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系統識別號 U0002-1706200922123300
中文論文名稱 台灣製造業廠商研發活動決定因素之研究
英文論文名稱 The Determinants of Research and Development Activities in Taiwan Manufacturing Industry
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 劉乃禎
研究生英文姓名 Nai-Jhen Liou
學號 696540060
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-08
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡名雯
委員-蔣廷芳
委員-朱筱蕾
中文關鍵字 研發  創新  Schumpeter I  Schumpeter II  創業型經濟  傳統產業轉型  工商普查 
英文關鍵字 R&D  Innovation  Schumpeter I  Schumpeter II  Entrepreneurial economy  Traditional industry change  Census data 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 本研究主要目的為探討影響台灣製造業廠商研發活動之決定因素,並根據Schumpeter I(1934)和Schumpeter II(1942)的觀點,探討創業型經濟時代下的廠商研發行為。資料來源主要取自2004年出版的2001年工商普查原始資料檔,其次為2003年出版的工業部門抽樣報告。

研究方法上,本研究首先針對所有廠商樣本進行Tobit模型實證分析,將影響廠商研發行為的因素分為:廠商特性(廠商規模、廠商規模平方項、廠商年齡、營業毛利率、市場佔有率)、產業特性(產業集中度、產品差異化、產業外銷比例)、創業型經濟特性(產業研發支出、知識密集製造業虛擬變數、電子商務虛擬變數)。實證結果顯示,變數間的關係均與假說吻合,除了廠商規模平方項的結果為負向顯著,其他的影響因素皆獲得正向顯著的關係。

其次,本研究將焦點放在關於創業型經濟方面的議題,將知識密集製造業視為象徵創業型經濟部門的產業特徵,並且將所有廠商樣本分成創業與非創業型經濟部門之廠商。分群檢定的過程中,本研究根據獨立樣本t檢定和各變數敘述統計值的結果,發現兩種部門的廠商樣本有明顯的差異,並且在 Chow檢定的結果中進一步證實兩種部門並非來自於同一母體。

最後,本研究依據以上實證結果和檢定,發現由於在知識與非知識密集產業的分類中,屬於非知識密集(傳統)產業的廠商佔多數,整體製造業的廠商研發行為符合Schumpeter II(1942)的觀點,傾向由資源充沛的大型廠商進行研發;創業型經濟部門的廠商研發行為則符合Schumpeter I(1934)的論點,隱含台灣製造業已有部份廠商邁向創業型經濟時代,獨具創新思維和新技術的小型廠商握有研發主導的地位。在創業型經濟體系下,帶領傳統產業轉型、協助引進並運用新技術已成為重要的趨勢。
英文摘要 Our objectives are to explore the determinants of R&D activities in Taiwan manufacturing industry and to investigate the R&D activities of firms during the entrepreneurial economic period based on the argument by Schumpeter I (1934) and Schumpeter II (1942). The data were drawn from the Statistics Department of the Ministry of Economic Affairs in 2001 and the Sample Survey for Industrial Sectors (Bilingual) published in 2003.

We first empirically investigated the determinants of R&D activities of all sample firms in Taiwan manufacturing industry using Tobit Model and then classified the determinants of R&D activities into three categories: firm (firm size, firm size square, firm age, gross profit margin, market share), industry (industrial concentration, product differentiation, share of industrial export) and entrepreneurial economic characteristics (industry R&D expenditure, knowledge intensive manufacturing industry, electronic commerce). We found that the empirical results of all the determinants were in line with our hypotheses. Except that the firm size square was negatively associated with the R&D intensity. Other determinants were all found positively related.

Secondly, we focused on issues related to entrepreneurial economy. The knowledge intensive manufacturing industry was regarded as the representative feature of the industry of the entrepreneurial economy. Then, we classified all sample firms into two categories: entrepreneurial- and non-entrepreneurial- economic sector. Within the group tests, the two sectors were shown significantly different by t test. The Chow test confirmed that the two sectors were not of the same population.

Finally, we found that due to the predominance of firms in the non-knowledge intensive manufacturing industry (traditional industry) rather than the knowledge intensive manufacturing industry, the R&D activities of all the Taiwan manufacturing firms were more compatible with the viewpoint by Schumpeter II (1942), who argued that the more resourceful firms would have more advantage in R&D in the markets. The entrepreneurial economic sector was in accordance with the argument by Schumpeter I (1934), implying that part of Taiwan manufacturing firms have moved toward an entrepreneurial economic era, in which small firms drive innovation and advanced technology. In conclusion, within the entrepreneurial economic system, leading the traditional industry to transformation and introducing advanced technology is crucial.
論文目次 目錄............................................................................................................................ I
圖目錄......................................................................................................................... II
表目錄......................................................................................................................... III

第一章 緒論.................................................................................................................. 1
第一節 研究背景與目的.................................................................................................. 1
第二節 本文架構............................................................................................................ 4

第二章 文獻回顧與假說.................................................................................................. 5
第一節 影響廠商研發之廠商特性..................................................................................... 5
第二節 影響廠商研發之產業特性.................................................................................... 14
第三節 影響廠商研發之創業型經濟特性.......................................................................... 18
第四節 研究假說.......................................................................................................... 23

第三章 資料變數選取與實證模型.................................................................................... 29
第一節 資料來源與樣本選取.......................................................................................... 29
第二節 變數定義與變數說明.......................................................................................... 32
第三節 模型設立及估計方法.......................................................................................... 39

第四章 實證結果與分析................................................................................................. 43
第一節 全體廠商研發活動之影響因素分析....................................................................... 43
第二節 創業與非創業型經濟部門之差異.......................................................................... 48
第三節 創業與非創業型經濟部門之比較分析................................................................... 53

第五章 結論................................................................................................................. 57
第一節 研究結論.......................................................................................................... 57
第二節 後續研究方向.................................................................................................... 61

參考文獻..................................................................................................................... 62

附表........................................................................................................................... 66

圖目錄
圖3.1 台灣製造業之各產業研發密集度............................................................................ 30

表目錄
表2.1 廠商特性影響廠商研發活動之相關文獻.................................................................. 12
表2.2 產業特性影響廠商研發活動之相關文獻.................................................................. 17
表2.3 創業型經濟特性影響廠商研發活動之相關文獻........................................................ 22
表2.4 本研究相關假說之文獻整理.................................................................................. 23
表3.1 知識與非知識密集製造業之產業分類..................................................................... 36
表3.2 變數說明與預期影響方向..................................................................................... 37
表3.3 樣本敘述統計...................................................................................................... 38
表4.1 全體廠商研發活動影響因素之實證結果.................................................................. 43
表4.2 獨立樣本t檢定的結果........................................................................................... 48
表4.3 創業與非創業型經濟部門之廠商的敘述統計值........................................................ 49
表4.4 創業與非創業型經濟部門之廠商的實證結果........................................................... 53
附表1 全體製造業解釋變數之相關係數........................................................................... 66
附表2 影響製造業廠商研發因素之實證結果-Heckman兩階段............................................ 66
附表3 全體製造業研發家數比例..................................................................................... 67
附表4 知識密集製造業分類表........................................................................................ 68
附表5 非知識密集製造業分類表..................................................................................... 69
附表6 台灣製造業之產業集中度(排序)........................................................................ 70
附表7 台灣製造業之245個四位碼產業集中度(排序)...................................................... 73
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