 Summary on servo mechanisms 80
6.2 Summary on fully mechanical mechanisms 82
6.3 Future work 84
REFERENCES 85
APPENDIX A: ARDUINO CODE 90
A.1 Four servo motor ARDUINO code 90
A.2 Two servo motor ARDUINO code 93
APPENDIX B: MATLAB CODE 97
B.1 Cut-off frequency 97
B.2 FFT 98
APPENDIX C: MECHANISM DRAFTINGS 100
C.1 Type-A1: Normal servo mechanism 100
C.2 Type-B: Servo bevel gear hybrid mechanism 102
C.3 Type-B1: Servo bevel gear hybrid mechanism with stoppers 104
Publication 107

List of Figure
Figure 1.1 Fixed wing MAV 2
Figure 1.2 Flapping wing MAVs: (a) MAV; (b) NAV; (c) PAV 2
Figure 1.3 Fixed/flapping wing MAV 2
Figure 1.4 Rotary wing MAV 3
Figure 1.5 Prototype of a Microbat connected with Lithium batteries and 3-channel radio control 4
Figure 1.6 Picture of AeroVironment NAV demonstrator 4
Figure 1.7 First generation FWMAV of TKU MEMS group 4
Figure 1.8 Second generation FWMAV of TKU MEMS group 5 Figure 1.9 Third generation FWMAV of TKU MEMS group 5
Figure 1.10 Fourth generation FWMAV of TKU MEMS group 6
Figure 1.11 Evans mechanism 6
Figure 1.12 Experimental set up of Dickinson et al 7
Figure 1.13 Insect wing motion 8
Figure 1.14 The figure eight pattern 8
Figure 1.15 Reducing the total drag by folding the wings during the upstroke 9
Figure 1.16 Reducing drag by separating feathers during the upstroke 9
Figure 1.17 Reducing drag by twisting the wing roots before the stroke reversals 10
Figure 1.18 Advanced wing rotation 10
Figure 1.19 Delayed wing rotation 10
Figure 1.20 Symmetrical wing rotation 11
Figure 1.21 Angle of attack of a (a) lift based system; (b) drag based system 11
Figure 1.22 Type-A: full servo mechanism 13
Figure 1.23 (a) Analog remote-cotrolled flapping flight; (b) digital autonomous flapping flight 14
Figure 1.24 Differential gear 15
Figure 1.25 Implementation of the idea of differential gear in replace of rotational servos 15
Figure 2.1 Type-A1 mechanism: (a) front view; (b) top view; (c) isometric view 17
Figure 2.2 Explosion view of type-A1: normal servo mechanism 17
Figure 2.3 Zortrax M200 3D printer 18
Figure 2.4 Overview of Zortrax Z-suite software 18
Figure 2.5 Assembled Type-A1 mechanism: (a) front view; (b) top view 19
Figure 2.6 Dimensions of the wing 20
Figure 2.7 Wing membrane attached to the mechanism 20
Figure 2.8 Communication plot for controlling servo motor 21
Figure 2.9 Connection plot of servo mechanism 22
Figure 2.10 Dimensions of the wind tunnel 22
Figure 2.11 MAV mounted on force gauge inside the wind tunnel 23
Figure 2.12 Inclined angle set up: (a) example of 0º inclined angle; (b) example of 15º inclined angle 23
Figure 2.13 Overview of “InstruNet World” software 24
Figure 2.14 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 10º inclined angle 26
Figure 2.15 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 15º inclined angle 26
Figure 2.16 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 20º inclined angle 26
Figure 2.17 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 25º inclined angle 27
Figure 2.18 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 35º inclined angle 27
Figure 2.19 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 10º inclined angle 27
Figure 2.20 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 15º inclined angle 27
Figure 2.21 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 20º inclined angle 28
Figure 2.22 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 25º inclined angle 28
Figure 2.23 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 35º inclined angle 28
Figure 2.24 Classical lift and net thrust signals of 20cm wingspan MAV 29
Figure 2.25 Waveform signals before applying cut-off frequency 30
Figure 2.26 The classical signals of Type-A1 mechanism unsteady: (a) lift force; (b) net thrust force 30
Figure 2.27 FFT using MATLAB for Type-A1 mechanism 31
Figure 2.28 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 1.25V and 1.4Hz 31
Figure 2.29 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 2.5V and 2Hz 32
Figure 2.30 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 5V and 2.5Hz 32
Figure 3.1 Modification of first generation servo mechanism: (a) Type-A mechanism; (b) Type-B mechanism 33
Figure 3.2 Type-B mechanism: (a) front view; (b) top view; (c) isometric view 34
Figure 3.3 Explosion view of servo bevel gear hybrid mechanism 35
Figure 3.4 Bevel gear set 36
Figure 3.5 Design parameters of bevel gear set: (a) gear 1; (b) gear 2 36
Figure 3.6 Coordinate system of flapping motion 37
Figure 3.7 (a) Wing profile; (b) expected trajectory of the mechanism 37
Figure 3.8 Assembled Type-B mechanism: (a) front view; (b) top view 38
Figure 3.9 wing membrane attached to Type-B mechanism 38
Figure 3.10 The classical signals of Type-B mechanism unsteady: (a) lift force; (b) net thrust force 41
Figure 3.11 FFT using MATLAB for Type-B mechanism 41
Figure 3.12 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 10º inclined angle 43
Figure 3.13 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 15º inclined angle 43
Figure 3.14 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 20º inclined angle 43
Figure 3.15 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 25º inclined angle 44
Figure 3.16 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 35º inclined angle 44
Figure 3.17 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 10º inclined angle 44
Figure 3.18 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 15º inclined angle 44
Figure 3.19 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 20º inclined angle 45
Figure 3.20 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 25º inclined angle 45
Figure 3.21 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 35º inclined angle 45
Figure 3.22 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 1.25V and 1.4Hz 46
Figure 3.23 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 2.5V and 2Hz 46
Figure 3.24 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 5V and 2.5Hz 46
Figure 4.1 Modified mechanism; (a) Type-B mechanism; (b) Type-B1 mechanism 47
Figure 4.2 Type-B1 mechanism: (a) front view; (b) top view 48
Figure 4.3 Explosion view of Type-B1 mechanism 49
Figure 4.4 Expected trajectory of the wing 49
Figure 4.5 Bevel gear set 50
Figure 4.6 Bevel gear parameters 50
Figure 4.7 Assembled Type-B1 mechanism : (a) front view; (b) top view 50
Figure 4.8 Working of the mechanism 51
Figure 4.9 Wing membrane attached to Type-B1 mechanism 52
Figure 4.10 The classical Type-B1 mechanism: (a) lift force; (b) net thrust force 54
Figure 4.11 FFT using MATLAB for Type-B1 mechanism 54
Figure 4.12 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 10º inclined angle 56
Figure 4.13 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 15º inclined angle 57
Figure 4.14 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 20º inclined angle 57
Figure 4.15 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 25º inclined angle 57
Figure 4.16 Lift and coefficient of lift graphs at 35º inclined angle 57
Figure 4.17 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 10º inclined angle 58
Figure 4.18 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 15º inclined angle 58
Figure 4.19 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 20º inclined angle 58
Figure 4.20 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 25º inclined angle 58
Figure 4.21 Net thrust and coefficient of thrust graphs at 35º inclined angle 59
Figure 4.22 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 1.25V and 1.4Hz 59
Figure 4.23 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 2.5V and 2Hz 59
Figure 4.24 Lift coefficeint and net thrust coefficients with respect to advance ratios at 5V and 2.5Hz 60
Figure 5.1 Fully mechanical mechanism: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 61
Figure 5.2 Explosion view of fully mechanical mechanism: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 62
Figure 5.3 Expected trajectory of the Type-C mechanism 63
Figure 5.4 3D printed mechanims: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 64
Figure 5.5 Assembled normal Golden Snitch mechanism 64
Figure 5.6 Assembled Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 64
Figure 5.7 Wing design 65
Figure 5.8 Wing membrane attached to the (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 65
Figure 5.9 Inclined angle setup 68
Figure 5.10 FFT using MATLAB for: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) TypeC: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 69
Figure 5.11 The classical signals of fully mechanical mechanisms: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 70
Figure 5.12 The clear view of classical signals of fully mechanical mechanisms: (a) normal Golden Snitch mechanism; (b) Type-C: Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 70
Figure 5.13 Lift graphs at 10º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 73
Figure 5.14 Lift graphs at 20º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 73
Figure 5.15 Lift graphs at 30º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 73
Figure 5.16 Net thrust graphs at 10º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 73
Figure 5.17 Net thrust graphs at 20º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 74
Figure 5.18 Net thrust graphs at 30º inclined angle of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 74
Figure 5.19 Lift graphs at 10º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 74
Figure 5.20 Lift graphs at 20º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 74
Figure 5.21 Lift graphs at 30º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 75
Figure 5.22 Net thrust graphs at 10º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 75
Figure 5.23 Net thrust graphs at 20º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 75
Figure 5.24 Net thrust graphs at 30º inclined angle of Golden Snitch wing rotation mechanism 75
Figure 5.25 Lift coefficient and net thrust coefficient with respect to advance ratio at 10º inclined angle 76
Figure 5.26 Lift coefficient and net thrust coefficient with respect to advance ratio at 20º inclined angle 76
Figure 5.27 Lift coefficient and net thrust coefficient with respect to advance ratio at 30º inclined angle 76
Figure 5.28 Flight test1 of Type-C mechanism 78
Figure 5.29 Flight test2 of Type-C mechanism 79

