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系統識別號 U0002-1703201102581000
中文論文名稱 杜魯門政府嘗試聯中(共)制蘇之決策過程(1949年1月至1950年6月)
英文論文名稱 Decision-making Process of Truman Administration in Engaging China to Counter the Threat from the Soviet Union (from January 1949 to June 1950)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 林雅雯
研究生英文姓名 Ya-Wen Lin
學號 697250107
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-01-17
論文頁數 166頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳一新
委員-包宗和
委員-劉德海
中文關鍵字 史狄分裂  狄托主義中國化  聯中制蘇  中國共產黨  國民黨  理性模式  組織行為者模式  政府政治模式 
英文關鍵字 Tito-Stalin Split  Chinese Titoism  Engaging China to Counter the Threat from the Soviet Union  CCP  KMT  Rational Actor Model  Organizational Behavior Model  Governmental Politics Model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 二戰後,世界朝向美蘇兩強對峙的道路邁進,開啟了冷戰兩極體系的年代。受制於雅爾達體系,美國雖深感蘇聯在東歐地區的擴張威脅卻是束手無策。在亞洲的中國,陷入一場生存戰。國民黨與中國共產黨從邊打邊談到全面開戰,1948年起,國府敗象已現。1949年初,中共渡江佔領南京,同年10月毛澤東於北平(後改名北京)宣告中共建政後,迫使蔣介石政權撤守台灣。隨著中國政權易主,美國對華政策面臨抉擇,華府與國府的關係也來到了歷史的轉捩點。
  1948年6月,蘇聯公開將南斯拉夫領導人狄托暨南共逐出共產黨情報局。此一舉動不僅震撼向來深信狄托與史達林是絕對從屬關係的美國與西方各國,也啟發了杜魯門政府「狄托主義,中國生根」的政策思維。自史迪威事件以降,華府與國府的嫌隙漸生。受到南斯拉夫經驗的鼓舞,美國傾向與蔣介石政權劃清界線,與此同時保留與中共對話的窗口。因此,自1949年中共攻陷南京後,杜魯門政府多次嘗試與中共高層進行會晤,企圖動搖中共對蘇聯的信心,藉以期望毛澤東成為「亞洲狄托」,以收「聯中制蘇」之效。直到1950年6月韓戰爆發,美國方大夢初醒。
  援用美國政治學者艾里遜所提出之「決策理論三模式」,即理性模式、組織行為模式以及政府政治模式作為本論文之基本架構與論據,針對1949年至1950年6月杜魯門政府嘗試聯中(共)制蘇的決策過程進行抽絲剝繭,藉由歷史重建的途徑,儘可能地貼近事實並對本論文進行深入剖析與闡釋。透過「決策三模式」之引導與反覆驗證,可知杜魯門政府嘗試聯中制蘇的思維乃是經由國家利益與福祉的理性評估、組織受到內部文化薰陶造成立場相異而生的競爭以及官僚之間進行議價與妥協的過程而出的產物。此外,本論文同時援用美國政治學者喬治所歸納之「總統決策模式」輔以檢視杜魯門總統的角色定位、人格特質與價值觀所形塑之決策風格對決策過程所產生之影響。
在假設驗證的過程中,本論文得出一項發現。1949年中國正值新舊政權交替,受到1948年史達林與狄托的公開決裂帶給美國的啟示:「共產集團並非鐵板一塊」,南斯拉夫經驗或許可在中國歷史重演,美國便可成功爭取中共獨立於蘇聯之外,進而實現「聯中制蘇」的戰略思維。誠然,以後世的角度觀之,杜魯門政府這般嘗試「聯中制蘇」的戰略思維似乎有點過於樂觀,並不合乎理性抉擇。然而,就當時的時空背景而論,美國受制於冷戰氛圍與美中(指國府)矛盾,所能展現的僅能是「有限理性」。是故,美國雖對中共存在不確定性,本著「聯合次要敵人,打擊主要敵人」,說明杜魯門政府當時「以中共制蘇共」的戰略思維乃其來有自。
  美國與近代中國的複雜關係,構築了東西文化和外交史上最奪目亦最爭議的一頁。在共享的冷戰氛圍下,所謂「天時不如地利、地利不如人和」,杜蔣不睦自個人層次延燒到了國家層次,甚至是國際層次。在這般前提之下,也許美國始終把對華政策從屬於美蘇對立或東西方集團對抗的考量之下。從錯誤的前提出發,以失敗告終亦勢所必然。對歷史真相的探求並非為「論功過」或「論對錯」,而是期待「鑑往知來」。
英文摘要 After the Second World War, a bipolar world, known as the Cold War Era, has been clearly formed between the Western Bloc and Communist Bloc while the United States and the Soviet Union at the peak on each side. In Eastern Europe, the United States was restrained and felt helpless about Soviet expansion in this area with the perception of Yalta system. On the other hand, in Asia, with the breakdown of talks, an all-out war resumed. A Chinese civil war fought between Kuomintang (also as KMT or Chinese National Party) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP). At the end of 1948, KMT has occupied the inferior position. In the early period of 1949, CCP forces crossed the Yangtze River and successfully captured Nanking, the capital of KMT’s Republic of China (PRC) government. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China (PRC) with its capital at Beiping, which was renamed Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek and millions of Nationalist Chinese retreated from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. Confronted with the CCP takeover of mainland China, the United States came to reformulate its China Policy which later marked a turning point in Sino-American relationship during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950.
