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系統識別號 U0002-1708201022544300
中文論文名稱 國際社群干涉下之科索沃獨立建國
英文論文名稱 The Intervention from International Community toward Kosovo's Independence
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 廖子寧
研究生英文姓名 Tzu-Ning Liao
學號 695290097
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-26
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭欽模
委員-郭秋慶
委員-洪茂雄
中文關鍵字 國際社群  科索沃  獨立 
英文關鍵字 International Community  Kosovo  Independence 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 科索沃在2008年2月17日宣布獨立,並受到多數歐美國家的支持。科索沃處於巴爾幹半島,此地區是中東、亞、歐來往的必經要道,自古以來便是外來強權的爭奪之地,加上種族複雜、文化差異、民風強悍,各巴爾幹民族彼此大小衝突不斷,容易讓外來者趁勢介入此地區的政治事務。因此國際社群的態度及干預就變成了影響科索沃獨立的重要關鍵,特別是歐、美、俄等強權國家。
科索沃的獨立建國之所以重要,在於背後具有多項指標性的意義,因為它碰觸的是一國內政中最敏感的民族自決議題,突顯了巴爾幹區域衝突與歐洲安全的隱憂,更牽動了歐、美、俄群雄之間的競合關係。本論文所探討的議題主要有如下三點:
 一、科索沃與大國之間的戰略利益。歐、美、俄等強權在巴爾幹半島都有巨大的戰略利益,三方面皆體認到能藉科索沃的問題,突顯自身在全球戰略的重要性,進一步壓縮對方的權力擴張。
 二、國際社群在科索沃衝突上的干預行動。以歐洲國家、美國、俄羅斯、北約與聯合國等國際角色,從科索沃衝突的演變及其戰爭的爆發,到戰後聯合國主導重建工作的干預行動做為主要研究的重點。
 三、國際社群對科索沃最終政治地位的認知與干涉。科索沃能夠獨立,關鍵因素在於歐美國家的支持以及聯合國的開放態度。然而歐美國家原本也同俄羅斯持反對立場,後來卻轉而贊成科索沃的獨立,其中態度的轉折值得探究。此外也從國際法的角度來探討科索沃獨立的法源基礎,以及歐、美、俄三駕馬車主導科索沃最終政治地位的談判。

英文摘要 Kosovo declares independence in 17 February 2008, and receives the supports from most of the European and American countries. Kosovo located in the Balkans where is a channel between Middle East, Asia, and Europe, and had been invaded by foreign powers since ancient time. In addition to racial complexity, cultural diversity, fierce people there results in a lot of ethnic conflict in the Balkans, paving the way for outsiders to intervene the regional political affairs. Therefore, the international community's attitude and intervention become the key points of Kosovo's independence, especially those of European countries, the United States, and Russia.
Kosovo's independence is substantial, because it has a number of indicative significance, it touches the most sensitive affair of the national self-determination, and it highlights the regional conflict in the Balkans and the European’s security, but also shows relations of competition and cooperation between European countries, the United States, and Russia. The thesis focuses on the following sections:
1. Between Kosovo and the strategic interests of major powers. European countries, the United States, and Russia realize that they could highlight their importance in the global strategy by Kosovo issue, further reduce the power of the other expansion.
2. The international community's intervention during the Kosovo conflict. The study focus on the intervention from international community such as European countries, the United States, Russia, NATO, and the United Nations, from the evolution during the conflict and the outbreak of the Kosovo war, to the United Nations-led Kosovo’s postwar reconstruction.
3. The international community's recognition and interference on Kosovo's final political status. Kosovo is independent, and the key point is the supports from most of the European countries, and the open attitude of the United Nations. However, European and American countries had held the same opposition as Russian at first, but later turned in favor of Kosovo's independence. Moreover, also to explore the subject of the Kosovo’s independence by the perspective of international law, and EU/U. S./Russia Troika on Kosovo.
論文目次 《目錄》
國際社群干涉下之科索沃獨立建國

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究理論與分析途徑 4
第三節 文獻評論 10
第四節 研究範圍 12
第五節 章節安排與解析架構 14

