淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)

系統識別號 U0002-1703201102581000
中文論文名稱 杜魯門政府嘗試聯中(共)制蘇之決策過程(1949年1月至1950年6月)
英文論文名稱 Decision-making Process of Truman Administration in Engaging China to Counter the Threat from the Soviet Union (from January 1949 to June 1950)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 林雅雯
研究生英文姓名 Ya-Wen Lin
學號 697250107
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-01-17
論文頁數 166頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳一新
中文關鍵字 史狄分裂  狄托主義中國化  聯中制蘇  中國共產黨  國民黨  理性模式  組織行為者模式  政府政治模式 
英文關鍵字 Tito-Stalin Split  Chinese Titoism  Engaging China to Counter the Threat from the Soviet Union  CCP  KMT  Rational Actor Model  Organizational Behavior Model  Governmental Politics Model 
中文摘要 二戰後,世界朝向美蘇兩強對峙的道路邁進,開啟了冷戰兩極體系的年代。受制於雅爾達體系,美國雖深感蘇聯在東歐地區的擴張威脅卻是束手無策。在亞洲的中國,陷入一場生存戰。國民黨與中國共產黨從邊打邊談到全面開戰,1948年起,國府敗象已現。1949年初,中共渡江佔領南京,同年10月毛澤東於北平(後改名北京)宣告中共建政後,迫使蔣介石政權撤守台灣。隨著中國政權易主,美國對華政策面臨抉擇,華府與國府的關係也來到了歷史的轉捩點。
英文摘要 After the Second World War, a bipolar world, known as the Cold War Era, has been clearly formed between the Western Bloc and Communist Bloc while the United States and the Soviet Union at the peak on each side. In Eastern Europe, the United States was restrained and felt helpless about Soviet expansion in this area with the perception of Yalta system. On the other hand, in Asia, with the breakdown of talks, an all-out war resumed. A Chinese civil war fought between Kuomintang (also as KMT or Chinese National Party) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP). At the end of 1948, KMT has occupied the inferior position. In the early period of 1949, CCP forces crossed the Yangtze River and successfully captured Nanking, the capital of KMT’s Republic of China (PRC) government. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China (PRC) with its capital at Beiping, which was renamed Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek and millions of Nationalist Chinese retreated from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. Confronted with the CCP takeover of mainland China, the United States came to reformulate its China Policy which later marked a turning point in Sino-American relationship during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950.
In June 1948, the leader of Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, was officially denounced and his party, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), was ejected as a member of the Cominform by the Soviet Union. Since the West branded Tito a Soviet puppet for his loyalty and constancy of faith to Stalinism, the Tito-Stalin Split presented a whole new realm of possibilities to the United States for its dilemma in china—“Chinese Titoism.” With the influence of Stilwell Incident over Sino-American relationship and the facts of Tito-Stalin Split, Truman made an about-face change to U.S. China Policy in 1949. By the early 1949, the Truman Administration has already been making plans to diverge from Chiang and his KMT such as the publication of China White Paper; at the same time, Truman Administration keeping making chances to have conversations with the CCP. By meeting and negotiating with the CCP officials, Truman Administration attempted to disunite Communist China and the Soviet Union, expected Mao to be the “Asian Tito,” and then Communist China can joint forces with the United States to fight against the Soviet Union, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Until the outbreak of Korean War in June 1950, the United States finally realized that what it faced is hostile china along with the Sino-Soviet partnership.
By applying Graham T. Allison’s three decision-making models, namely, the Rational Actor Model (RAM), the Organizational Behavior Model (OBM), and the Governmental Politics Model (GPM) as the theoretical structure and basis, the thesis would step by step explore the decision-making process of Truman Administration in engaging China to counter the threat from the Soviet Union during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950 through the perspectives of the rational assessment and choice on national interest, struggles between/among organizations based on different target and organizational culture, and pulling, hauling and bargaining games among relative bureaucrats. In addition, the thesis also applied the principles from Alexander L. George’s book, Presidential Decision-making in Foreign Policy, to aim at examining how President Truman’s, who has the final say, character, personality, value and world views made effect in the decision-making process of the target case study.
In the process of theory confirming, the thesis discovered that by the period of transformation of Chinese regimes in 1949, the Tito-Stalin Split of 1948 presented the United States a new inspiration for the Communist World, that is, the Eastern Bloc is not a rigid “Iron Curtain.” Truman Administration considered that Titoism may set its roots upon China, the Yugoslav-Soviet Conflict could be a replay situation that occurred in mainland China, and both would put the strategic thought—Engaging China to counter the Soviet Threat—into practice. Nevertheless, from the historical perspectives, this kind of strategic thought seemed over-optimistic, which did not conform to fully rational considerations. However, with regard to the background of the early Cold War Era and the suspicion between the Truman Administration and KMT, the alternative that the United States took reflected the principles of “bounded rationality model.” As a result, by examining the decision-making process of Truman Administration in engaging China to counter the threat from the Soviet Union during the period of 1949 to the middle 1950, what the thesis explored not only the facts about the Sino-American relationship in this period, but also the continuity and change of Truman’s China Policy along with its cause and effect.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究目的與主旨 2
第二節 文獻探討與相關研究 5
第三節 研究方法、範圍與限制 10
第四節 章節安排 12
第五節 小結 14
第二章 理論架構與命題假設 17
第一節 理性模式 19
第二節 組織行為模式 26
第三節 政府政治模式 31
第四節 小結 37
第三章 理性模式下杜魯門總統嘗試聯中制蘇之決策選擇 39
第一節 二戰後國際環境與美國對華政策的軌跡 40
第二節 南斯拉夫經驗與中國困境 46
第三節 杜魯門政府的理性抉擇 57
第四節 小結 69
第四章 運用組織行為模式檢視杜魯門政府嘗試聯中制蘇之決策過程 73
第一節 國務院之組織立場與外交建議 74
第二節 國會主導之組織立場與政策建議 86
第三節 國安會之組織功能與議案諮詢 95
第四節 小結 102
第五章 運用政府政治模式檢視杜魯門政府嘗試聯中制蘇之決策過程 107
第一節 親共派與親蔣派的論辯 108
第二節 杜魯門的人格特質與決策風格 116
第三節 主要參與者的職位與影響力 121
第四節 小結 134
第六章 結論 137
參考書目 153