In June 1948, the leader of Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, was officially denounced and his party, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), was ejected as a member of the Cominform by the Soviet Union. Since the West branded Tito a Soviet puppet for his loyalty and constancy of faith to Stalinism, the Tito-Stalin Split presented a whole new realm of possibilities to the United States for its dilemma in china—“Chinese Titoism.” With the influence of Stilwell Incident over Sino-American relationship and the facts of Tito-Stalin Split, Truman made an about-face change to U.S. China Policy in 1949. By the early 1949, the Truman Administration has already been making plans to diverge from Chiang and his KMT such as the publication of China White Paper; at the same time, Truman Administration keeping making chances to have conversations with the CCP. By meeting and negotiating with the CCP officials, Truman Administration attempted to disunite Communist China and the Soviet Union, expected Mao to be the “Asian Tito,” and then Communist China can joint forces with the United States to fight against the Soviet Union, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Until the outbreak of Korean War in June 1950, the United States finally realized that what it faced is hostile china along with the Sino-Soviet partnership.
By applying Graham T. Allison’s three decision-making models, namely, the Rational Actor Model (RAM), the Organizational Behavior Model (OBM), and the Governmental Politics Model (GPM) as the theoretical structure and basis, the thesis would step by step explore the decision-making process of Truman Administration in engaging China to counter the threat from the Soviet Union during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950 through the perspectives of the rational assessment and choice on national interest, struggles between/among organizations based on different target and organizational culture, and pulling, hauling and bargaining games among relative bureaucrats. In addition, the thesis also applied the principles from Alexander L. George’s book, Presidential Decision-making in Foreign Policy, to aim at examining how President Truman’s, who has the final say, character, personality, value and world views made effect in the decision-making process of the target case study.
In the process of theory confirming, the thesis discovered that by the period of transformation of Chinese regimes in 1949, the Tito-Stalin Split of 1948 presented the United States a new inspiration for the Communist World, that is, the Eastern Bloc is not a rigid “Iron Curtain.” Truman Administration considered that Titoism may set its roots upon China, the Yugoslav-Soviet Conflict could be a replay situation that occurred in mainland China, and both would put the strategic thought—Engaging China to counter the Soviet Threat—into practice. Nevertheless, from the historical perspectives, this kind of strategic thought seemed over-optimistic, which did not conform to fully rational considerations. However, with regard to the background of the early Cold War Era and the suspicion between the Truman Administration and KMT, the alternative that the United States took reflected the principles of “bounded rationality model.” As a result, by examining the decision-making process of Truman Administration in engaging China to counter the threat from the Soviet Union during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950, what the thesis explored not only the facts about the Sino-American relationship in this period, but also the continuity and change of Truman’s China Policy along with its cause and effect.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究目的與主旨 2
第二節 文獻探討與相關研究 5
第三節 研究方法、範圍與限制 10
第四節 章節安排 12
第五節 小結 14
第二章 理論架構與命題假設 17
第一節 理性模式 19
第二節 組織行為模式 26
第三節 政府政治模式 31
第四節 小結 37
第三章 理性模式下杜魯門總統嘗試聯中制蘇之決策選擇 39
第一節 二戰後國際環境與美國對華政策的軌跡 40
第二節 南斯拉夫經驗與中國困境 46
第三節 杜魯門政府的理性抉擇 57
第四節 小結 69
第四章 運用組織行為模式檢視杜魯門政府嘗試聯中制蘇之決策過程 73
第一節 國務院之組織立場與外交建議 74
第二節 國會主導之組織立場與政策建議 86
第三節 國安會之組織功能與議案諮詢 95
第四節 小結 102
第五章 運用政府政治模式檢視杜魯門政府嘗試聯中制蘇之決策過程 107
第一節 親共派與親蔣派的論辯 108
第二節 杜魯門的人格特質與決策風格 116
第三節 主要參與者的職位與影響力 121
第四節 小結 134
第六章 結論 137
參考書目 153