第二章 科索沃獨立運動之始末 19
第一節 科索沃獨立運動之背景 19
第二節 民族對立與科索沃的獨立運動 24

第三章 國際社群科索沃獨立運動的反應 37
第一節 各強權對干預塞、科衝突的立場 37
第二節 科索沃戰爭前的情勢演變 48
第三節 北約以戰逼合的戰略 53

第四章 國際社群重建科索沃所扮演的角色 65
第一節 國際社群對科索沃的重建政策 65
第二節 聯合國託管下的科索沃內政發展 72

第五章 國際社群對科索沃獨立議題的認知與干涉 81
第一節 歐美國家最初反對科索沃獨立的立場 81
第二節 歐美國家轉而承認科索沃獨立的立場 84
第三節 俄羅斯對科索沃獨立的立場及反應 91
第四節 科索沃獨立之分析及相關法規 96

第六章 結論 113
參考文獻 130
附錄 139

《圖表目錄》

圖 2- 1科索沃地理位置圖-中、英對照圖 20
圖 2- 2南斯拉夫社會主義聯邦共和國地理位置圖 27

表 2- 1科索沃歷年被統治國家年表 29
表 3- 1南斯拉夫主要進出口貿易國(1997) 41
表 4- 1歐盟對科索沃主要金援項目(1998~2002) 69
表 4- 2各族群對科索沃政治機構的滿意程度(2003) 77
表 4- 3科索沃民眾對經濟的不滿意度調查 78
表 4- 4應為科索沃經濟負責的機構(2004年7月) 78
表 5- 1科索沃人民對獨立方式的滿意度調查 99
表 5- 2科索沃人民認為對獨立最有貢獻角色之民意調查 99
表 5- 3科索沃政治地位的主要協調過程 105
表 5- 4科索沃各族群對政治地位解決方案之民調(2007年12月) 109
表 6- 1主要相關國家的聲明 120





參考文獻 參考文獻

一、中文書目

王曾才(1989),《西洋現代史》,台北:東華書局。 
王逸舟(1999),《單極世界的陰霾》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
李邁先(1991),《東歐諸國史》,台北:三民書局。
吳福生譯(2003),Benjamin S. 著,《科索伏空戰》,台北:國防部史政編譯室。 
胡祖慶(2000),《後冷戰時期的東歐》,台北:五南圖書出版社。
苑建華 譯(2007),Helmut, Kramer著,《科索沃問題》,北京:中央編譯出版社。
孫雲,(1999)《世紀末的熱戰-聚焦科索沃》,北京:當代世界出版社。
陳勁(2002),《歐盟外交政策與對外關係》,台北:五南圖書出版社。
黃鴻釧(1996),《東歐簡史》,台北:書林出版有限公司。
楊紫函譯(2003),John, E. Peters 著,《科索伏聯軍作戰對未來美歐軍事合作的意涵》,台北:國防部史政編譯室。
樓耀亮(2002),《地緣政治與中國國防戰略》,天津:天津人民出版社。
劉文彬,(2005),《西洋人權史─從英國大憲章到聯合國科索沃決議案》,台北:五南圖書出版社。
謝福助(2003),《新干涉主義:科索沃案例議題研究》,台北:韋伯文化國際出版有限公司。
鐘鈺玉譯(2004),Madeleine, A.著,《從難民到國務卿-歐布萊特回憶錄》,台北:時報文化出版社 。