圖2-1:決策同心圓 18

參考文獻 參考書目



周建明、王成至主編。美國國家安全戰略解密文件選編1945-1972 。北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2010年3月。


顧維鈞。顧維鈞回憶錄,第六卷 。北京:中華書局,1983-1994。


陳一新。〈美國在「單極為主多極政經體系」中的新地位與新挑戰〉。美國月刊7 卷,3 期(1992年3月),4-16。


  I. Governmental Publications and Official Documents
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services. Hearings: Military Situation in the Far East. 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., 1951.
U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1947. Vol. VII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947.
-----. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. I: General; the United Nations. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. VII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948. Vol. VIII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. I: National Security Affairs, Foreign Economic Policy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. VII: The Far East and Australasia. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. VIII: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949. Vol. IX: The Far East: China. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950. Vol. I: National security affairs; foreign economic policy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950.
------. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950. Vol. VI: East Asia and the Pacific. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950.
------. United States Relations with China with Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. 1949. Reprint, California: Stanford University Press, 1967.
------. The U.S. Department of State Bulletin, Vol. XXII, No.550, January 1950. Washington, D.C.: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1950.

II. Books
Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1969.
Allison, Graham T., and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2nd ed. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman, 1999.
Arnold, R. Douglas. The Logic of Congressional Action. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Barber, James David. The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Barnett, A. Doak. China on the Eve of Communist Takeover. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.
Bloomfield, Lincoln P. The Foreign Policy Process: A Modern Primer. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Buhite, Russell D. Soviet American Relations in Asia, 1945-1954. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
Chace, James. Acheson: the Secretary of State who created the American world. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Chang, Gordon H. Friends and Enemies: The United States, China and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972. California: Stanford University Press, 1990.
Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: the Unknown Story. New York: Anchor Books, 2005.
Christensen, Thomas J. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Clubb, O. Edmund. Twentieth Century China. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.
Cohen, Warren I. America’s Response to China: A History of Sino-American Relations. 4th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Crabb, Jr., Cecil V. The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy: Their Meaning, Role, and Future. Los Angeles: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
------, and Kevin V. Mulcahy, Presidents and Foreign Policy Making: From FDR to Reagan. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.
Deconde, Alexander. Vol. II of A History of American Foreign Policy: Global Power(1900 to the Present). 3rd ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978.
Dedijer, Vladimir. The Battle Stalin Lost: Memoirs of Yugoslavia 1948-1953. Cornwall: Coronet Books, 1978.
Easton, David. The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953.
Ferrell, Robert H. American Diplomacy: A History. New York: Norton, 1969.
Finkelstein, David M. From Abandonment to Salvation: Washington's Taiwan Dilemma, 1949-1950. Virginia: George Mason University Press, 1993.
George, Alexander L. Presidential Decision-making in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980.
Grasso, June M. Truman's Two-China Policy, 1948-1950. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1987.
Greenstein, Fred I.
Halperin, Morton H. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1974.
