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中文論文名稱 越南的勞動力移動與區域經濟發展-東南區域及湄公河區域
英文論文名稱 Internal Labor Migration and Regional Economic Development in Vietnam : Southeast Region and Mekong Region
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 周毓敦
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Tung Chou
電子信箱 davidchou192@hotmail.com
學號 697260221
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-19
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-黃登興
委員-任燿廷
中文關鍵字 勞動力移動  區域經濟發展  產業結構轉型 
英文關鍵字 Labor Migration  Regional Economic Development  Industrial Transformation 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 越南自1986年推動革新,將過去封閉的社會主義計畫經濟轉為開放的資本主義市場經濟,並致力於工業化的經濟發展途徑,成為東南亞的新興高成長國家。工業化也造成越南境內各區域間的經濟落差,而越南政府自革新以後對境內人口移動政策的鬆綁,使得勞動力得以透過移動來追尋更高的工作報酬。依據人口普查資料,2004-2009年越南有330萬的跨省移動人口,比1994-1999年的200萬人增加63.4%。在越南境內各區域中,東南區域2004-2009年的淨移動率為117‰,也就是該區域五歲以上人口中每一千人就有117人是從其他區域移來,為主要移入地。在人口淨移出的區域中,湄公河區域的淨移動率是-42.1‰,為主要移出地。而湄公河區域移出人口中高達97.1%係移至東南區域,此勞動力移動型態值得深入剖析其特徵,探討其與這兩區域間經濟發展差異的關係。
探討勞動力移動的過程,通常都以經濟發展為因,勞動力流入為果,然而本研究認為經濟要能夠持續發展,勞動力扮演著關鍵角色。經濟發展主要倚賴各產業的產出,但產業在生產的過程中,生產要素的投入是必要的,其中勞動力便是不可或缺的生產要素之一。以東南區域的發展為例,該區域在越南政府的政策以及企業的投資下,發展出口導向的勞力密集型製造業並成為越南全國的經濟發展中心,然而東南區域所發展的產業需要投入大量的年輕勞動力,也對女性作業員的雇用有所需求,但其區域內的勞動力規模與女性勞動參與率在全國六個區域中是較低的。東南區域缺乏足以供給該區域產業發展所需的人力資源,因此其他區域所移入的勞動力成為挹注東南區域產業發展重要的關鍵。湄公河區域自農業部門移轉出來的大量基礎技術勞動力正好提供東南區域製造業所需的職業技能,但隱憂為大量的年輕勞動力被外地的工作機會吸引並投入勞動市場就業,可能降低勞動力繼續受教育或再進修的意願,使得湄公河區域的勞動力停留在低技術的層次,喪失累積人力資本的時機。東南區域的出口製造業在經濟蓬勃發展後會面臨生產成本上升的壓力,屆時產業必將轉型,倘若湄公河區域的產業與勞動力仍舊是農業與基礎技術人力,將來可能造成嚴重的失業問題。
英文摘要 Since 1986, Vietnam has been transferring its closed socialist-planned-economy to an open capitalist economy, and working on the economical approach of the industrial development to become a new high-growth country in southeast Asia. Yet, the industrialization also created an economical gap between the different sections in Vietnam. And ever since the Vietnamese government untied its policy on population movement after its innovation, the labors could look for higher pay by moving. According to the census, there are 2,000,000 people moving out of their original provinces during 1994 to 1999, and during 2004 to 2009, it increased 63.4% as the moving population number grew up to 3,300,000. Within all parts of the country, the Southeast Region is the main in-migrating section. From 2004 to 2009, the net in-migration rate is 117‰, that means in every thousand people above 5 years old, there are 117 people from other provinces. On the other hand, the main out-migrating section is the Mekong Region, which holds -42.1‰ of a net out-migration rate. Furthermore, 97.1% of the population migrating out of Mekong Region go to the Southeast Region. Such movement of labors and the difference of economical development in these two parts are something requires further research and analysis.
To discuss the process of labor migration, economical development is the cause and labor inflow is the result. But this study suggests that the sustainable development of economy, the labor force plays a key role. Economical development mainly depends on the output of each industry. But in the production process, to input the factors of production is necessary, and labor force is one of the indispensable factors. Take the development of the Southeast Region as an example, the Southeast Region has grown into an export-oriented labor-intensive manufacturing and become the commercial center in Vietnam under the Vietnamese Government's policy and enterprises’ investment. At the same time, the industrial development in the Southeast Region requires a lot of young workers, women workers also in need of employment. But in Vietnam, the size of the workforce and the participation rate of female labor are low in the Southeast Region. Southeast region lacks labor resources to develop industries, therefore, to input labor force which from other regions to help industrial development of Southeast Region is the key point. In Mekong Region, there is a large number of workers with basic skills transferred from agricultural department, which just could provide the necessary vocational skills to manufacturing in Southeast Region. Nevertheless, there’s a worry about a large number of young workers attracted by job opportunities in the field and enter the labor market employment, it may reduce the workforce to continue their education or to pursue further studies. Then the labor force of Mekong Region may stay in low-skilled level, and loss the opportunities to accumulate human capital. After economy boomed, export manufacturing of Southeast Region will face the pressure of rising production costs, the industries will be transformation. If the industries and labors of Mekong River still staying in basic skills, it will probably cause serious problem of unemployment.
論文目次 第一章 緒論............................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機..................................1
第二節 研究目的........................................5
第三節 研究架構........................................6
第四節 研究設計........................................9