圖目錄
圖2-1:決策同心圓 18



參考文獻 參考書目

壹、中文部分

  一、官方資料

中央檔案館編。中共中央文件選集,第15冊。北京:中共中央黨校,1989。
美國參議院司法委員會編。太平洋學會調查報告。臺北:黎明文化,民62。
國史館藏蔣中正檔案。美英對華輿論摘要報告(1947年8月),革命文獻46冊第49號。
周建明、王成至主編。美國國家安全戰略解密文件選編1945-1972 。北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2010年3月。


  二、專書著作(依作者姓氏筆劃排序)

毛澤東。毛澤東選集,第四卷。北京:人民出版社,1961。
李宗仁。李宗仁回憶錄:下卷。香港:南粵出版,1987。
李松林。蔣介石的台灣時代。臺北:風雲時代,1993。
邵宗海。美國介入國共和談之角色。臺北:五南,1995。
周恩來。周恩來選集:下輯。北京:人民出版社,1980-84。
林博文。1949石破天驚的一年。臺北市:時報文化,2009。
陶文釗。中美關係史1911-1949:上卷。上海:上海人民出版社,2004。
------。中美關係史1949-1972:中卷。上海:上海人民出版社,2004。
徐友珍。分歧與協調:美英關係中的承認新中國問題1949-1951。武漢:武漢學出版社,2007。
師哲。在歷史巨人身邊:師哲回憶錄。北京:中央文獻出版社,1991。
時殷弘。敵對與衝突的由來:美國對新中國的政策與中美關係1949-1950。南京:南京大學,1995。
陳一新。斷交後的中美關係。臺北:五南出版,民84。
梁敬錞。史迪威事件。臺北:臺灣商務,1982。
資中筠。追根溯源:戰後美國對華政策的緣起與發展,1945-1950。北京:中國社會科學出版社,2007。
郝雨凡。白宮決策:從杜魯門到柯林頓的對華政策內幕。北京:東方出版社,2002。
閻學通。國際關係研究實用方法,第二版。北京:人民,2007。
顧維鈞。顧維鈞回憶錄,第六卷 。北京:中華書局,1983-1994。


  三、學術期刊(依作者姓氏筆劃排序)

王成勉。〈馬歇爾與中國—國務卿任內之探討〉。國史館館刊,22期(2007年),205-228。
金光耀。〈國民黨在美國的遊說活動:以顧維鈞為中心的討論〉。歷史研究,4期(2000年),64-66。
陳一新。〈美國在「單極為主多極政經體系」中的新地位與新挑戰〉。美國月刊7 卷,3 期(1992年3月),4-16。
翟強。〈院外援華集團和杜魯門對華政策1947-1949年〉。世界歷史,5期(1986年),43。
趙綺娜。〈美國親國民政府國會議員對杜魯門政府中國政策影響之評估〉。歐美研究21卷,3期(民80年9月),83-129。


貳、英文部分

  I. Governmental Publications and Official Documents
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services. Hearings: Military Situation in the Far East. 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., 1951.
U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1947. Vol. VII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947.
-----. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. I: General; the United Nations. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. VII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. VIII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. I: National Security Affairs, Foreign Economic Policy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. VII: The Far East and Australasia. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. VIII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. IX: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950. Vol. I: National security affairs; foreign economic policy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950. Vol. VI: East Asia and the Pacific. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950.
------. United States Relations with China with Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. 1949. Reprint, California: Stanford University Press, 1967.
------. The U.S. Department of State Bulletin, Vol. XXII, No.550, January 1950. Washington, D.C.: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1950.