Hixson, Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.
Holsti, K. J. International Politics: A Framework for Analysis. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
Jones, Walter S. The Logic of International Relations. 6th ed. Boston: Scott Foresman, 1988.
Kaplan, Lawrence S. Recent American Foreign Policy: Conflicting Interpretations. Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1968.
Kennan, George F. Memoirs, 1925-1950. New York: Pantheon Books, 1967.
Koen, Ross Y. The China Lobby in American Politics. New York: Macmillan, 1960.
Kuhns, Woodrow J., ed. Assessing the Soviet Threat. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1997.
Kusnitz, Leonard A. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: America's China policy, 1949-1979. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984.
Leonard A. Kusnitz, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: America’s China Policy, 1949-1979 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984)
Lattimore, Owen. The Situation in Asia. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950.
Lohbeck, Don. Patrick J. Hurley. Chicago: Henry Regency Company, 1956.
March, James G., and Johan P. Olsen. Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
Mayers, David A. George Kennan and the Dilemmas of US Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Miscamble, Wilson D. George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Morgenthau, Hans J., and Kenneth W. Thompson. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
Purifoy, Lewis M. Harry Truman’s China Policy. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.
Rea, Kenneth W., and John C. Brewer, ed. The Forgotten Ambassador: the Reports of John Leighton Stuart, 1946-1949. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2005.
Rourke, John T. International Politics on the World Stage. 4th ed. Connecticut: Dushkin Publishing Group, 1993.
Rovere, Richard H. Senator Joe McCarthy. New York: Meridian Books, 1960.
Sapin, Burton M. The Making of United States Foreign Policy. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1966.
Shaw, Yu-ming (邵玉銘). An American Missionary in China: John Leighton Stuart and Chinese-American Relations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992.
Simpson, Smith. Anatomy of the State Department. Boston: Beacon Press Houghton Mifflin, 1967.
Smith, Gaddis. Dean Acheson. Vol. XVI of The American Secretaries of State and Their Diplomacy, edited by Robert H. Ferrell and Samuel Flagg Bemis. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1972.
Steele, A. T. The American People and China. New York: Published for the Council on Foreign Relations by McGraw-Hill, 1966.
Stuart, John Leighton. Fifty Years in China: The Memoirs Of John Leighton Stuart, Missionary And Ambassador. New York: Random House, 1954.
Stueck, Jr., William Whitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.
Truman, Harry S. Volume II of Memoirs by Harry S. Truman: Year of Decisions. New York: Signet Book, 1955.
------. Volume II of Memoirs by Harry S. Truman: Year of Trial and Hope. New York: Signet Book, 1956.
Tsou, Tang. America’s Failure in China, 1945-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. China Confidential: American Diplomats and Sino-American Relations, 1945-1996. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
-------. Patterns in the Dust: Chinese-American Relations and the Recognition Controversy, 1949-1950. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
Turabian, Kate L. et al. A Manual for Writer of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertation. 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Vandenberg, Jr., Arthur H., ed. The Private Papers of Senator Vandenberg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1952.
Vocke, William C. American Foreign Policy: An Analytical Approach. New York: Free Press, 1976.
Wallace, William. Foreign Policy and the Political Process. London: Macmillan, 1971.
Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.
Westerfield, H. Bradford. Foreign Policy and Party Politics: Pearl Harbor to Korea. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955.
Wildavsky, Aaron B., ed. Perspectives on the Presidency. Boston: Little & Brown, 1975.
Zegart, Amy B. Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS and NSC. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1999.

