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系統識別號 U0002-1707200814463800
中文論文名稱 快樂的衡量與決定:論述與實證
英文論文名稱 Measuring and Determination of Happiness: Discussion and Evidence.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Economics
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 黃傳仁
研究生英文姓名 Chuan-Ren Huang
學號 695570217
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-16
論文頁數 77頁
口試委員 指導教授-江莉莉
委員-于若蓉
委員-李鈞元
中文關鍵字 快樂  滿意度 
英文關鍵字 happiness  satisfaction  ordered probit model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 過去經濟文獻鮮少觸及以經濟的分析方法探討快樂的成因,主要是經濟學家質疑快樂不能量化,很難從事實證研究。近期,有學者提出每個人都有淨快樂為零的基準點,即使無法精確地以數字表達個人真實的快樂程度差異,也可透過具有排序性質的問項,進行人際與跨國比較以尋找快樂的來源。

  在觀念上,快樂與滿意度雖同樣是指自己對整體生活品質的評價,但在分析的角度上,快樂無法分割成獨立的部份各自探討影響的因素為何,而滿意度可根據不同的面向分成如工作、婚姻、休閒等滿意度做單獨的研究。效用在假設上便和快樂、滿意度不同;傳統經濟學藉著對偏好的假設,使效用具有長期穩定的性質,而快樂與滿意度具有短期穩定性,長期則因人們經過多次的反思修正其行為,使得短期所注重的某些生活條件或評估準則,在長期轉向關心別的生活條件或改變其準則。本文研究結合Lancaster的特徵方程式與Ho提出的人性共通的快樂觀,建立快樂函數的概念,並延伸Michael McBride的模型設立方程式進行快樂與滿意度的實證分析。

  本文利用中央研究院建立的「台灣社會變遷調查」(Taiwan Social Change Survey) 資料庫,研究影響台灣民眾快樂與各種滿意度的因素,最終得到的結果如下:(1) 在整體快樂與朋友滿意度,年齡具有U型型態。(2) 女性的滿意度普遍要比男性要高,且來得快樂。(3) 婚姻與家庭狀況對快樂與滿意度有重要的影響力,且已婚或家庭合諧的人相較未婚或家庭有問題的人要來得快樂。(4) 低學歷的人具有容易滿足的現象,在整體快樂的分析上尤其明顯。(5) 台灣民眾在意絕對所得,而別人的所得高低在工作、經濟狀況、生活滿意度的考量上佔有重要的地位,但在整體快樂的考量上則不如自己的所得來得重要。(6) 宗教對台灣民眾快樂的影響不如其他國家;休閒與健康對快樂都有正向的影響。(7) 個人價值觀只要偏向正面,絕大多數對快樂與滿意度都有正面且明顯的影響,除了重視工作保障的觀念。
英文摘要 In the past, there were few economic literatures which explored the content of happiness by the analysis of econometrics. Economists have had long disputes about the measurability and comparability of happiness. This problem hampered the study of happiness. Recently, Ng suggested that everyone has a common ‘zero’ point on the scale of net happiness. Thus, even if happiness may not be measured exactly, it is still measurable in ration-scale so that cardinal comparison is acceptable. Researchers began to use questionnaires surveys to execute personal comparisons of happiness and to investigate the determinants of happiness.

Happiness indicates the subjective appreciation of life as a whole, whilst satisfaction is regarded as a cognitive state with respect to a specific domain of life, like job, marriage, and leisure, etc. Utility and happiness/satisfaction are conceptually correlated but different in properties. Traditionally, economists assume that individuals are rational, which implies that each person has a stable utility function. However, a person in different stage of life shows different preferences because of changing opportunities and perceptions of what is desirable. This means that people adjust their perceived utility functions and behavior through a process of reflection. The modification of perceptions and behavior hinges on an individual’s value and attitude toward life. To take the reflection effect on preference into account, this study incorporates the characteristic function suggested by Lancaster into a happiness maximization model. Furthermore, based on the extension of McBride’s econometric model, we carry out empirical studies on the determination of happiness and satisfaction.

The dataset we use is Taiwan Social Change Survey sponsored by the Taiwan National Science Council. Using an ordered probit model, we investigate the determinants of happiness and satisfaction in four life domains. The main results include: (1) There is a U-shaped relationship between age and happiness, and a similar pattern is also existed with regard to relationship satisfaction. (2) Women appear to be more satisfied and happier than men. (3) The influence of marriage and family on happiness and satisfaction are apparent. Married people and people of a harmonious family appear to have higher level of happiness. (4) In contrast to the finding of literature, low-educated people are happier and more contented than others (5) Higher income is associated with higher levels of happiness. In addition to absolute income, satisfaction with job, financial status and life depends on comparison income as well. (6) Religion has little effect upon happiness in Taiwan, whereas leisure and health are positively correlated with happiness. (7) Individual’s value and attitudes have strong effects on happiness and satisfaction; positive attitudes and views always bring forth high level of happiness and satisfaction. The only exception is the value of job security which is shown to be irrelevant to job satisfaction.
論文目次 目錄
表目錄Ⅱ
第一章緒論1
第一節研究背景1
第二節研究動機與目的2
第三節研究方法4
第二章文獻回顧5
第一節快樂的定義與組成5
第二節快樂的量化和比較7
第三節快樂與社會環境、個人特質的關係11
第四節QOL與快樂14
第五節台灣實證結果15
第三章實證研究18
第一節研究方法與內容18
第二節資料來源與變數定義21
第四章實證結果25
第一節敘述統計量與變數預測25
第二節實證結果31
第五章結論35
第一節結論35
第二節研究限制37
第三節建議37
參考文獻73

表目錄
表1Veenhoven所提三理論對四個主題的預測一覽表39
表2快樂的決定、衡量與比較的整理40
表3整體快樂的解釋變數定義與衡量方法41
表4工作滿意度的解釋變數定義與衡量方法47
表5朋友滿意度的解釋變數定義與衡量方法49
表6經濟狀況滿意度的解釋變數定義與衡量方法50
表7生活滿意度的解釋變數定義與衡量方法52
表8快樂方程式的敘述統計量53
表9工作滿意度的敘述統計量55
表10朋友滿意度的敘述統計量57
表11經濟狀況滿意度的敘述統計量59
表12生活滿意度的敘述統計量61
表13快樂方程式的估計結果63
表14工作滿意度的估計結果65
表15朋友滿意度的估計結果67
表16經濟狀況滿意度的估計結果69
表17生活滿意度的估計結果71



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