第二章 文獻回顧.......................................11
第一節 勞動力為何遷移.................................11
第二節 勞動力移動對經濟發展的影響.....................12
第三節 分析構想.......................................13

第三章 越南經濟發展與勞動力移動.......................15
第一節 越南經濟發展概況與中國發展經驗.................15
第二節 產業結構轉型對移動勞動力的推力與拉力...........21
第三節 越南境內勞動力移動的方向和規模.................26

第四章 勞動力移動與東南區域經濟發展...................34
第一節 東南區域的產業發展.............................34
第二節 東南區域的就業機會、所得.......................41
第三節 移入勞動力對東南區域產業的挹注.................44

第五章 勞動力移動與湄公河區域經濟發展.................49
第一節 湄公河區域的產業發展...........................49
第二節 湄公河區域的未充分就業.........................53
第三節 湄公河區域人力資源的流失.......................55

第六章 結論...........................................62
一、 研究發現.......................................62
二、 未來研究方向...................................65

參考文獻................................................68


表目錄
表3-1: 1999 年與2009 年越南農業與非農業就業人數比較……………………...24
表3-2: 2009 年越南各區域人口密度及面積、人口占全國比例…………………..26
表3-3: 2004-2009 年越南勞動人口淨移動前五大省分及所屬區域……………..27
表3-4: 2009 年越南經濟社會區域都市人口數和都市化程度……………………28
表3-5: 1999-2009 年越南區域人口淨移動和淨移動率…………………………..30
表3-6: 2004-2009 年跨區域移動人口……………………………………………..32
表4-1: 1988-2009 年越南外資登記的投資金額 (按產業分)……………………..35
表4-2: 1996-2006 年各區域外資的流入…………………………………………..37
表4-3: 東南區域製造業就業人數 (按職業分)…………………………………...39
表4-4: 1999 年與2009 年越南東南區域就業人數比較…………………………...41
表4-5: 2009 年越南各區域月人均所得來源………………………………………42
表4-6: 越南各區域勞動力規模與女性勞動參與率………………………………44
表4-7: 移動勞動力從事職業所占比例……………………………………………47
表5-1: 湄公河區域總就業與東南區域製造業就業人數與比例 (按職業分)…...52
表5-2: 2009 年東南區域、湄公河區域失業率與未充分就業率…………………..53
表5-3: 勞動力移動原因所占比例…………………………………………………55
表5-4: 1989 -2009 年越南人口接受教育與識字情況…………………………….57
表5-5: 2009 年越南各級教育入學率………………………………………………58
表5-6: 2009 年越南各區域人口的教育程度………………………………………59
表6-1: 移動勞動力各戶籍身分的比例……………………………………………66


圖目錄
圖1-1: 2004-2009 年越南境內勞動人口淨移動率…………………………………3
圖1-2: 研究架構……………………………………………………………………..6
圖3-1: 越南經濟社會區域地理位置………………………………………………16
圖3-2: 1990-2009 年東南亞主要國家GDP 成長率……………………………….22
圖3-3: 1990-2009 年越南三級產業占GDP 比重………………………………….23
圖3-4: 1999 年與2009 年越南農業與非農就業占總就業人口比例……………...25
圖3-5: 越南境內勞動力人口移動的方向…………………………………………33
圖4-1: 1995-2008 年東南區域農業、工業占總產值比重…………………………38
圖4-2: 2007 年勞動力移動前後所得的比較………………………………………43
圖5-1: 1995-2008 年湄公河區域農業、工業占總產值比重………………………50
圖5-2: 2009 年越南各區域農業產值占全國比例…………………………………50
圖5-3: 移動勞動力各年齡組所占比例……………………………………………56
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