List of Table
Table 2.1 Properties of the Zortrax Z-Ultrat material 18
Table 2.2 Wing parameters of normal servo mechanism 20
Table 2.3 Dimensions and details of wind tunnel 23
Table 2.4 Flapping Frequency values with respect to the applied voltage 24
Table 2.5 Max average lift values at their cruising speeds 25
Table 2.6 Lift to weight ratio 26
Table 3.1 Wing parameters of Type-B mechanism 39
Table 3.2 Flapping frequency values with respect to applied voltage 40
Table 3.3 Max average lift values at their cruising speeds 42
Table 3.4 Lift to weight ratio 43
Table 4.1 Wing parameters of Type-B1 mechanism 52
Table 4.2 Flapping frequency values with respect to voltage applied 53
Table 4.3 Max average lift values at their cruising speeds 55
Table 4.4 Lift to weight ratio 56
Table 5.1 MAV parameters 66
Table 5.2 Weight distribution of MAV 66
Table 5.3 Dimensions of the wind tunnel 67
Table 5.4 Flapping frequency (Hz) values of fully mechanical mechanisms 67
Table 5.5 Max average lift values at their cruising speeds of normal Golden Snitch mechanism 72
Table 5.6 Max average lift values at their cruising speeds of Golden Snitch with fixed bevel gear mechanism 72
Table 5.7 Lift to weight ratio 72
Table 6.1 Conclusion of maximum average lift forces at cruising speeds of all the servo powered mechanisms 81
Table 6.2 Conclusion of lift to weight ratios of all the servo powered mechanisms 82
Table 6.3 Conclusion of maximum average lift forces at cruising speeds 83
Table 6.4 Conclusion of lift to weight ratios of fully mechanical mechanisms 83




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