二、中文期刊/學位論文

王祖訓(1999),〈科索沃戰爭對國際安全形勢的影響〉,《海峽評論》,102:13-15。
何泰宇(2005),《歐洲聯盟對科索夫事件的共同外交政策及實踐(1998-1999)》,國立台灣大學國家發展研究所碩士論文。
李浩維(2006),《族群衝突的理論與實證:以前南斯拉夫聯邦解體為例》,私立淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
李文志(2001),〈海陸爭霸下亞太戰略形勢發展與台灣戰略〉,《東吳政治學報》,13:129-173。
周德芳(1999),〈科索夫衝突之探討〉,《國防雜誌》,14(11):40-52。
林碧炤(1989),〈國際觀係的新現實主義與新自由主義〉,《政治學報》,17:151-164。
吳志中(2008),〈從法國看科索沃的獨立以及其對台灣的啟示〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,4(3):87-118。
洪茂雄(1999),〈科索沃風雲變色〉,《國魂》,643:38-40。
洪茂雄(2008),〈科索沃走向獨立之路〉,《新世紀智庫論壇》,41:123-126。
洪茂雄(2003),〈南斯拉夫走入歷史的意義和啟示〉,《新世紀智庫論壇》,21:115-117。
洪茂雄(2008),〈試論科索沃邁向獨立之路的背景、條件及其影響〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,4(3):1-18。
洪茂雄(1992),〈南斯拉夫之分裂和未來動向〉,《問題與研究》,31(1):1-13。
亞洲太平洋理事會(1999),〈科索沃問題與亞太安全〉,《海峽評論》,10:8-12。
唐秉鈞(2008),〈能源動脈被掐死歐盟拿俄國沒奈何─喬治亞衝突事件俄羅斯硬幹,還報柯索伏獨立一箭之仇〉,《新聞大舞台》,64:,61-64。
陳雅婷(2005),《大阿爾巴尼亞的民族國家建構與科索沃問題》,私立淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
陳牧民(2008),〈美國為何承認科索沃獨立〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,4(3):19-33。
陳隆志/廖福特(2002),〈國際人權公約與國內法化之探討〉,《國家政策季刊》, 1(2):33-56。
湯紹成(2001),〈當前科索夫的問題與困境〉,《問題與研究》,40(2):
85-92。
趙忠傑/管怡聲(2004),〈歐洲人道干預發展的理論與實踐-以科索沃為例〉,《中華戰略學刊》,93:75-99。
楊三億(2008),〈強權政治下的科索沃獨立運動〉,《展望與探索》,6(3):6-11。
楊文鎮(1999),〈科索夫戰事之探討與體認〉,《國防雜誌》,15(3):95-115。
劉文彬(2006),〈科索沃獨立運動之困境〉,《問題與研究》,45(5):91-110。
劉德良(1999),〈從地緣政治看科索夫衝突中的強權〉,《國防雜誌》,15(1):10-23。
鄭瑞耀(2005),〈國際關係新古典現實主義理論〉,《問題與研究》, 44(1):
115-140。
盧葉中(2001),〈主要國際關係理論中新現實主義、新自由制度主義與建構主義之比較研究〉,《中山人文社會科學期刊》,9(2):21-52。
謝福助(2003),〈科索沃戰爭衍生之議題〉,《淡江人文社會學刊》,14:90-109。
魏百谷(2008),「俄羅斯對於科索沃獨立的立場」,《科索沃獨立之觀察與分析作談會》,台北:台灣國際研究學會。
魏百谷(2009),〈喬治亞境內南奧薩梯及阿布哈資爭議之探討〉,《新世紀智庫論壇》,47:83-91。
羅國應(2000),〈是人道干涉還是霸權國家的內政干涉?—淺談美國及NATO在科索沃事件的表現〉,《認識歐洲》,8:137-145。



三、英文書目

Branka, M. (1993), The Distruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking The Break-up 1980-1992. London: Verso.
Bruce, R. (2002), Disjointed War: Military Operations in Kosovo, 1999, Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand.
Benjamin, S. (2001), NOTA’s Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment, Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand.
Clark, W., (2001), Waging Modern War, New York: Public Affairs.
Ger, D. (2000), Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo( London: History&Company.
Hosmer, Stephen, T. (2001), The Conflict Over Kosovo: Why Milosveic Decided To Settle When He Did, Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand.
Independent International Commission on Kosovo(2000), The Kosovo Report:
Conflict、Response、Lesson Learned. New York: Oxford University Press.
Luard, E. (1967), International Protection of Human Rights, New York: Praeger.
Noel, M. (1998), Kosovo a Short History, London: Papermac.
Noel, M. (1999), Kosovo a Short History, New York: Harper Collins Perennial.
Pierre , M. and Mark, R.(2000), Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced allies? New York: Palgrave.
Singleton, F. (1976), Twentieth Century Yugoslavia, New York: Columbia University Press.
Vickers, M.(1998), Between Serb and Albania: A History of Kosovo, New York: Columbia University Press.
Waller, M.(1999), The Crisis in Kosovo 1989~1999: From the Dissolution of Yugoslavia to Rambouillet and the Outbreak of Hostilities, Cambridge: Documents and Publishing.
Yeltsin, B. (2000), Midnight Diaries, New York:Public Affairs.
Zakaria , F.(1998), From Wealth To Power: The Unusual Origins of America’s World Role, New Jersey: Princeton university press.

