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系統識別號 U0002-1706201015191200
中文論文名稱 國內醫院與圖書館室內音量特性之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of Indoor Noise Characteristics in Taiwan's Hospitals and Libraries
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 陳冠廷
研究生英文姓名 Guan-Ting Chen
學號 697480142
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-11
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 指導教授-盧博堅
委員-郭宏亮
委員-陳俊成
中文關鍵字 室內噪音 
英文關鍵字 Indoor Noises 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 本研究目標包括建置適合我國醫院及圖書館公共服務區室內音量品質之建議值及分級制度。分析及調查醫院及圖書館室內易發生噪音源分布情形,以提供其管理單位自主改善。研擬「醫院及圖書館自主性噪音改善方法」範本,供醫院及圖書館管理單位進行噪音改善之依循。
完成醫院及圖書館公共服務區室內音量測定並參考國外有關公共場所室內音量測定指標及方法,研擬適合我國公共場所室內音量建議值包括:1.進行圖書館室內音量測定10處、醫院公共場所室內音量測定30處,醫院LAeq(hr)符合60dB(A)達46%,L日符合60dB(A)達42%,圖書館LAeq(hr)符合50dB(A)佔54%,L日符合50dB(A)佔52%,全國北、中、南、東各區醫院之L日音量比較,以中部地區最吵。2. 建議醫院的室內音量LAeq(1hr)為60dB(A) ,圖書館的室內音量LAeq(1hr)為50dB(A),醫院分級:特級(安靜):音量<50 dB(A)、一級(普):50 dB(A) ≦音量<60 dB(A)、二級(需改善):音量≧60 dB(A),圖書館分級:特級(安靜):音量<45 dB(A)、一級(普):45 dB(A) ≦音量<50 dB(A)、二級(需改善):音量≧50 dB(A)。
完成資料蒐集、實地現勘調查,瞭解醫院及圖書館室內易發生噪音源分布情形:1.醫院移動音源-輪椅、病床、病歷推車、喧嘩聲,交談聲、手機鈴聲、小孩喧鬧、護士小姐奔跑聲、醫護人員叫喊病患聲;固定音源-飲水機、室內空調(機)設備、掛號處印表機、叫號聲、廣播及電視、電梯到樓提示聲、醫護人員會議室和護理站。2.圖書館移動音源-交談聲、手機震動(鈴)聲、書報上架推車、走路聲;固定音源-搬動桌椅、開關門聲、冷氣空調、廁所、飲水機、翻報聲。3.八家署立醫院Leq,LF(20 Hz至200 Hz)低頻噪音值40.7
英文摘要 The Study of this project include to develop recommended values and the grading system for indoor noise quality at hospitals and libraries suitable for the situation of our country, to analyze and investigate the distribution of noise sources easily occurred inside hospitals and libraries and demand self-improvement by the management of respective hospitals and libraries, and to formulate a model of the “Self-regulated Noise Improvement Method for Hospitals and Libraries”, for the management of hospitals and libraries to follow in their efforts to improve their noise situation.
The achievements of this project are as follows:Completing indoor noise measurement for hospitals and libraries and developing recommended values of indoor noises for public places suitable for the situation of our country, making reference of the measurement indicators and methods on indoor noises for public places adopted by foreign countries, during which the work conducted include: 1) measurement of indoor noises for hospitals on 30 locations and for libraries on 10 locations, of which the results showed that for hospitals, 46% comply withLAeq(hr)=60dB(A) and 42% comply with L日=60dB(A) while for libraries, 54% comply withLAeq(hr)=50dB(A) and 52% comply with L日=50dB(A). As far as L日 is concerned, in comparison among hospitals in northern, central, southern and eastern areas, those in the central area are noisiest; 2) recommendation of indoor noise limits for hospitals at LAeq(hr)=60dB(A) and for libraries at LAeq(hr)=50 dB(A). The grades on noise quality recommended for hospitals: premium grade (quiet) – noise level < 50 dB(A), first grade (moderate) – 50 dB(A) ≦ noise level < 60 dB(A), and second grade (improvement needed) – noise level ≧ 60 dB(A); for libraries are: premium grade (quiet) – noise level < 45 dB(A), first grade (moderate) – 45 dB(A) ≦ noise level < 50 dB(A), and second grade (improvement needed) – noise level ≧ 50 dB(A);.
Completing data collection and field investigations, as well as holding consulting meetings, to determine the distribution of noise sources easily occurred inside hospitals and libraries, during which the work conducted include: 1) identifying moving noise sources at hospitals as being wheelchairs, hospital beds, medical record trolleys, uproarious noises, talking noises, cellphone rings, kids playing, nurses running, medical professionals calling for patients, and fixed noise sources as being drinking machines, interior air conditioners, printers at registration offices, number calling, paging and television, elevator arrival reminders, medical professionals meeting rooms and nursing stations; 2) identifying moving noise sources at libraries as being talking noises, cellphone vibrations (rings), book trolleys and walking noises, and fixed noise sources as being moving of desks/chairs, opening/closing of doors, air conditioners, restrooms, drinking machines and turning pages of newspapers; 3) measuring the low frequency noise levels (20 ~ 200 Hz, Leq,LF) at the 8 DOH hospitals as between 40.7 and 49.1 dB(A), which not comply with the noise control standards; 4) measuring the low frequency noise levels (20 ~ 200 Hz, Leq,LF) at the 4 libraries in University as between 35.5 and 39.6 dB(A), which comply with the noise control standards; 5) identifying the most noisy departments at hospitals as being the Department of Laboratory Medicine, the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacy.