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Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1969.
Allison, Graham T., and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2nd ed. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman, 1999.
Arnold, R. Douglas. The Logic of Congressional Action. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Barber, James David. The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Barnett, A. Doak. China on the Eve of Communist Takeover. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.
Bloomfield, Lincoln P. The Foreign Policy Process: A Modern Primer. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Buhite, Russell D. Soviet American Relations in Asia, 1945-1954. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
Chace, James. Acheson: the Secretary of State who created the American world. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Chang, Gordon H. Friends and Enemies: The United States, China and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972. California: Stanford University Press, 1990.
Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: the Unknown Story. New York: Anchor Books, 2005.
Christensen, Thomas J. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Clubb, O. Edmund. Twentieth Century China. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.
Cohen, Warren I. America’s Response to China: A History of Sino-American Relations. 4th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Crabb, Jr., Cecil V. The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy: Their Meaning, Role, and Future. Los Angeles: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
------, and Kevin V. Mulcahy, Presidents and Foreign Policy Making: From FDR to Reagan. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.
Deconde, Alexander. Vol. II of A History of American Foreign Policy: Global Power(1900 to the Present). 3rd ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978.
Dedijer, Vladimir. The Battle Stalin Lost: Memoirs of Yugoslavia 1948-1953. Cornwall: Coronet Books, 1978.
Easton, David. The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953.
Ferrell, Robert H. American Diplomacy: A History. New York: Norton, 1969.
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George, Alexander L. Presidential Decision-making in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980.
Grasso, June M. Truman's Two-China Policy, 1948-1950. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1987.
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Halperin, Morton H. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1974.
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Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
Jones, Walter S. The Logic of International Relations. 6th ed. Boston: Scott Foresman, 1988.
Kaplan, Lawrence S. Recent American Foreign Policy: Conflicting Interpretations. Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1968.
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Leonard A. Kusnitz, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: America’s China Policy, 1949-1979 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984)
Lattimore, Owen. The Situation in Asia. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950.
Lohbeck, Don. Patrick J. Hurley. Chicago: Henry Regency Company, 1956.
March, James G., and Johan P. Olsen. Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
Mayers, David A. George Kennan and the Dilemmas of US Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Miscamble, Wilson D. George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Morgenthau, Hans J., and Kenneth W. Thompson. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
Purifoy, Lewis M. Harry Truman’s China Policy. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.
Rea, Kenneth W., and John C. Brewer, ed. The Forgotten Ambassador: the Reports of John Leighton Stuart, 1946-1949. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
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Rovere, Richard H. Senator Joe McCarthy. New York: Meridian Books, 1960.
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------. Volume II of Memoirs by Harry S. Truman: Year of Trial and Hope. New York: Signet Book, 1956.
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-------. Patterns in the Dust: Chinese-American Relations and the Recognition Controversy, 1949-1950. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
Turabian, Kate L. et al. A Manual for Writer of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertation. 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Vandenberg, Jr., Arthur H., ed. The Private Papers of Senator Vandenberg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1952.
Vocke, William C. American Foreign Policy: An Analytical Approach. New York: Free Press, 1976.
Wallace, William. Foreign Policy and the Political Process. London: Macmillan, 1971.
Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.
Westerfield, H. Bradford. Foreign Policy and Party Politics: Pearl Harbor to Korea. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955.
Wildavsky, Aaron B., ed. Perspectives on the Presidency. Boston: Little & Brown, 1975.
Zegart, Amy B. Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS and NSC. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1999.