四、英文期刊

Daniel, L. and Matthew, C. (2000), “Kosovo and the great air power debate,” international security, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 5-38.
Hehir, A. (2006), “Autonomous Province Building: Identification Theory and the Failure of UNMIK,” International Peacekeeping, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 200-213.  
International Crisis Group(2004), “Pan-Albanianism: How Big a Threat to Balkan Stability?” ICG Europe Report N°153, pp. 1-42.
International Crisis Group, (2007), “Kosovo: No Good Alternatives to the Ahtisaari Plan,” ICG Europe Report N°182, pp.1-47.
Narten, J. (2009), “Assessing Kosovo’s Postwar Democratization Between External Imposition and Local Self-Government,” Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 127-162.
Ralph, W.(2008), “Kosovo 2008: Independence, Recognition and International Law,” Soochow Law Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 51-81.
Richard, C. (1998),“International Diplomacy and the Crisis In Kosovo,”International Affairs, Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 745-761.
Robert, A. (1993), “What Albania Adds to the Balkan Stew,” Orbs, Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 259-279.
United Nations Development Program(2003), “Early Warning Report Kosovo,” Report No. 5, pp. 1-35.
UNDP(2004), “Early Warning Report Kosovo,” Report No. 7, pp. 1-41.
UNDP(2008), “Early Warning Report Kosovo,” Report No. 19, pp. 1-51.
UNDP(2007), “Early Warning Report Kosovo,” Report No. 17, pp. 1-49.
UNDP(2008), “Early Warning Report Kosovo,” Report No. 20/21 Special Edition, pp. 1-47.




五、官方文件

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral of Declaration Independence in Respect of Kosovo (Advisory Opinion): the Courts Finds that the Declaration of Independence of Kosovo Adopted on 17 February 2008 did not Violate International law, International Court of Justice, Press Release, No. 2010/25(22 July 2010).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kneza Milosa 24-26, Belgrade(17 April 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), the Russian Federation, ambassador of the Russian Federation(16 April 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), the United States of America, United States Department of State, Washington D.C. 20520(17 July 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), the Federal Republic of Germany, Gz: Re-10 502.30(15 April 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Indenpendence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), The France Republic, The Director for Legal Affairs, No. 758/DJ, Paris(7 April 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Indenpendence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), Romania, Ambassade de Roumanie(14 April 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion), the Kingdom of Spain(July 2009).
International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo(Request for Advisory Opinion),the republic of Cyprus, law office of republic, A.G. file No. 36/1969/Y. 4/17(8 July 2009).
Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement, UN Security Council, S2007/168/Add. I. (26 March 2007).
EU, Special Council, General Council, Council Luxembourg, Conclusion Kosovo, Press: 94 NR, 7208/99(18 April 1999).
Kosovo Declaration of Independence(17 February2008).
NATO Press Release, NAC-S(99)63(23 April 1999).
Nicolas Sarkozy, Le Président de la République, Paris( 18 February 2008).
Report of the EU/U.S./Russia Troika on Kosovo(4 December 2007).
Request for an Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Question “Is the Unilateral Declaration Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo in Accordance with International Law? ” , the United kingdom, British Embassy(7 July 2009).
Statement by the Slovak Republic for the International Court of Justice on the Request Made by the United Nation General Assembly for an Advisory Opinion on the Question “Is the Unilateral Declaration Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-government of Kosovo in Accordance with International Law? ” , Ambassador of the Slovak Republic(16 April 2009).
U.S. Recognizes Kosovo as Independent State, Secretary Condoleezza Rice,
Washington, DC(18 February 2008).
UN security council resolution 1244, S/RES/1244(1999)(10 June 1999).

六、網路資料

“Background Note: Kosovo,” US Department of state,
(January 2010).
“Countries that have recognized the Republic of Kosova,” Republika E
Kosoves, .
“Constitutional framework”, UNMIK online,
(15May 2001).
Gorbachev, M., “Russia Never Wanted a War,” New York Times,
1>(19 August 2008).
International law ASIL Insights,
(29 February 2008).
“Kosovo Must Be Independent,” Gareth Evans et al in The International
Herald Tribune,
(16
June 2007).
“OSCE Permanent Council Decides on Mandate for Kosovo Mission,” OSCE Mission in Kosovo,
(1 July1999).
“Progress in Kosovo since the Conflict,” NATO-OTAN,
(10 October 2000).
“Serbia Election Victory for Tadic” , BBC News,
(4 February 2008).
“Serbia does not Recognize Unilateral Proclamation of Kosovo Independence, ” Serbia Government,
(9 Aug 2010).
“Statement by the Chairman on the Conclusion of the Meeting of theG-8
Foreign Ministers,” G-8 Foreign Minister’s Meeting,
(6 May 1999).
“UK to Recognize Independent Kosovo – PM,” Number10.co.UK,
( 18 February 2008).
“UN World Court to Give Opinion on Legality of Kosovo’s Independence,” Un News Centre,
(8 October 2008).

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