Standards and related regulations on indoor noises are limited overseas, only WHO, ISO, the UK and New Zealand have established recommended standards for indoor noises. Currently, we have no standards and regulations on indoor noises in our country and it is hoped that recommended standards for indoor noises can be established through the implementation of this Study.
論文目次 目錄
頁次
目錄 I
圖目錄 III
表目錄 V
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目標 1
1.3 研究範圍 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 室內噪音的特點和分類 3
2.1.1 室內噪音的定義 3
2.1.2 室內噪音的特點 3
2.1.3 室內噪音的分類 3
2.1.4 室內噪音的產生 4
2.2 國內外有關室內噪音的指標及預測模式 6
2.2.1 學校 7
2.2.2 醫院 10
2.2.3 國內外有關室內噪音的預測模式 13
2.3 公共場所室內音量管制值 13
2.3.1 各國醫院室內管制值 13
2.3.2 各國圖書館室內管制值 14
2.3.3 我國大台北地區醫院室內音量品質 15
2.3.4 我國大台北地區圖書館室內音量品質 16
2.4國內外有關室內噪音防制措施及規範 19
2.4.1 室內噪音的防制步驟 20
2.4.2 室內噪音的防制措施 21
2.4.3 室內噪音的防制規範 26
2.5 國外易發生噪音源分布情形 27
2.5.1 國外醫院易發生噪音源類型、分布及影響 30
2.5.2 約翰霍普金斯醫院為例 33

第三章 研究方法 40
3.1 頻譜特性 40
3.1.1 頻譜 40
3.1.2 測量設備 42
3.1.3 測量方法 43
3.2 現場量測 44
3.2.1 測量條件 44
3.2.2 測量方法 44
3.3 醫院及圖書館現況調查 50
第四章 結果與討論 53
4.1 室內噪音特性分析 54
4.1.1 醫院逐秒監測數據分析 54
4.1.2 圖書館逐秒監測數據分析 62
4.1.3頻譜分析 63
4.2 室內噪音管制指標及建議值 72
4.2.1 各國醫院及圖書館室內建議值 72
4.2.2 我國醫院室內量測值 73
4.2.3 我國圖書館室內量測值 79
4.3 醫院及圖書館自主性噪音改善方法 83
4.3.1 醫院 83
4.3.2 圖書館 88
4.3.3 醫院及圖書館自主性噪音改善方法 90
第五章 結論與建議 95
5.1結論 95
5.2建議 104
參考文獻
附錄一、醫院室內音量量測平面圖
附錄二、圖書館室內音量量測平面圖


圖目錄
頁次
圖1.3 研究流程圖 2
圖2.1-1 ANSI S3.5-1997中的標準語言頻譜 5
圖2.1-2 點震印表機頻譜分佈 6
圖2.1-3 噴墨印表機頻譜分佈 6
圖2.3-1 醫院合格率逐時折線圖 15
圖2.3-2 醫院合格率L日折線圖 15
圖2.3-3 醫院防制措施與室內音量比較圖 16
圖2.3-4 圖書館合格率『逐時』折線圖 17
圖2.3-5 圖書館合格率『L日』折線圖 17
圖2.3-6 圖書館合格率『逐時』折線圖(不列入大直圖書館) 18
圖2.3-7 圖書館合格率『L日』折線圖(不列入大直圖書館) 18
圖2.3-8 圖書館防制措施與室內音量比較圖 19
圖2.4 隔音牆存在時的室內音傳播情形 24
圖2.5-1 JHH醫院內日間測得之A加權均能音量
做為研究發表年份的函數 32
圖2.5-2 JHH院內夜間測得之A加權均能音量
做為研究發表年份函數 32
圖2.5-3 JHH醫院小兒科加護病房(PICU)內
不同位置所測得之A加權均能音量 35
圖2.5-4 JHH院內測得之A加權噪音
與WHO準則和典型言語噪音量之比較 36
圖2.5-5 JHH醫院PICU內不同位置測得之八音階Leq 37
圖2.5-6 JHH醫院五個監測單位中測得之八音階頻譜 39
圖3.2-1 測量範圍面積小於等於30平方公尺的房間量測位置示意圖 45
圖3.2-2 測量範圍面積大於30平方公尺、小於等於100平方公尺
(範圍誤差+10平方公尺)的房間量測位置示意圖 46
圖3.2-3 測量範圍面積大於100平方公尺的房間量測位置示意圖 48
圖3.3 醫院及圖書館篩選結果全國分布圖 52
圖4.1-1 八家署立醫院整體A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 54
圖4.1-2 署立H7醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 55