III. Articles
“The Tito-Stalin Conflict: Statement of National Committee of Socialist Workers Party.” Fourth International 10, No. 9 (October 1949), 259-264.
Bendor, Jonathan, and Thomas H. Hammond. “Rethinking Allison’s Models.” American Political Science Review 86 (June 1992), 301-322.
Blackwell, Jeff. “’The China Lobby’: Influences on U.S.-China Foreign Policy in the Post War Period, 1949-1954.” The Forum: Cal Poly's Journal of History 2, Issue 1, Article 9 (Spring 2010).
Cohen, Warren I. “Acheson, His Advisers, and China, 1949-1950.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 13-52. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
------ “Introduction: Was There a ‘Lost Chance’ in China?.” Diplomatic History 22 (winter 1997), 71-75.
Destler, I. M. “National Security Advice to U.S. President: Some Lessons from Thirty Years.” World Politics 29, No. 2 (1977), 136-147.
Falk, Stanley L. “The National Security Council Under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy,” Political Science Quarterly 79, No. 3 (September 1964), 403-434.
Forgas, Joseph P. “Episode Cognition: Internal Representations of Interaction Routines.” In Vol. XV of Advance in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Len Berkowitz, 59-103. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
Gaddis, John Lewis. “The American ‘Wedge’ Strategy, 1949-1955.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 157-161. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
------. “The Strategic Perspective: The Rise and Fall of the ‘Defensive Perimeter’ Concept, 1947-1951.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 61-118. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Goldstein, Steven M. “Chinese Communist Policy Toward Taiwan.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 235-278. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
------. ”Sino-American Relations, 1948-1950: Lost Chance or No Chance?.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 119-142. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Hamby, Alonzo L. “Harry S. Truman: Insecurity and Responsibility.” In Leadership in the Modern Presidency, edited by Fred I. Greenstein, 41-75. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Heinrichs, Waldo. “American China Policy and the Cold War in Asia: A New Look.” In Uncertain Years: Chinese-American Relations, 1947-1950, edited by Dorothy Borg and Waldo Heinrichs, 281-292. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Kaplan, Morton A. “Variants on Six Models of the International System.” In International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory, edited by James N. Rosenau, 291-303. New York: The Free Press, 1969.
Kusnitz, Leonard A. “Public Opinion and Foreign Policy.“ Economicists 57 (May 7, 1950).
Lijphart, Arend. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65 (September 1971), 682-93.
Macridis, Roy. “Stalinism and the Meaning of Titoism.” World Politics 4, No. 2 (January 1952), 219-238.
March, James G.. “Parochialism in the Evolution of a Research Community: The Case of Organization Studies.” Management and Organization Review 1, No.1 (March 2005), 5-22.
May, Ernest R. “1947-48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. Out of War in China.” The Journal of Military History 66, No. 4 (October 2002), 1001-1010
McVicker, Charles P. “Titoism.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 317, The Satellites in Eastern Europe (May 1958), 107-114
Messer, Robert L. “Roosevelt, Truman, and China: An Overview.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 68. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Nelson, Anna Kasten. “National Security I: Intervening a Process, 1945-1960.” In The Illusion of Presidential Government, edited by Hugh Heclo and Lester M. Salamon, 230-231. Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
------. “ President Truman and the Evolution of the National Security Council.” The Journal of American History 72, No. 2 (September 1985), 360-378.
Paterson, Thomas G. “Presidential Foreign Policy, Public Opinion, and Congress: The Truman Years.” Diplomatic History 3, Issue 1 (January 1979), 3-4.
Perlmutter, Oscar William. “The ‘Neo-Realism’ of Dean Acheson.” The Review of Politics 26, No. 1 (January 1964), 100-123.
Snyder, Richard C., H. W. Bruck, and Button Sapin. “The Decision-Making Approach to the Study of International Politics.” In International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory, edited by James N. Rosenau, 199-206. New York: The Free Press, 1969.
Taylor, Trevor. “Power Politics.” In Approaches and Theory in International Relations, edited by Trevor Taylor. New York: Longman, 1978.
Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. “China’s Place in the Cold War: the Acheson Plan.” In Dean Acheson and the Making of U.S. Foreign Policy, edited by Douglas Brinkley, 108-113. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Wang, Jisi (王緝思). ”The Origins of America’s ‘Two China Policy’.” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 198-204. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.
Yuan, Ming. “The Failure of Perception: America’s China Policy, 1949-50,” In Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, edited by Harry Harding and Yuan Ming, 144-148. Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1989.

IV. Dissertations
Christian, Vilma. “Conflicting Choices: Why Titoism in Yugoslavia but not in China (The Truman Asministration’s Policy in China and Yugoslavia 1949).” Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 1999.
Feaver, John Hansen. “The Truman Adminstration and China, 1945-1950: The Policy of Restrained Intervention.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1980.
Steuck, Jr., William Whitney. “American Policy Toward China and Korea, 1947-1950.” Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1977.

VI. Online Databases
“MacArthur Says Fall of China Imperils U.S.,” Life, December 20,1948 http://books.google.com.tw/books?id=iUoEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=MacArthur+Says+Fall+of+China+Imperils+U.S&source=bl&ots=kJSBKqontU&sig=4dcqDSGPZvwXYMMukoDXRAFQ270&hl=zh-TW&ei=dLpSTYurLI7SuwOpg7S9CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MacArthur%20Says%20Fall%20of%20China%20Imperils%20U.S&f=false (accessed May 25, 2010)
“Special Message to the Congress on Greece and Turkey (known as The Truman Doctrine). Truman Library Public Papers, March 12, 1947. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=2189&st=&st1=
(accessed September 2010)
“Chinese Communist Capabilities for Control of All China,” December 10, 1948,
CIA Released Documents http://www.faqs.org/cia/index.html
“The China Lobby: Cold War and the ‘Two Chinas’” http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/The-China-Lobby-Cold-war-and-the-two-chinas.html
“The President’s News Conference,” January 5, 1950
Public Papers of Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953 http://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php?pid=574&st=&st1=
(accessed August 27, 2010)
Anne W. Carroll, “Who Lost China,” (1996). http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/FR89102.TXT (accessed September 10, 2010).
The National Archives in Washington, D.C. http://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/washington/
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