III. Articles
“The Tito-Stalin Conflict: Statement of National Committee of Socialist Workers Party.” Fourth International 10, No. 9 (October 1949), 259-264.
Bendor, Jonathan, and Thomas H. Hammond. “Rethinking Allison’s Models.” American Political Science Review 86 (June 1992), 301-322.
Blackwell, Jeff. “’The China Lobby’: Influences on U.S.-China Foreign Policy in the Post War Period, 1949-1954.” The Forum: Cal Poly's Journal of History 2, Issue 1, Article 9 (Spring 2010).
Cohen, Warren I. “Acheson, His Advisers, and China, 1949-1950.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 13-52. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
------ “Introduction: Was There a ‘Lost Chance’ in China?.” Diplomatic History 22 (winter 1997), 71-75.
Destler, I. M. “National Security Advice to U.S. President: Some Lessons from Thirty Years.” World Politics 29, No. 2 (1977), 136-147.
Falk, Stanley L. “The National Security Council Under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy,” Political Science Quarterly 79, No. 3 (September 1964), 403-434.
Forgas, Joseph P. “Episode Cognition: Internal Representations of Interaction Routines.” In Vol. XV of Advance in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Len Berkowitz, 59-103. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
Gaddis, John Lewis. “The American ‘Wedge’ Strategy, 1949-1955.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 157-161. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
------. “The Strategic Perspective: The Rise and Fall of the ‘Defensive Perimeter’ Concept, 1947-1951.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 61-118. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Goldstein, Steven M. “Chinese Communist Policy Toward Taiwan.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 235-278. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
------. ”Sino-American Relations, 1948-1950: Lost Chance or No Chance?.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 119-142. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Hamby, Alonzo L. “Harry S. Truman: Insecurity and Responsibility.” In Leadership in the Modern Presidency, edited by Fred I. Greenstein, 41-75. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Heinrichs, Waldo. “American China Policy and the Cold War in Asia: A New Look.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 281-292. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Kaplan, Morton A. “Variants on Six Models of the International System.” In International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory, edited by James N. Rosenau, 291-303. New York: The Free Press, 1969.
Kusnitz, Leonard A. “Public Opinion and Foreign Policy.“ Economicists 57 (May 7, 1950).
Lijphart, Arend. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65 (September 1971), 682-93.
Macridis, Roy. “Stalinism and the Meaning of Titoism.” World Politics 4, No. 2 (January 1952), 219-238.
March, James G.. “Parochialism in the Evolution of a Research Community: The Case of Organization Studies.” Management and Organization Review 1, No.1 (March 2005), 5-22.
May, Ernest R. “1947-48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. Out of War in China.” The Journal of Military History 66, No. 4 (October 2002), 1001-1010
McVicker, Charles P. “Titoism.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 317, The Satellites in Eastern Europe (May 1958), 107-114
Messer, Robert L. “Roosevelt, Truman, and China: An Overview.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 68. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Nelson, Anna Kasten. “National Security I: Intervening a Process, 1945-1960.” In The Illusion of Presidential Government, edited by Hugh Heclo and Lester M. Salamon, 230-231. Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
------. “ President Truman and the Evolution of the National Security Council.” The Journal of American History 72, No. 2 (September 1985), 360-378.
Paterson, Thomas G. “Presidential Foreign Policy, Public Opinion, and Congress: The Truman Years.” Diplomatic History 3, Issue 1 (January 1979), 3-4.
Perlmutter, Oscar William. “The ‘Neo-Realism’ of Dean Acheson.” The Review of Politics 26, No. 1 (January 1964), 100-123.
Snyder, Richard C., H. W. Bruck, and Button Sapin. “The Decision-Making Approach to the Study of International Politics.” In International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory, edited by James N. Rosenau, 199-206. New York: The Free Press, 1969.
Taylor, Trevor. “Power Politics.” In Approaches and Theory in International Relations, edited by Trevor Taylor. New York: Longman, 1978.
Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. “China’s Place in the Cold War: the Acheson Plan.” In Dean Acheson and the Making of U.S. Foreign Policy, edited by Douglas Brinkley, 108-113. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Wang, Jisi (王緝思). ”The Origins of America’s ‘Two China Policy’.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 198-204. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Yuan, Ming. “The Failure of Perception: America’s China Policy, 1949-50,” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 144-148. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.


IV. Dissertations
Christian, Vilma. “Conflicting Choices: Why Titoism in Yugoslavia but not in China (The Truman Asministration’s Policy in China and Yugoslavia 1949).” Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 1999.
Feaver, John Hansen. “The Truman Adminstration and China, 1945-1950: The Policy of Restrained Intervention.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1980.
Steuck, Jr., William Whitney. “American Policy Toward China and Korea, 1947-1950.” Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1977.


VI. Online Databases
“MacArthur Says Fall of China Imperils U.S.,” Life, December 20,1948 http://books.google.com.tw/books?id=iUoEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=MacArthur+Says+Fall+of+China+Imperils+U.S&source=bl&ots=kJSBKqontU&sig=4dcqDSGPZvwXYMMukoDXRAFQ270&hl=zh-TW&ei=dLpSTYurLI7SuwOpg7S9CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MacArthur%20Says%20Fall%20of%20China%20Imperils%20U.S&f=false (accessed May 25, 2010)
“Special Message to the Congress on Greece and Turkey (known as The Truman Doctrine). Truman Library Public Papers, March 12, 1947. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=2189&st=&st1=
(accessed September 2010)
“Chinese Communist Capabilities for Control of All China,” December 10, 1948,
CIA Released Documents http://www.faqs.org/cia/index.html
“The China Lobby: Cold War and the ‘Two Chinas’” http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/The-China-Lobby-Cold-war-and-the-two-chinas.html
“The President’s News Conference,” January 5, 1950
Public Papers of Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953 http://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=574&st=&st1=
(accessed August 27, 2010)
Anne W. Carroll, “Who Lost China,” (1996). http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/FR89102.TXT (accessed September 10, 2010).
The National Archives in Washington, D.C. http://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/washington/
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