圖4.1-3 署立H4醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 55
圖4.1-4 署立H3醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 56
圖4.1-5 署立H10醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 57
圖4.1-6 署立H15醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 57
圖4.1-7 署立H20醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 58
圖4.1-8 署立H25醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 59
圖4.1-9 署立H24醫院各科逐秒A加權Leq噪音值(dB(A)) 59
圖4.1-10 各家署立醫院檢驗科A加權Leq噪音值比較 60
圖4.1-11 四家大學圖書館閱覽室A加權Leq噪音值比較 62
圖4.1-12 八家署立醫院頻譜分析圖 63
圖4.1-13 八家署立醫院檢驗科頻譜分析圖 68
圖4.1-14 八家署立醫院中醫科頻譜分析圖 68
圖4.1-15 八家署立醫院藥劑科頻譜分析圖 69
圖4.1-16 四所大學圖書館頻譜分析圖 71
圖4.2-1 30所醫院合格率逐時折線圖 74
圖4.2-2 30所醫院合格率L日折線圖 74
圖4.2-3 全台各區醫院之L日合格率趨勢圖 77
圖4.2-4 全台醫院Lmax、Lmin與L日關係圖 77
圖4.2-5 全台醫院合格率逐時折線圖 78
圖4.2-6 全台醫院合格率L日折線圖 78
圖4.2-7 10所圖書館合格率逐時折線圖 79
圖4.2-8 10所圖書館合格率L日折線圖 80
圖4.2-9 全台圖書館Lmax、Lmin與L日關係圖 81
圖4.2-10 全台圖書館合格率逐時折線圖 82
圖4.2-11 全台圖書館合格率L日折線圖 82
圖4.3-1 30所醫院L日與噪音源數量關係圖 85
圖4.3-2 30所醫院之L日與人數關係圖 86
圖4.3-3 淡江大學保健室 87
圖4.3-4 10所圖書館L日及噪音源數量關係圖 89
圖4.3-5 10所圖書館之L日與人數關係圖 90
圖4.3-6 30家醫院醫院之L日與防音設備(施)數關係圖 90
圖4.3-7 10家圖書館之L日與防音設備(施)數關係圖 91
圖4.3-8 醫院室內音量陳情案自主處理程序流程圖 93
圖4.3-9 圖書館室內音量陳情案自主處理程序流程圖 94


表目錄
頁次
表2.1-1 室內噪音按噪音來源與場合的分類 4
表2.2-1 學校建築室內允許背景噪音值 7
表2.2-2 英國對學校各類房間的允許噪音值 8
表2.2-3 美國學校各類房間內的噪音指標(NC) 9
表2.2-4 歐洲各類文教場合的噪音指標(NR) 9
表2.2-5 丹麥教室內部噪音指標 10
表2.2-6 醫院內病房、診療室等室內噪音標準值 10
表2.2-7 英國醫院室內機械設備噪音和背景噪音限值(NR) 11
表2.2-8 WHO對醫院室內噪音的指導限值 11
表2.2-9 法國關於醫療機構室內噪音的相關限定 12
表2.2-10 美國醫院室內噪音指標(NC) 12
表2.2-11 歐洲醫院室內噪音指標(NR) 13
表2.3-1 各國醫院室內公共場所管制值 14
表2.3-2 各國圖書館室內公共場所管制值 14
表2.4-1 扁平房間內隔音牆插入損失的典型經驗值 26
表2.4-2 室內噪音限值標準 26
表2.4-3 室內噪音防制指南與規範 27
表3.1-1 德國之低頻噪音量標準推薦值 40
表3.1-2 丹麥環境低頻噪音室內音量上限值(A加權) 41
表3.1-3 日本低頻噪音建議值(不加權) 41
表4.1-1 八家署立醫院A加權Leq噪音值比較 70
表4.1-2 四所大學圖書館A加權Leq噪音值比較 71
表4.2-1 各國醫院室內公共場所建議值 72
表4.2-2 各國圖書館室內公共場所建議值 72
表4.2-3 30所醫院量測結果(L日) 73
表4.2-4 全台醫院量測結果(L日) 76
表4.2-5 10所圖書館量測結果(L日) 79
表4.2-6 全台圖書館量測結果(L日) 81
表4.3-1 30所醫院L日及噪音源數量統計結果 84
表4.3-2 30所醫院噪音源分類統計表 85
表4.3-3 候診區音量對聽診區影響實驗結果 87
表4.3-4 10所圖書館L日及噪音源數量統計結果 88
表4.3-5 10所圖書館噪音源分類統計表 89
表5.1-1 全台醫院分級表 99
表5.1-2 全台醫院L日合格率分級表 100
表5.1-3 全台醫院LAeq(1h)合格率分級表 100
表5.1-4 全台圖書館分級表 100
表5.1-5 全台圖書館L日合格率分級表 101
表5.1-6 全台圖書館LAeq(1h)合格率分級表 101
表5.1-7 國內外相關室內噪音的法令 102

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